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Full text of "Title 24, Part 2, Vol. 1, 2010 California Building Code"

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2010 California Building Code 
California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Volume 1 of Part 2 



First Printing: June 2010 



ISBN 978-1-58001-974-3 



Copyright © 2010 
Held by 

California Building Standards Commission 

2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130 

Sacramento, CA 95833-2936 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2010 California Building Code contains substantial copyrighted material from the 2009 Intern a-^ 
tional Building Code, Second Printing, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. WithcH^ 
advance written peraiission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in a^^F 
form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, 
photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material 
exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 
1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "Intemational Code Council" logo and the "Intemational Building Code" are tracH^ 
marks of the Intemational Code Council, Inc. ^^F 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



PREFACE 

This document is Part 2 of 12 parts of the official triennial compilation and publication of the adoptions, amendments 
and repeal of administrative regulations to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California 
Building Standards Code. This Part is known as the California Building Code. 

The California Building Standards Code is published in its entirety every three years by order of the California legisla- 
ture, with supplements published in intervening years. The California legislature delegated authority to various state 
agencies, boards, commissions and departments to create building regulations to implement the State's statutes. These 
building regulations or standards, have the same force of law, and take effect 180 days after their publication unless oth- 
erwise stipulated. The California Building Standards Code applies to occupancies in the State of California as anno- 
tated. 

A city, county or city and county may establish more restrictive building standards reasonably necessary because of 
local cUmatic, geological or topographical conditions. Findings of the local condition(s) and the adopted local building 
standard(s) must be filed with the California Building Standards Commission to become effective and may not be effec- 
tive sooner than the effective date of this edition of California Building Standards Code. Local building standards that 
were adopted and applicable to previous editions of the California Building Standards Code do not apply to this edition 
without appropriate adoption and the required filing. 

Should you find publication (e.g., typographical) errors or inconsistencies in this code or wish to offer comments 
toward improving its format, please address your comments to: 

California Building Standards Commission 

2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130 

Sacramento, CA 95833-2936 

Phone:(916)263-0916 
Fax: (916) 263-0959 

Web Page: www.bsc.ca.gov 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The 2010 California Building Standards Code (Code) was developed through the outstanding collaborative efforts of the Depart- 
ment of Housing and Community Development, the Division of State Architect, the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the Office of 
Statewide Health Planning and Development, the California Energy Commission, and the Building Standards Commission (Com- 
mission). 

This collaborative effort included the assistance of the Commission's Code Advisory Committees and many other volunteers that 
worked tirelessly to assist the Commission in the production of this Code. 

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger 

Members of the Building Standards Commission 

Acting Secretary Tom Sheehy - Chair 

Isam Hasenin - Vice -Chair Christina Jamison 

James Barthman Stephen Jensen 

Craig Dailey Michael Paravagna 

Susan Dowty Richard Sawhill 

Tony Hoffman Steven Winkel 

David Walls - Executive Director 
Thomas Morrison - Deputy Executive Director 

For questions on California state agency amendments; please refer to the contact list on the following page. 
2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE lio 



California Code of Regulations^ Title 24 

California Agency information Contact List 



California Energy Commission 

Energy Hotline 



. . (800) 772-3300 
or (916) 654-5106 



Building Efficiency Standards 
Appliance Efficiency Standards 
Compliance Manual/Forms 

California State Lands Commission 

Marine Oil Terminals 



(562)499-6317 



California State Library 

Resources and Information (916) 654-0261 

Government Publication Section (916) 654-0069 

Corrections Standards Authority 

Local Adult Jail Standards (916) 324-1914 

Local Juvenile Facility Standards (916) 324-1914 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Acupuncture Board 

Office Standards (916) 445-3021 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Board of Pharmacy 

Pharmacy Standards (916) 574-7900 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Bureau ofBarbering 
and Cosmetolog y 

Barber and Beauty Shop and (916) 574-7570 

College Standards (800) 952-5210 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Bureau of Home 
Furnishings and Thermal Insulation 

Insulation Testing Standards (916) 574-2041 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Structural Pest 
Control Board 

Structural Standards (800) 737-8188 

(916)561-8708 

Department of Consumer Affairs — Veterinary 
Medical Board 

Veterinary Hospital Standards (916) 263-2610 

Department of Food and Agriculture 

Meat & Poultry Packing Plant Standards . . . (916) 654-1447 
Dairy Standards (916) 654-1447 



Department of Public Health 

Organized Camps Standards (916) 449-5661 

Public Swimming Pools Standards (916) 449-5693 

Asbestos Standards (510) 620-2874 

Department of Housing and Community Development 

Residential — Hotels^ Motels, Apartments 

Single-Family Dwellings (916) 445-9471 

Permanent Structures in Mobilehome 

and Special Occupancy Parks (916) 445-9471 

Factory-Built Housing, Manufactured 

Housing and Commercial Modular (916) 445-3338 

Mobilehomes — Permits & Inspections 

Northern Region (916) 255-2501 

Southern Region (951) 782-4420 

Employee Housing Standards (916) 445-9471 



Department of Water Resources 

Gray Water Installations Standards 



(916)651-9667 



Division of the State Architect — Access Compliance 

Access Compliance Standards (916) 445-8100 

Division of the State Architect — Structural Safety 

Public Schools Standards (916) 445-8100 

Essential Services Building Standards (916) 445-8100 

Community College Standards (916) 445-8100 

Division of the State Architect — State Historical 
Building Safety Board 

Alternative Building Standards (916) 445-8100 

Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

Hospital Standards (916) 440-8409 

Skilled Nursing Facility Standards (916) 440-8409 

Clinic Standards (916) 440-8409 

Permits (916) 440-8409 

Office of the State Fire Marshal 

Code Development and Analysis (916) 445-8200 

Fire Safety Standards (916) 445-8200 

Fireplace Standards (916) 445-8200 

Day-Care Centers Standards (916) 445-8200 

Exit Standards (916) 445-8200 



IV 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Distilling the code review process down to a methodical, sequential list of considerations is generally problematic. In many cases, 
related provisions from various chapters of the code must be considered simultaneously, or reconsidered later in the process to 
arrive at the correct classification or determination. Any number of acceptable alternatives may exist for construction of the building 
and its specific features. Each choice provided by the code must be evaluated for its specific impact on other aspects of the build- 
ing's analysis. With a basic understanding of the interrelationship of the various chapters, the practiced code user will make an initial 
assessment of the building as a first step of the code review process. The following outline may be helpful as a guide for the effective 
use of the IBC, with the understanding that final resolution of each step is often dependant on subsequent steps. 

The following process begins with a brief discussion of the key administrative areas of the code. The process addressing techni- 
cal provisions is divided into two distinct areas of analysis, the nonstructural provisions of the IBC and the structural provisions. 
Although reference is not made to all provisions set forth in the IBC, the process is intended to be representative of an approach to 
using the IBC in an effective manner. 

Administrative Provisions 

Prior to any analysis based on the technical provisions of the IBC, it is important that the fundamental administrative aspects of the 
code be reviewed. It is critical that the basis of technical decisions be consistent with the approach established in IBC Chapter 1, 
including: 

• Scope of the IBC 

• Intent of the IBC 

• Applicability of the IBC 

• Duties and powers of the building official 

• Alternate materials, designs and methods of construction 

Nonstructural Provisions 

1, Classify the building for occupancy and construction type. The first step in analyzing a building for code compliance is its 
proper classification based on anticipated use(s) and construction features. 

Identify the distinct and varied uses of the building. The uses that will occur within the building must be identified, evaluated and 
classified into one or more of the distinct occupancy classifications established in the IBC. Some buildings will be classified as sin- 
gle-occupancy, where there is only one applicable occupancy classification. Others will be considered as mixed-occupancy due to 
the presence of two or more uses that are classified into different occupancy groups. 

Sec. 302.1 Classify the building into one or more occupancy groups. Although there are 10 general occupancy groups, 
many of the groups are subdivided into sub-groups to allow for a more exacting analysis of the building under consideration. 

Sec. 303 Group A 

Sec. 304 Group B 

Sec. 305 Group E 

Sec. 306 Group F 

Sec. 307 Group H 

Sec. 308 Group I 

Sec. 309 Group M 

Sec. 310 Group R 

Sec. 311 Groups 

Sec. 312 Group U 

Identify the building's type of construction based on the materials of construction and degree of fire-resistance for the 
building's major elements. The primary structural frame, exterior walls, interior walls, floor construction and roof construc- 
tion, as applicable, must be evaluated in regard to their degree of fire-resistance and materials of construction in order to classify 
the building based upon type of construction. 

201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE v 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Sec. 602.1 Classify the building into a single type of construction. Five general types of construction have been established 
and further subdivided into nine specific construction types. The classification of construction type is based on a combination of 
the degree of fire-resistance and the type of materials of the key building elements. 

Sec, 602 Type of construction based on materials of construction 

Table 601 Type of construction based on fire rating of the building elements 

Sec. 603 Combustible materials in Type I and II buildings 

Sec. 1505 Verify classification of roof covering. Roof coverings are typically required to provide protection against moderate 
or light fire exposures from the exterior. Their minimum required classification is based upon the type of construction of the 
building. 

2. Determine if the building is to be fully sprinklered. Many of the code provisions vary based upon the presence of an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout, or in specific portions of, the building. 

Sec. 903.2 Determine if the building requires a fire sprinkler system. Many of the mandates for the installation of a sprin- 
kler system are based upon the occupancy or occupancies that occur within the building. The provisions will often require some 
degree of occupant load and fire area determination. Other conditions may also trigger a required sprinkler installation, such as 
building height or the lack of exterior openings. Table 903.2.13 should also be consulted. 

If a sprinkler system is not required, reviev*^ for potential code modifications if a sprinkler system is installed. There are a 
significant number of benefits provided by the code if a sprinkler system is installed. An initial analysis of the building will typi- 
cally allow for an early determination of the value of such sprinkler benefits, including: 

Sec. 504.2 Story and height increase (reduced type of construction) 

Sec. 506.3 Allowable area increase (reduced type of construction) 

Sec. 507.3 Unlimited area building (reduced type of construction) 

Sec. 1018. 1 Elimination of corridor fire-resistance rating 

3. Locate the building on the site. The location of the building(s) on the lot is fundamental to the degree of fire exposure to and 
from adjoining buildings and lots. In addition, the building's location influences the amount of fire department access that can be 
provided from the exterior of the building. 

Sec. 503.1.2 Determine the number of buildings on the site. Where two or more buildings are located on the same lot, they can 
be evaluated as a single building or multiple buildings. The type of construction requirements may differ based upon which of 
the two methods is utilized. 

Sec. 602.1 Determine minimum required fire rating of exterior walls. The fire separation distance is the measurement used 
in evaluating the necessary fire rating for exterior walls. It is measured from the building to the lot line, to the center line of a pub- 
lic way, or to an imaginary assumed line between two buildings on the same lot. Projections and parapets, if applicable, are also 
regulated. 

Sec. 704.8 Determine exterior opening protection requirements. Openings in exterior walls are regulated by the fire separa- 
tion distance and the rating of the exterior wall in which they are located. 

Sec. 506.2 Determine frontage increase for allowable area purposes. Utilized primarily for fire department access, open 
space adjacent to a building's perimeter provides for an increase in the allowable area. 

4. Verify building's construction type by determining the allowable building size. The permitted types of construction are pri- 
marily based upon the occupancy classifications involved, the building's height and the building's floor area. Other conditions may 
also affect the appropriate construction types, including the building's location on the lot and the intended materials of construction. 
In buildings with mixed-occupancy conditions, the methods of addressing the relationship between the multiple occupancies indi- 
rectly affect construction type. 

Sec. 202 and 502 Calculate actual height of building in both 'feet' and 'stories above grade plane'. The code specifically 
describes the method for assigning a building height, measure both in the number of feet and the number of stories above grade 
plane. The actual height must be compared with the allowable height to determine if the building's type of construction is accept- 
able. 

Sec. 504 Determine allowable height permitted for 'feet' and 'stories' 

Sec. 505 Determine if mezzanine provisions are applicable 

Sec. 504.3 Determine if any rooftop structures are in compliance 

Sec. 502 Calculate actual floor area of each story of building. The building area is typically the entire floor area that occurs 
within the surrounding exterior walls. The building area for each individual story must be calculated, as well as for the building 
as a whole. 

vi 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



Sec. 507 Determine if building qualifies as an unlimited area building 

Sec. 506 Determine allowable area permitted for each story and building as a whole if: 

Sec. 506 Single-occupancy building 

Sec. 508.2 Multi-occupancy w/accessory occupancies 

Sec. 508.3 Multi-occupancy building w/nonseparated occupancies 

Sec. 508.4 Multi-occupancy building w/separated occupancies 

Sec. 706. 1 Use of fire walls 

Sec. 509 Determine if special provisions are to be applied for height and/or area. The general requirements for allowable 
height and area may be modified under limited conditions, typically where a parking garage is located in a building with other 
occupancies. 

5. Identify extent of any special detailed occupancy requirements. Special types of buildings, special uses that occur within 
buildings, and special elements of a building are further regulated through specific requirements found in Chapter 4. Since these 
provisions are specific in nature, they apply in lieu of the general requirements found elsewhere in the code. 

Chapter 4. Determine special detailed requirements based on occupancy. A number of the special provisions are applicable to 
a specific occupancy or group of similar occupancies. 

Sec. 402 Covered mall buildings 

Sec. 403 High-rise buildings 

Sec. 404 Atriums 

Sec. 405 Underground buildings 

Sec. 406 Motor-vehicle-related occupancies 

Sec. 407 Group 1-2 occupancies 

Sec. 408 Group 1-3 occupancies 

Sec. 41 1 Special amusement buildings 

Sec. 412 Aircraft-related occupancies 

Sec. 415 Group H occupancies 

Sec. 419 Live/work units 

Sec. 420 Groups I- 1 , R- 1 , R-2 and R-3 

Sec. 422 Ambulatory health care facilities 

Table 508.2.5 Determine if building contains any incidental accessory occupancies. The uses identified in Table 508.5.2 are 
considered as a portion of the occupancy in which they are located, but special conditions required that they be addressed in a 
more specific manner. 

Sec. 508.2.5 Provide fire separation and/or fire-extinguishing system 

6.1dentify and evaluate fire and smoke protective elements. Where fire-resistance-rated construction and/or smoke protection is 
mandated by other provisions of the code, the provisions of Chapter 7 identify the appropriate methods for gaining compliance. 

Chapter 7. Verify compliance w/details of fire and smoke resistance. The various elements of fire-resistance-rated and 
smoke-resistant construction are detailed, including walls, horizontal assemblies, shaft enclosures, including openings such as 
doors and windows, as well as the penetration of such elements by conduit, ducts, piping and other items. 



Sec. 704 


Structural members 


Sec. 707 


Fire barriers 


Sec. 709 


Fire partitions 


Sec. 710 


Smoke barriers 


Sec. 711 


Smoke partitions 


Sec. 712 


Horizontal assemblies 


Sec. 708 


Shaft enclosures 


Sec. 713 


Penetrations 


Sec. 714 


Joint systems 


Sec. 715 


Opening protectives 


Sec. 716 


Ducts and air transfer openings 



201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE vii 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



7. Identify additional fire protection systems that may be required. In addition to automatic sprinkler systems, there are several 
other types of fire protection systems that may be required in a building. 

Sec. 907,2. Determine compliance with fire alarm provisions. Fire alarm systems are typically mandated based upon the 
occupancy classification and the number of occupants. 

Sec. 905.3. Determine if standpipe system is required. A standpipe system is required in buildings once a specified height is 
reached to provide for a more effective means of fighting a fire within the building. 

Sec. 905.4.6. Verify location of standpipe hose connections. 

8. Identify and evaluate materials utilized as interior floor, wall and ceiling finishes. Finish materials within the building are 
primarily regulated for flame spread and smoke development characteristics. 

Sec. 803.9. Verify compliance of wall and ceiling finishes. Interior wall and ceiling finishes are regulated based upon the occu- 
pancy classification of the space and their location within the means of egress system. The classification may typically be 
reduced where sprinkler protection is provided. 

Sec. 804.4. Verify compliance of floor finishes. While regulated differently than wall and ceiling finishes, floor finishes com- 
prised of fibers are also controlled based upon their use in the egress system, the occupancy classification, and the presence of a 
sprinkler system. 

9. Evaluate means of egress system based on anticipated occupant loads. The expected occupant load is the basis for the design 
of the means of egress system. The egress elements must provide for a direct, continuous, obvious, undiminished and unobstructed 
path of travel from any occupiable point in the building to the public way. 

Sec. 1004. Determine the design occupant load. Although the primary use of an occupant load is in the design of the building's 
means of egress system, occupant load is also occasionally an important factor in occupancy classification, sprinkler system and 
fire alarm system requirements, and plumbing fixture counts. 

Chapter 10. Verify compliance with means of egress provisions. The means of egress system is intended to provide the primary 
occupant protection from fire and other hazards. The system consists of two major components, egress components and egress 
design. 

Sec. 1005.1 Egress width and distribution 

Sec. 1006.3 Emergency lighting 

Sec. 1007 Accessible means of egress 

Sec. 1008.1.2 Door swing 

Sec. 1008.1.9 Door operations 

Sec. 1008. l.lOPanic hardware 

Sec. 1009.1 Stairway width 

Sec. 1009.4 Stairway treads and risers 

Sec. 1011 Exit signs 

Sec. 1012 Stairway and ramp handrails 

Sec. 1013 Guards 

Sec. 1014.2 Egress through intervening spaces 

Sec. 1014.3 Common path of egress travel 

Sec. 1015.1 Number of exit or exit access doorways 

Sec. 1015.2 Egress separation 

Sec. 1016.1 Travel distance 

Sec. 1018.1 Corridor construction 

Sec. 1 02 1 Number of exits 

Sec. 1022 Vertical exit enclosures 

Sec. 1023 Exit passageways 

Sec. 1025 Horizontal exits 

Sec. 1026 Exterior exit stairways 

Sec, 1027 Exit discharge 

Sec. 1028 Egress from assembly occupancies 

viii 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



10. Identify any special use features of the building. The activities that occur within the building pose varying risks to the occu- 
pants. Special conditions are applicable when such activities are anticipated. 

Chapter 4. Verify compliance with special detailed requirements. These provisions are often an extension of the general 
requirements found elsewhere in the code. 

Sec . 4 1 Stages and platforms 

Sec. 413 Combustible storage 

Sec. 414 Hazardous materials 

Sec. 416 Application of flammable finishes 

11. Determine areas of building and site required to be accessible. In general, access to persons with disabilities is required for 
all buildings. 

Chapter 11 A and/or IIB. Verify compliance with accessibility provisions. In order to be considered as accessible, buildings and 
their individual elements must comply with the applicable technical provisions of Chapters 1 1 A and/or IIB. 

12. Determine extent of other miscellaneous provisions. Additional provisions may be applicable based upon each individual 
building and its characteristics. 

Sec. 2406.3. Verify safety glazing provided in hazardous locations. Safety glazing must be appropriately identified to ensure 
the proper glazing material is installed in areas considered as subject to human impact. 

Chapter 12. Interior environment. Provisions regulating ventilation, temperature control, lighting, sound transmission, room 
dimensions and surrounding materials associated with interior spaces. 

Chapter 14 Exterior walls. Requirements for installation of wall coverings and the permissible use of combustible materials on the 
exterior side of exterior walls. 

Chapter 24. Glass and glazing. General provisions for the installation of glazing materials and skylights. 

Chapter 30, Elevators. Elevator hoistway provisions, including enclosure of hoistway s, emergency operations and hoistway vent- 
ing. 

Chapter 31. Special construction. A variety of special conditions are addressed, including membrane structures, temporary struc- 
tures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs and swimming pool enclosures. 

Structural Provisions 

General Requirements 

1. Design Loads. 

The 2009 IBC references the national load standard, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 
7 — 05) with Supplement Number 2. 

Determine the applicable design loads that the building structure is expected to be subjected to. Code prescribed loads are given in 
Chapter 16 and the referenced standard, ASCE/SEI 7. The code prescribed minimum live loads are given in IBC Table 1607.1. 

The various code prescribed loads are probabilistic in nature. Environmental loads, such as flood, rain, snow, seismic and wind 
vary based on the location of the building site. The following table gives the IBC section and ASCE/SEI 7 chapter for various types 
of load. 



REFERENCED IBC SECTIONS AND ASCE/SEI 7 CHAPTERS FOR LOADS 


TYPE OF LOAD 


IBC SECTION 


ASCE/SEI 7 CHAPTER 


Dead loads 


Section 1606 


Chapter 3 


Live loads 


Section 1607, Table 1607.1 


Chapter 4 


Snow loads 


Section 1608 


Chapter 7 


Wind loads 


Section 1609 


Chapter 6 


Soil lateral loads 


Section 1610 


Chapter 3 


Rain loads 


Section 1611 


Chapter 8 


Flood loads 


Section 1612 


Chapter 51 


Earthquake loads 


Section 1613 


Chapter 11-22 



1. Section 1612 references ASCE 24 which references Chapter 5 of ASCE/SEI 7 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



IX 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



2. Structural Materials. 



The structural design begins witli the selection of the type of structural materials to be used to support the building. Structural fram- 
ing systems are constructed of concrete, masonry, steel or wood. Some miscellaneous or specialty structures and components, such 
as awnings, canopies and cladding, are often constructed of aluminum. 

The design of various structural materials is covered in specific material chapters in the code which in turn reference design stan- 
dards for the type of material involved. The referenced standards in the 2009 IBC for the structural materials are shown in the 
following table: 



STRUCTURAL DESIGN STANDARDS FOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS' 


MATERIAL 


IBC/CBC CHAPTER 


REFERENCED STANDARD 


Concrete 


19 


ACI 318—08 
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete 


Aluminum 


20 


ADM 1—05 
Aluminum Design Manual 


Masonry 


21 


TMS 402-08/ACI 530-08/ASCE 5-08 
Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures (MSJC Code) 


Steel 


22 


AISC 360—05 
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings 

AISC 341—05, 

Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, 

including Supplement No. 1 dated 2006 

AISI SlOO— 2007 
North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members 


Wood 


23 


AF&PA NDS— 05 
National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction with 2005 Supplement 

AF&PA SDPWS— 08 
Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic 



1. The above table shows the main structural design standards for these structural materials. For a complete list of referenced standards, see IBC Chapter 35. 
3. Structural Analysis, Design and Detailing. 

Once the applicable loads are determined, the structural system of the building must be analyzed to determine the effects of the gov- 
erning gravity and lateral loads that act on the structure. The structural system of a typical building consists of the roof and floor sys- 
tems, walls, beams and columns, and the foundation. From the structural analysis, the next step is to design the structural members, 
elements and systems to provide the minimum level of resistance in accordance with the various load combinations prescribed in 
Section 1605. 

Once the structural elements and systems are designed, the next step is to detail the load transfer connections to provide a com- 
plete load path from the point of origin to the resisting element. In general, the ultimate resisting element of buildings and structures 
is the foundation and supporting ground. The final step is to prepare a complete set of construction documents as required by Sec- 
tions 107 and 1603. Construction documents are defined in Section 202 as "Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or 
assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a 
building permit." In general, construction documents consist of plans, specifications and calculations. 

Section 1603. 1 requires construction documents to show the size, section and relative locations of structural members with floor 
levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. Design loads required by Sections 1603. 1 . 1 through 1603. 1 .9 must be indicated on 
the construction documents. If complete construction documents consisting of plans, specifications and calculations are provided, 
the items listed in Sections 1603. 1.1 through 1603.9 are generally included. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



The exception permits construction documents for buildings constructed in accordance with the conventional light- frame con- 
struction provisions of Section 2308 need only indicate the following: 

Floor and roof live loads 

Ground snow load, P^. 

Basic (3-second gust) wind speed (mph) and wind exposure category. 

Seismic design category and site class. 

Flood design data where sited in flood hazard areas 

Design load-bearing values of soils. 

General Requirements 

1. Occupancy Category (IBC/CBC Table 1604.5). 

Determine the occupancy category of the building based on Table 1604.5. 

Where a structure is occupied by two or more occupancies that are not the same occupancy category, the building must be classi- 
fied in the highest occupancy category corresponding to the various occupancies. 

Where structures have two or more portions that are structurally separated, each separate portion should be separately classified. 

Where a separated portion of a structure provides required access or egress from another portion of the building with a higher 
occupancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category. 

Where a separated portion of a structure shares life safety components with another portion of the building with a higher occu- 
pancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category. 

2. Floor and roof live loads (IBC/CBC Table 1607.1). 

Determine uniformly distributed and concentrated floor live load for the floor areas of the building in accordance with Section 
1603.1.1 and Table 1607.1. 

Floor Uve load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.9 should be indicated for each type of live load that is reduced. 

Determine the roof live load for roof areas in accordance with Section 1607.1 1. 

Roof live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.1 1.2 should be indicated for roof live loads that are reduced. 

3. Snow load (IBC/CBC Section 1608, ASCE/SEI 7 Section 7). 

Determine the ground snow load, Pg, based on the location of the building site in accordance with Figure 1608.2 for the contigu- 
ous United States and Table 1608.2 for Alaska. 

In areas where the ground snow load, Pg, exceeds 10 psf, the following information should be determined: 

1. Flat-roof snow load, Pf. 

2. Snow exposure factor, Q. 

3. Snow load importance factor, /, 

4. Thermal factor, C,. 

4. Wind speed and wind exposure category. 

Determine the following information related to wind loads in accordance with Section 1603.1.4: 

1. Basic 3-second gust wind speed (mph). 

2. Wind importance factor, /. 

3. Wind exposure category (B, C, D). If more than one wind exposure is used, the wind exposure for each wind direction 
should be determined. 

4. The applicable internal pressure coefficient. 

5. The design wind pressure (psf) used for the design of exterior component and cladding materials not specifically designed 
by the registered design professional should be indicated. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



5. Earthquake design requirements. 

Determine the following information related to seismic loads regardless of whether seismic loads govern the design of the lat- 
eral-force-resisting system of the building: 

1. Seismic importance factor, /, based on occupancy category. 

2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, Ss and Sj. 

3. Site class. 

4. Design spectral response coefficients, Sj;}s ^^^ ^di- 

5. Seismic design category. 

6. Basic seismic-force-resisting system(s). 

7. Design base shear. 

8. Seismic response coefficient(s), Q. 

9. Response modification factor(s), R. 

10. Analysis procedure used. 

6. Geotechnical information. 

The design load bearing values of soils shall be shown on the construction documents in accordance with Section 1603.1.6. 

7. Special loads. 

Determine any special loads that are applicable to the design of the building, structure or portions thereof along with the specific 
section of the code that addresses the special loading condition in accordance with Section 1603.1.8. 

8. Load combinations. 

Buildings and other structures and portions thereof are required to be designed to resist the load combinations specified in Sec- 
tion 1605.2 or 1605.3 and Chapters 18 through 23, and the special seismic load combinations with overstrength as required by 
Section 1605.1 and ASCE/SEI 7. 

9. Wind and seismic detailing. 

Lateral-force-resisting systems are required to conform to the seismic detailing requirements of the code and ASCE/SEI 7 (exclud- 
ing Chapter 14 and Appendix 1 lA) even when wind load effects are greater than seismic load effects. See Section 1604.10. 

10. Serviceability. 

Structural systems and members shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deflections and lateral drift. The deflection 
of structural members shall not exceed the more restrictive of the limitations of Sections 1604.3.2 through 1604.3.6 or that per- 
mitted by Table 1604.3. Structural systems shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deformation and lateral drift due 
to earthquake loading in accordance with Section 12.12.1 of ASCE/SEI 7. 

11. Foundation. 

A foundation system must be designed that provides adequate support for gravity and lateral loads. Walls of buildings of conven- 
tional light frame construction, as defined in Section 202, are permitted to be supported by footings constructed in accordance 
with Table 1809.7. Otherwise, the foundation system must be designed in accordance with other provisions of Chapter 18. The 
following table gives a summary of applicable sections for foundation systems. 



FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS 


SUBJECT 


IBC SECTION 


Presumptive load-bearing values of soils 


1806, Table 1806.2 


Foundation walls, retaining walls and embedded posts & poles 


1807 


General requirements for foundations 


1808 


Minimum concrete specified concrete strength 


Table 1808.8.1 


Minimum concrete cover 


Table 1808.8.2 


Shallow foundations (footings) 


1809 


Prescriptive footings for light frame walls 


Table 1809.7 


Deep foundations 


1810 



XII 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



A geotechnical investigation is required where required by Section 1803.2 unless the building official determines that a soils 
investigation is not required in accordance with the exception. A geotechnical investigation is required for buildings assigned to 
Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F in accordance with Sections 1803.5.11 and 1803.5.12. 

12. Excavation, grading and fill 

Requirements for excavation, grading and fill related to foundation construction are covered in Section 1804. General require- 
ments for site grading are covered in Appendix J. 

13. Flood design data. 

Where required by Section 1612.5, buildings located in flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3 are required to pro- 
vide documentation that includes the following information regardless of whether flood loads govern the design of the building: 

1 . In flood hazard areas not subject to high- velocity wave action, the elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including the 
basement; and the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry flood proofed. 

2. In flood hazard areas not subject to high- velocity wave action, the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry 
floodproofed. 

3. In flood hazard areas subject to high- velocity wave action, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal 
structural member of the lowest floor, including the basement. 

14. Special inspection. 

Where special inspection, special inspection for seismic resistance, or structural testing for seismic resistance is required by Sec- 
tion 1704, 1707 or 1708, the registered design professional in responsible charge is required to prepare a statement of special 
inspections in accordance with Section 1 705 . The statement of special inspections must be submitted by the permit applicant as a 
condition of permit issuance in accordance with Section 106.1. 

A statement of special inspections is not required for structures designed and constructed in accordance with the conventional 
construction provisions of Section 2308 unless specific components in the structure require special inspection. 

The statement of special inspections is permitted to be prepared by a qualified person approved by the building official for con- 
struction not designed by a registered design professional. 



SPECIAL INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS 


TYPE OF SPECIAL INSPECTION 


APPLICABLE SECTION 


REQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION 


Steel construction 


1704.3 


Table 1704.3 


Concrete construction 


1704.4 


Table 1704.4 


Masonry construction 
Level 1 
Level 2 


1704.5 


Table 1704.5.1 
Table 1704,5.3 


Wood construction 


1704.6 





Soils 


1704.7 


Table 1704.7 


Driven deep foundations 


1704.8 


Table 1704.8 


Cast in place deep foundations 


1704.9 


Table 1704.9 


Helical pile foundations 


1704.10 





Vertical masonry foundations 


1704.11 
1704.5 


— 


Sprayed fire resistant materials 


1704.12 





Mastic and intumescent fire resistive coatings 


1704.13 





Exterior insulation and finish (EIFS) systems 


1704.14 


_ 


Special cases 


1704.15 





Smoke control systems 


1704.16 






Where required by the provisions of Section 1709.2 or 1709.3, the owner shall employ a registered design professional to perform structural observations as 
defined in Section 1702. At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer shall submit a written statement to the building official 
that identifies any reported deficiencies that have not been resolved. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



XIII 



EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC 



15. Special inspection for wind and seismic resistance. 

Section 1706.1 requires special inspections for wind requirements based on wind speed and exposure category as prescribed in 
Sections 1706.2 through 1706.4, unless exempted by the exceptions to Section 1704.1. 

Section 1707.1 requires special inspections for seismic resistance based on seismic design category as prescribed in Sections 
1707.2 through 1707.9, unless exempted by the exceptions of Section 1704.1 or 1705.3. 

16. Structural testing for seismic resistance. 

Section 1708. 1 requires specific testing and quahfication for seismic resistance as prescribed in Sections 1708.2 through 1708.5, 
unless exempted from special inspections by the exceptions of Section 1704.1 and 1705.3: 

17. Structural observation. 

Where required by the provisions of Section 1710.2 or 1710.3 the owner is required to employ a registered design professional to 
perform structural observations as defined in Section 1702. Section 1710.2 requires structural observations for seismic resis- 
tance for certain structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F; Section 1710.3 requires structural observations for 
wind requirements for certain structures sited where the wind speed exceeds 110 mph. 

At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the 
building official that identifies any reported deficiencies that have not been resolved. 

Prior to the commencement of observations, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the building 
official identifying the structural observations. 

At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the 
building official indicating what site visits have been made, identifies any deficiencies that have not been resolved. 

18. Contractor responsibility. 

Section 1709 requires each contractor responsible for the construction of a main wind- or seismic-force-resisting system, desig- 
nated seismic system or a wind- or seismic-resisting component listed in the statement of special inspections is required to sub- 
mit a written statement of responsibility to the building official and the owner prior to the commencement of work on the system 
or component. (The term "designated seismic system" is defined in Section 1 702 and Section 1 1 .2 of ASCE/SEI 7). The contrac- 
tor's statement of responsibility is required to acknowledge awareness of the special requirements contained in the statement of 
special inspections. 

19. Phased approvals. 

Construction of foundations or other part of a building is permitted before the construction documents for the whole building or 
structure have been submitted, provided adequate information has been filed. The holder of such permit for the foundation or 
other part of a building proceeds at their own risk and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted. 

20. Amended construction documents. 

Work must be constructed in accordance with the approved construction documents and any changes.made during construction 
that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents must be resubmitted for approval as amended construction 
documents. 

21. Deferred submittals. 

Deferred submittals are items that are not submitted at the time of permit application and must have the prior approval of the 
building official in accordance with Section 107.3.4.2. The registered design professional in responsible charge is required to hst 
the deferred submittals on the construction documents for review by the building official. Documents for deferred submittal 
items must be reviewed by the registered design professional in responsible charge who will forward them to the building official 
with a notation indicating that they have been reviewed and are in general conformance with the design of the building. 



xiv 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



How to Distinguish Between Modei Code Language 

and 
Caiifornia Amendments 

To distinguish between model code language and the incorporated California amendments^ including exclusive California stan- 
dards, California amendments will appear in italics. 

[BSC] This symbol within a section identifies which State agency (s), by its "acronym" has amended a section of the model code. 

Legend of Acronyms of Adopting State Agencies 

BSC California Building Standards Commission 

SFM Office of the State Fire Marshal 

BCD Department of Housing and Community Development 

DSA'AC Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance 

DSA-SS Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety 

DSA-SS/CC Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges 

OSHPD Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development 

CSA Corrections Standards Authority 

DPH Department of Public Health 

AGR Department of Food and Agriculture 

CEC California Energy Commission 

CA Department of Consumer Affairs: 

Board ofBarbering and Cosmetology 
Board of Examiners in Veterinary Medicine 
Board of Pharmacy 
Acupuncture Board 
Bureau of Home Furnishings 
Structural Pest Control Board 

SL State Librarian 

SLC State Lands Commission 

DWR Department of Water Resources 

Symbols in the margins indicate the status of code changes as follows: 

This symbol indicates that a change has been made to a California amendment. 

> This symbol indicates California deletion of California language. 



201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xv 



xvi 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



California Matrix Adoption Tables 



Format of the California Matrix Adoption Tables 

The matrix adoption tables, which follow, show the user which state agencies have adopted and/or amended given sections of the 
model code. The building application determines which state agency's adoptions apply. See Section's 102 through 1 14 for building 
applications and enforcement responsibilities. 

Agencies are grouped together, based on either local or state enforcement responsibilities. For example, regulations from SFM 
are enforced both at the state and local levels; therefore, SFM is listed twice in each adoption table indicating state enforcement 
responsibilities and local enforcement responsibilities. 

The side headings identify the scope of state agencies' adoption as follows: 

Adopt the entire IBC chapter without state amendments. 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row; this means that particular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter without any state amendments. 

Example: 

CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire cliapter 




X 




































Adopt entire chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 












S 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 








































Chapter/Section 









































Adopt the entire IBC chapter as amended, state-amended sections are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire 
model code chapter; with state amendments. 

Each state-amended section that the agency has added to that particular chapter is listed. There will be an "X" in the column, by 
that particular section, under the agency's acronym, as well as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 



Example: 







CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
















Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 








































Adopt entire chapter as amended 
(amended sections listed below) 




X 




































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












S 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 


















Chapter/Section 








































202 




X 





































2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



XVII 



Adopt only those sections that are listed below: 

If there is an "X" under a particular state agency's acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency is adopting only specific 
model code or state-amended sections within this chapter. There will be an "X" in the column under the agency's acronym, as well 
as an "X" by each section that the agency has adopted. 

Example: 

CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 








































Adopt entire cliapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections 
that are listed below 








X 


X 




8 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 
















Chapter 1 








































202 








X 


X 




s 


A 


M 


P 


L 


E 
















202 








X 


X 






C 





N 


T. 


















203 








X 


X 






























203 








X 


X 































xvlil 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



ORDINANCE 

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 
2010 California Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain factual 
information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. 
The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information 
required for insertion into the code text. 

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF 

THE CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 

ORDINANCE NO. 

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2010 edition of the California Building Code, regulating and governing the condi- 
tions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facihties and 
other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the con- 
demnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures in the [JURISDIC- 
TION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] 

and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith. 

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows: 

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF 
RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the California Building Code, 2010 edition, including 
Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see California Building Code Section 101.2.1, 2010 edi- 
tion), as pubhshed by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the 
State of California for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by provid- 
ing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are 
safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use 
and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and 
each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on file in the office of the [JURIS- 
DICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, 
deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance. 

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised: 

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION] 

Secfion 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE] 

Section 3412.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION] 

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR 

ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all Other ordinances 
or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed. 

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, 
such decision shall not affect the vahdity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it 
would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more 
sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional. 

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding 
impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any 
act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be 
lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance. 

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. 
(An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be 
in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.) 

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted 
hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption. 

201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xlx 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



VOLUME 1 

CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. ... 3 

DIVISION I CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION 3 

Section 

1 . 1 General 3 

1.2 Building Standards Commission 5 

1.3 Corrections Standards Authority 6 

1.4 Department of Consumer Affairs 6 

1 .5 Reserved 7 

1.6 Department of Food and Agriculture 7 

1.7 California Department of Public Health 7 

1 . 8 Department of Housing and 

Community Development 7 

1.8.2 Authority and Abbreviations 7 

L8.3 Local Enforcing Agency 8 

1.8.4 Permits, Fees, Applications and Inspections. ... 9 

1.8.5 Right-of-Entry for Enforcement 10 

1 .8.6 Local Modification by 

Ordinance or Regulation 10 

L8.7 Alternate Materials, Designs, Tests and 

Methods of Construction 10 

1.8.8 Appeals Board 11 

1.8.9 Unsafe Buildings or Structures 12 

L8.10 Other Building Regulations 12 

1.9 Division of the State Architect 12 

1 . 10 Office of Statewide Health Planning and 

Development 15 

1.11 Office of the State Fire Marshal 16 

1.12 State Librarian 20 

1.13 Reserved 20 

1.14 California State Lands Commission 20 

DIVISION II SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION. ... 21 

101 General 21 

102 Applicability 21 

103 Department of Building Safety 22 

104 Duties and Powers of Building Officials 22 

105 Permits 23 

106 Floor and Roof Design Loads 25 

107 Submittal Documents 25 

108 Temporary Structures and Uses 27 

109 Fees 27 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



1 10 Inspections 27 

111 Certificate of Occupancy 28 

1 12 Service Utilities 29 

113 Board of Appeals 29 

114 Violations 29 

1 15 Stop Work Order 29 

116 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 29 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 39 

Section 

201 General 39 

202 Definitions 39 

CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY 

CLASSIFICATION 59 

Section 

301 General 59 

302 Classification 59 

303 Assembly Group A 59 

304 Business Group B 60 

305 Educational Group E 60 

306 Factory Group F 61 

307 High-Hazard Group H 61 

308 Institutional Group 1 70 

309 Mercantile Group M 71 

310 Residential Group R 71 

311 Storage Group S 74 

312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 75 

313 Laboratories Group L [SFM] 75 

CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED 

REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 

USE AND OCCUPANCY 81 

Section 

401 Scope 81 

402 Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings 81 

403 High-Rise Buildings and Group 1-2 
Occupancies Having Occupied Floors 
Located more than 75 Feet Above the Lowest 
Level of Fire Department Vehicle Access 84 

404 Atriums 88 

405 Underground Buildings 88 

406 Motor- Vehicle-Related Occupancies 89 

407 Group 1-2 93 

xxi 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



408 Group 1-3 96 

409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 99 

410 Stages and Platforms 100 

411 Special Amusement Buildings 102 

412 Aircraft-Related Occupancies 102 

413 Combustible Storage 105 

414 Hazardous Materials 105 

415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 109 

416 Application of Flammable Finishes 122 

417 Drying Rooms 122 

418 Organic Coatings 122 

419 LiveAVork Units 123 

420 Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, 

R-3.1andR-4 123 

421 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 124 

422 Ambulatory Health Care Facilities 125 

423 Storm Shelters 125 

424 Special Provisions for Residential Hotels 

[HCD 1 & HCD 1-AC] 125 

425 Special Provisions for Licensed 

24-Hour Care Facilities in a 

Group R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 [SFM] 125 

426 Group 1-4 [SFM] 128 

427 Reserved 129 

428 Reserved 129 

429 Reserved 129 

430 Horse Racing Stables [SFM] 129 

431 Pet Kennels [SFM] 129 

432 Combustion Engines and 

Gas Turbines [SFM] 129 

433 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems [SFM] 130 

434 Explosives [SFM] 133 

435 Reserved 136 

436 Winery Caves [SFM] 136 

437 Reserved 137 

438 Reserved 137 

439 Public Libraries [SL AND SFM] 137 

440 Group C [SFM] 138 

441 Reserved 140 

442 Group E [SFM] 140 

443 Group L [SFM] 141 

444 Reserved 144 

445 Large Family Day-Care Homes [SFM] 144 

xxii 



CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING 

HEIGHTS AND AREAS 149 

Section 

501 General 149 

502 Definitions 149 

503 General Building Height and 

Area Limitations 149 

504 Building Height 149 

505 Mezzanines 151 

506 Building Area Modifications 152 

507 Unlimited Area Buildings 153 

508 Mixed Use and Occupancy 154 

509 Special Provisions 156 

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 163 

Section 

601 General 163 

602 Construction Classification 163 

603 Combustible Material in 

Type I and II Construction 165 

CHAPTER 7 FIRE AND SMOKE 

PROTECTION FEATURES 169 

Section 

701 General 169 

702 Definitions 169 

703 Fire-Resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 170 

704 Fire-Resistance Rating of 

Structural Members 171 

705 Exterior Walls 173 

706 Fire Walls 177 

707 Fire Barriers 179 

708 Shaft Enclosures 180 

709 Fire Partitions 184 

710 Smoke Barriers 185 

711 Smoke Partitions 185 

712 Horizontal Assemblies 186 

713 Penetrations 187 

714 Fire-Resistant Joint Systems 189 

715 Opening Protectives 190 

716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 194 

717 Concealed Spaces 199 

718 Fire-Resistance Requirements for Plaster .... 201 

719 Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials ...201 

720 Prescriptive Fire Resistance 202 

721 Calculated Fire Resistance 224 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 7A MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION 
METHODS FOR EXTERIOR 
WILDFIRE EXPOSURE 255 

Section 

701 A Scope, Purpose and Application 255 

702A Definitions 256 

703A Standards of Quality 256 

704A Ignition-Resistant Construction 257 

705A Roofing 258 

706A Vents 258 

707A Exterior Covering 258 

708 A Exterior Windows and Doors 260 

709A Decking 260 

710A Accessory Structures 261 

CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 265 

Section 

801 General 265 

802 Definitions 265 

803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 265 

804 Interior Floor Finish 268 

805 Combustible Materials in Type I 

and II Construction 268 

806 Decorative Materials and Trim 269 

807 Insulation 269 

808 Acoustical Ceiling Systems 269 

CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS ... 277 

Section 

901 General 277 

902 Definitions 277 

903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 280 

904 Alternative Automatic 

Fire-Extinguishing Systems 287 

905 Standpipe Systems 289 

906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 292 

907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 294 

908 Emergency Alarm Systems 308 

909 Smoke Control Systems 308 

910 Smoke and Heat Vents 315 

911 Fire Command Center 317 

912 Fire Department Connections 318 

913 Fire Pumps 318 

914 Emergency Responder Safety Features 319 

915 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 319 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 325 

Section 

1001 Administration 325 

1002 Definitions 325 

1003 General Means of Egress 326 

1004 Occupant Load 329 

1005 Egress Width 330 

1006 Means of Egress Illumination 330 

1007 Accessible Means of Egress 331 

1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 334 

1009 Stairways 340 

1010 Ramps 343 

101 1 Exit Signs 344 

1012 Handrails 346 

1013 Guards 347 

1014 Exit Access 348 

1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 349 

1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 351 

1017 Aisles 352 

1018 Corridors 352 

1019 Egress Balconies. 354 

1020 Exits 354 

1021 Number of Exits and Continuity 354 

1022 Exit Enclosures 355 

1023 Exit Passageways 357 

1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings 357 

1025 Horizontal Exits 359 

1026 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 360 

1027 Exit Discharge 360 

1028 Assembly 361 

1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 366 

CHAPTER 11 RESERVED 369 

CHAPTER 11 A HOUSING ACCESSIBILITY .... 373 

Section 

1 101 A Application 373 

1 102A Building Accessibility 373 

1 103A Design and Construction 374 

11 04 A Covered Multifamily Dwellings 374 

1105 A Garages, Carports and Parking Facilities .... 375 

1 106 A Site and Building Characteristics 375 

1107A Definitions 375 

1 108 A General Requirements for Accessible Parking 

and Exterior Routes of Travel 378 

xxiii 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1109A 
lllOA 
llllA 
1112A 
1113A 

1114A 

1115A 
1116A 
1117A 

1118A 
1119A 
11 20 A 
1121A 
11 22 A 

1123A 
1124A 

11 25 A 
1126A 
11 27 A 
1128A 
11 29 A 
1130A 

1131A 
11 32 A 
1133A 
11 34 A 
1135A 
1136A 

1137A 
1138A 
1139A 
1140A 
1141A 
1142A 

1143A 
11 44 A 
1145A 
11 46 A 

xxiv 



Parking Facilities 378 

Exterior Routes of Travel 380 

Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 380 

Curb Ramps on Accessible Routes 381 

Walks and Sidewalks on an 

Accessible Route 381 

Exterior Ramps and Landings on 

Accessible Routes 382 

Exterior Stairways 383 

Hazards on Accessible Routes 384 

General Requirements for Accessible 
Entrances, Exits, Interior Routes of 
Travel and Facility Accessibility 385 

Egress and Areas of Refuge 385 

Interior Routes of Travel 385 

Interior Accessible Routes 385 

Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 386 

Interior Ramps and Landings on 

Accessible Routes 386 

Interior Stairways 387 

Elevators and Platform 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 388 

Hazards on Accessible Routes 390 

Doors 390 

Common Use Facilities 391 

Covered Dwelling Units 398 

Reserved 398 

Accessible Route Within Covered 

Multifamily Dwelling Units 398 

Changes in Level on Accessible Routes 398 

Doors 398 

Kitchens 400 

Bathing and Toilet Facilities 400 

Laundry Rooms 403 

Electrical Receptacle, 

Switch and Control Heights 403 

Other Features and Facilities 405 

Reserved 405 

Accessible Drinking Fountains 405 

Accessible Telephones 405 

Accessible Swimming Pools 406 

Electrical Receptacle, Switch and 

Control Heights 407 

Signage 407 

Reserved 408 

Reserved 408 

Reserved 408 



1 147A Reserved 408 

1148A Reserved 408 

1149A Reserved 408 

1 150A Site Impracticality Tests 409 

CHAPTER IIB ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC 
BUILDINGS, PUBLIC 
ACCOMODATIONS, 
COMMERICAL BUILDINGS 
AND PUBLICLY FUNDED 
HOUSING 465 

Section 

IIOIB Scope 465 

1 102B Definitions 465 

1103B Building Accessibility 468 

1 104B Accessibility for Group A Occupancies 469 

1105B Accessibility for Group B Occupancies 472 

1106B Accessibility for Group E Occupancies 473 

1 107B Factories and Warehouses 474 

1 108B Accessibility for Group H Occupancies 474 

1 109B Accessibility for Group I Occupancies 475 

I I lOB Accessibility for Group M Occupancies 475 

I I I IB Accessibility for Group R Occupancies 477 

1112B Reserved 479 

1113B Reserved 479 

1 1 14B Facility Accessibility 479 

1 1 1 5B Bathing and Toilet Facilities 

(Sanitary Facilities) 480 

1 1 16B Elevators and Special Access 

(Wheelchair) Lifts 486 

1 1 17B Other Building Components 489 

1 1 18B Space Allowance and Reach Ranges 497 

1 1 19B Special Standards of Accessibility for 

Buildings with Historical Significance .... 497 

1120B Floor and Levels 497 

1121B Transportafion Facilifies 498 

1 122B Fixed or Built-in Seating, 

Tables and Counters 501 

1 123B Access to Employee Areas 502 

1 124B Ground and Floor Surfaces 502 

1 125B Storage 502 

1 126B Vending Machines and Other Equipment .... 502 

1 127B Exterior Routes of Travel 503 

1 128B Pedestrian Grade Separations 

(Overpasses and Underpasses) 504 

1 129B Accessible Parking Required 504 

1 130B Parking Structures 506 

201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1131B Passenger Drop-off and Loading Zones 506 

1 132B Outdoor Occupancies 506 

1 133B General Accessibility for 

Entrances, Exits and Paths of Travel 508 

1134B Accessibility for Existing Buildings 515 

11 35B Historic Preservation — Special Standards 
of Accessibility for Buildings with 
Historical Significance 516 

CHAPTER lie STANDARDS FOR CARD 
READERS AT GASOLINE 
FUEL-DISPENSING 
FACILITIES 587 

Section 

1 1 1 C Card-Reader Devices at 

Fuel-Dispensing Equipment 587 

1 102C Application 587 

11 03C Number of Accessible 

Card-Reading Devices Required 587 

1 104C Required Features 587 

CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 593 

Section 

1201 General 593 

1202 Definitions 593 

1203 Ventilation 593 

1204 Temperature Control 594 

1205 Lighting 595 

1206 Yards or Courts 595 

1207 Sound Transmission 596 

1208 Interior Space Dimensions 598 

1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 599 

1210 Surrounding Materials 599 

1211 Garage Door Springs 599 

1212 Reserved 600 

1213 Reserved 600 

1214 Reserved 600 

1215 Reserved 600 

1216 Reserved 600 

1217 Reserved 600 

1218 Reserved 600 

1219 Reserved 600 

1220 Reserved 600 

1221 Reserved 600 

1222 Reserved 600 

1223 Reserved 600 

1224 Hospitals 600 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



1225 Skilled Nursing and 

Intermediate-Care Facilities 628 

1226 Clinics 633 

1227 Correctional Treatment Centers 636 

1228 Reserved 641 

1229 Reserved 641 

1230 Minimum Standards for 

Juvenile Facilities 641 

1231 Local Detention 645 

1232 Reserved 651 

1233 Reserved 651 

1234 Reserved 651 

1 235 Sanitary Control of Shellfish 

(Plants and Operations) 65 1 

1236 Laboratory Animal Quarters 651 

1237 Wild Animal Quarantine Facilities 652 

1238 Reserved 652 

1239 Reserved 652 

1240 Meat and Poultry Processing Plants 652 

1241 Collection Centers and Facilities 654 

1242 Renderers 654 

1243 Horsemeat and Pet Food Establishments .... 654 

1244 Reserved 655 

1245 Reserved 655 

1246 Reserved 655 

1247 Reserved 655 

1248 Reserved 655 

1249 Reserved 655 

1250 Pharmacies 655 

1251 Veterinary Facilities 655 

1252 Barber Colleges and Shops 656 

1253 Schools of Cosmetology, 

Cosmetological Establishments and 

Satellite Classrooms 656 

1254 Acupuncture Offices 657 

CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 659 

CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 663 

Section 

1401 General 663 

1402 Definitions 633 

1403 Performance Requirements 663 

1404 Materials 664 

1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 665 

XXV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1406 Combustible Materials on the 

Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 669 

1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 670 

1408 Exterior Insulation and 

Finish Systems (EIFS) 671 

1409 [DSA-SS and DSA-SS/CC, OSHPD 1,2 & 4] 

Additional Requirements for Anchored and 
Adhered Veneer 671 

CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 675 

Section 

1501 General 675 

1502 Definitions 675 

1503 Weather Protection 675 

1504 Performance Requirements 676 

1505 Fire Classification 677 

1506 Materials 678 

1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 678 

1508 Roof Insulation 687 

1509 Rooftop Structures 688 

1510 Reroofmg 689 

1511 [DSA-SS and OSHPD 1, 2 & 41 Seismic 

Anchorage of Slate Shingle, Clay and 
Concrete Tile Roof Coverings 690 

INDEX 691 

HISTORY NOTE 731 

VOLUME 2 

CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 5 

Section 

1601 General 5 

1602 Definitions and Notations 5 

1603 Construction Documents 6 

1604 General Design Requirements 7 

1605 Load Combinations 10 

1606 Dead Loads 11 

1607 Live Loads 11 

1608 Snow Loads 17 

1609 Wind Loads 20 

1610 Soil Lateral Loads 33 

161 1 Rain Loads 34 

1612 Flood Loads 40 

1613 Earthquake Loads 42 

1614 Structural Integrity 48 



1615 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 69 

CHAPTER 16A STRUCTURAL DESIGN 79 

Section 

1601A General 79 

1602 A Definitions and Notations 79 

1603A Construction Documents 81 

1604 A General Design Requirements 82 

1605A Load Combinations 84 

1606A Dead Loads 86 

1607A Live Loads 86 

1608A Snow Loads 91 

1609A Wind Loads 94 

1610A Soil Lateral Loads 104 

1611 A Rain Loads 104 

1612A Flood Loads 110 

1613A Earthquake Loads 112 

1614A Structural Integrity 117 

1615A Modifications to ASCE 7 119 

CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 129 

Section 

1701 General 129 

1702 Definitions 129 

1703 Approvals 129 

1704 Special Inspections 130 

1705 Statement of Special Inspections 141 

1706 Special Inspections for Wind Requirements . . 143 

1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance . . 143 

1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance. . . . 144 

1709 Contractor Responsibility 145 

1710 Structural Observations 145 

1711 Design Strengths of Materials 145 

1712 Alternative Test Procedure 145 

1713 Test Safe Load 146 

1714 In-situ Load Tests 146 

1715 Preconstruction Load Tests 146 

1716 Material and Test Standards 147 

CHAPTER 17A STRUCTURAL TESTS AND 

SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 151 

Section 

1701A General 151 

1702A Definitions 151 

1703A Approvals 152 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



1704A Special Inspections 153 

1705 A Statement of Special Inspections 165 

1706A Special Inspections for Wind Requirements . . 167 

1707 A Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance . . 167 

1708 A Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance. ... 168 

1709 A Contractor Responsibility 169 

1710A Structural Observations 169 

171 1 A Design Strengths of Materials 169 

1712A Alternative Test Procedure 170 

1713A Test Safe Load 170 

1714A In-situ Load Tests 170 

1715A Preconstruction Load Tests 170 

1716A Material and Test Standards 171 

CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 175 

Section 

1801 General 175 

1802 Definitions 175 

1803 Geotechnical Investigations 175 

1804 Excavation, Grading and Fill 178 

1805 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 179 

1806 Presumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils. . . 180 

1807 Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls and 

Embedded Posts and Poles 181 

1808 Foundations 187 

1809 Shallow Foundations 189 

1810 Deep Foundations 192 

CHAPTER 18A SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS .... 207 

Section 

1801A General 207 

1802A Definitions 207 

1803 A Geotechnical Investigations , , 208 

1804A Excavation, Grading and Fill 211 

1805 A Dampproofing and Waterproofing 211 

1806 A Presumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils. . . 213 

1 807 A Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls 

and Embedded Posts and Poles 213 

1808A Foundations 215 

1809A Shallow Foundafions 218 

1810A Deep Foundations 219 

1 8 1 1 A Prestressed Rock and Soil 

Foundation Anchors 231 



CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 235 

Section 

1901 General 235 

1902 Definitions 235 

1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 235 

1904 Durability Requirements 236 

1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 236 

1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 238 

1907 Details of Reinforcement 238 

1908 Modifications to ACI 318 239 

1909 Structural Plain Concrete Not Permitted 

by OSHPD and DSA-SS 241 

1910 Minimum Slab Provisions 242 

1911 Anchorage to Concrete — Allowable 

Stress Design 242 

1912 Anchorage to Concrete — Strength Design . . . 243 

1913 Shotcrete 244 

1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 245 

1915 Concrete-Filled Pipe Columns 245 

1916 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 246 

CHAPTER 19A CONCRETE 253 

Section 

1902A General 253 

1902A Definitions 253 

1903 A Specifications for Tests and Materials 255 

1904 A Durability Requirements 255 

1905 A Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 256 

1906 A Formwork, Embedded Pipes and 

Construction Joints 257 

1907 A Details of Reinforcement 257 

1908A Modifications to ACI 318 258 

1909A Structural Plain Concrete Not Permitted 

by OSHPD and DSA-SS 262 

1910A Minimum Slab Provisions 262 

191 1 A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Allowable Stress Design 263 

1 9 1 2 A Anchorage to Concrete — 

Strength Design 263 

1913A Shotcrete 264 

1914A Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 265 

1915A Concrete-Filled Pipe Columns 265 

1916A Concrete, Reinforcement and 

Anchor Testing 266 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



xxvil 



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1917A Existing Concrete Structures 267 

CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 271 

Section 

2001 General 271 

2002 Materials 271 

2003 Inspection 271 

CHAPTER 21 MASONRY 275 

Section 

2101 General 275 

2102 Definitions and Notations 275 

2103 Masonry Construction Materials 278 

2104 Construction 280 

2105 Quality Assurance 280 

2106 Seismic Design 281 

2107 Allowable Stress Design 282 

2108 Strength Design of Masonry 282 

2109 Empirical Design of Masonry 282 

21 10 Glass Unit Masonry 284 

2111 Masonry Fireplaces 284 

2112 Masonry Heaters 287 

2113 Masonry Chimneys 287 

2114 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 291 

CHAPTER 21A MASONRY 297 

Section 

2101A General 297 

2 102 A Definitions and Notations 298 

2 103 A Masonry Construction Materials 301 

2104A Construction 302 

2105A Quality Assurance 305 

2106A Seismic Design 306 

2107A Allowable Stress Design 307 

2 108 A Strength Design of Masonry 308 

2 109 A Empirical Design of Masonry Not Permitted 

by OSHPD and DSA-SS 309 

21 lOA Glass Unit Masonry 309 

21 1 1 A Masonry Fireplaces 309 

2112A Masonry Heaters 311 

2113A Masonry Chimneys 312 

21 14A Nonbearing Walls 316 

21 15A Masonry Screen Walls 316 

CHAPTER 22 STEEL 319 

Section 



2201 General 319 

2202 Definitions 319 

2203 Identification and Protection of Steel 

for Structural Purposes 319 

2204 Connections 319 

2205 Structural Steel 320 

2206 Steel Joists 320 

2207 Steel Cable Structures 321 

2208 Steel Storage Racks 321 

2209 Cold-Formed Steel 321 

22 1 Cold-Formed Steel Light-Frame 

Construction 321 

221 1 Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC] 322 

CHAPTER 22A STEEL 327 

Section 

2201A General 327 

2202A Definitions 327 

2203A Identification and Protection of 

Steel for Structural Purposes 327 

2204A Connections 327 

2205A Structural Steel 328 

2206A Steel Joists 330 

2207A Steel Cable Structures 331 

2208A Steel Storage Racks 331 

2209A Cold-Formed Steel 331 

2210A Cold-Formed Steel 

Light-Framed Construction 331 

22 1 1 A Light Modular Steel Moment 

Frames for Public Elementary and 

Secondary Schools, and 

Community Colleges 331 

2212A Testing 333 

CHAPTER 23 WOOD 337 

Section 

2301 General 337 

2302 Definitions 337 

2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 339 

2304 General Construction Requirements 343 

2305 General Design Requirements for 

Lateral-Force-Resisting Systems 354 

2306 Allowable Stress Design 357 

2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 358 

2308 Conventional Light-Frame Construction 358 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 411 

Section 

2401 General 411 

2402 Definitions 411 

2403 General Requirements for Glass 411 

2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and 

Dead Loads on Glass 411 

2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 413 

2406 Safety Glazing 415 

2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 417 

2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities 417 

2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistways and 

Elevator Cars 417 

CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD 

AND PLASTER 421 

Section 

2501 General 421 

2502 Definitions 421 

2503 Inspection 421 

2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 421 

2505 Shear Wall Construction 422 

2506 Gypsum Board Materials 422 

2507 Lathing and Plastering 422 

2508 Gypsum Construction 423 

2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and 

Water Closets 424 

2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement 

Plaster (Stucco) 424 

251 1 Interior Plaster 425 

2512 Exterior Plaster 425 

2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 426 

CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 431 

Section 

2601 General 431 

2602 Definitions 431 

2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 431 

2604 Interior Finish and Trim 434 

2605 Plastic Veneer 435 

2606 Light-transmitting Plastics 435 

2607 Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 436 

2608 Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing 437 

2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 437 

2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing . . 438 

261 1 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 439 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



2612 Fiber Reinforced Polymer and 

Fiberglass-reinforced Polymer 439 

2613 Reflective Plastic Core Insulation 440 

CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 443 

Section 

2701 General 443 

2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 443 

CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 447 

Section 

2801 General 447 

CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 449 

Section 

2901 General 449 

CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND 

CONVEYING SYSTEMS 30 

Section 

3001 General 30 

3002 Hoistway Enclosures 30 

3003 Emergency Operations 456 

3004 Hoistway Venting 457 

3005 Conveying Systems 457 

3006 Machine Rooms 458 

3007 Fire Service Access Elevator 458 

3008 Occupant Evacuation Elevators 459 

3009 Special Requirements for Elevators 

in Hospitals 460 

CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 465 

Section 

3101 General 465 

3102 Membrane Structures 465 

3103 Temporary Structures 466 

3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 466 

3105 Awnings and Canopies 467 

3106 Marquees 468 

3107 Signs 468 

3 108 Telecommunication and Broadcast Towers . . . 468 

3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and 

Safety Devices 468 

3110 Automatic Vehicular Gates 472 

xxix 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 31A RESERVED 



473 



CHAPTER 31B PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS ... 477 

Section 

3101B Scope 477 

3102B Definitions 477 

3103B Special Pool Classifications 478 

3104B Accessibility to the Physically 

Handicapped Person 478 

3105B Alternate Equipment, Materials and 

Methods of Construction 478 

3106B Pool Construction 478 

3107B Additional Requirements for a 

Temporary Training Pool 479 

3108B Pool Geometry 479 

3109B Permanent Markings 479 

31 lOB Steps, Recessed Steps, Ladders and 

Recessed Stairs (Treads) 482 

3111B Handholds 483 

3112B Diving Boards 483 

3113B Pool Decks 483 

3114B Pool Lighting 483 

3115B Bathhouse Dressing, 

Shower and Toilet Facilities 484 

31 16B Drinking Fountains 484 

3117B Hose Bibbs 484 

31 18B Enclosure of Pool Area 484 

3119B Signs 485 

3120B Indoor Pool Ventilation 487 

3121B Foundations For Pool Equipment 487 

3122B Gas Chlorination Equipment Room 487 

3123B General Requirements 487 

3124B Turnover Time 487 

3125B Recirculation Piping System and 

Components 487 

3126B Recirculation Pump Capacity 488 

3127B Water Supply Inlets 488 

3128B Filters (All Types) 488 

3129B Rapid Sand Pressure Filters 488 

3130B Diatomaceous Earth Filters 489 

3131B High-rate Sand Filters 489 

3132B Chemical Feeders 489 

3133B Disinfectant Feeders 489 

3134B Pool Fittings 490 

3135B Spa Pool Special Requirements 491 

3136B Cleaning Systems 491 

XXX 



3137B Waste Water Disposal 491 

3138B Reserved 491 

3139B Reserved 491 

3140B Reserved 491 

3141B Reserved 491 

3142B Reserved 491 

3143B Reserved 491 

3144B Reserved 491 

3145B Reserved 491 

3146B Reserved 492 

3147B Reserved 492 

3148B Reserved 492 

3149B Reserved 492 

3150B Reserved 492 

3151B Reserved 492 

3152B Reserved 492 

3153B Reserved 492 

3154B Reserved 492 

3155B Reserved 492 

3156B Reserved 492 

3157B Reserved 492 

3158B Reserved 492 

3159B Reserved 492 

3160B 492 

3161B 492 

3162B Anti-Entrapment Devices and Systems 493 

CHAPTER 31C RADIATION 499 

Section 

3101C Scope 499 

3102C Radiation Shielding Barriers 499 

3 103C Medical Radiographic and 

Photofluorographic Installations 499 

3104C Medical Therapeutic X-ray Installations 499 

CHAPTER 31D FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS 503 

Section 

3101D Scope 503 

3102D Definitions 503 

3103B Building and Structures 503 

CHAPTER 31E RESERVED 505 

CHAPTER 31F MARINE OIL TERMINALS 509 

Section 

3101F Introduction 509 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3102F Audit and Inspection 510 

3103F Structural Loading Criteria 521 

3104F Seismic Analysis and 

Structural Performance 536 

3 1 05F Mooring and Berthing 

Analysis and Design 543 

3106F Geotechnical Hazards and Foundations 548 

3107F Structural Analysis and 

Design of Components 552 

3108F Fire Prevention, Detection and Suppression. . 566 

3109F Piping and Pipelines 570 

31 lOF Mechanical and Electrical Equipment 573 

3111F Electrical Systems 576 

CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE 

PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY 581 

Section 

3201 General 581 

3202 Encroachments 581 

CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING 

CONSTRUCTION 585 

Section 

3301 General 585 

3302 Construction Safeguards 585 

3303 Demolition 585 

3304 Site Work 585 

3305 Sanitary 585 

3306 Protection of Pedestrians 586 

3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 587 

3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and 

Public Property 587 

3309 Fire Extinguishers 587 

3310 Means of Egress 588 

3311 Standpipes 588 

3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 588 

CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 591 

Section 

3401 General 591 

3402 Definitions 592 

3403 Additions 593 

3404 Alterations 593 

3405 Repairs 594 

3406 Fire Escapes 596 

3407 Glass Replacement 596 

3408 Change of Occupancy 596 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



3409 Historic Buildings 597 

3410 Moved Structures 597 

3411 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 597 

3412 Compliance Alternatives 599 

3413 Existing Group R-1 and Group R-2 

Occupancies [SFM] 608 

3414 Existing High-Rise Buildings [SFM] 611 

3415 Existing Group I Occupancies [SFM] 613 

3416 Existing Group L Occupancies [SFM] 614 

3417 Earthquake Evaluation and Design for 

Retrofit of Existing Buildings 614 

3418 Definitions. 617 

3419 Seismic Criteria Selectionfor 

Existing Buildings 618 

3420 Method A 621 

3421 Method B 621 

3422 Peer Review Requirements 622 

3423 Additional Requirements for Public 

Schools and Community Colleges 623 

CHAPTER 34A EXISTING STRUCTURES 627 

Section 

3401A General 627 

3402A Definitions 627 

3403 A Additions 628 

3404A Alterations 629 

3405A Repairs 630 

3406A Fire Escapes 631 

3407A Glass Replacement 631 

3408A Change of Occupancy 631 

3409A Historic Buildings 632 

3410A Moved Structures 632 

341 1 A Additions, Alterations, Repairs and 

Seismic Retrofit to Existing Buildings 
or Structures Designed in Accordance 
with Pre- 1973 Building Code 632 

3412A Compliance Alternatives for Additions, 
Alterations, Repairs and Seismic 
Retrofit to Existing Structures 632 

3413A Modifications to ASCE 41 634 

3414A Peer Review Requirements 636 

34 15 A Earthquake Monitoring Instruments 

for Existing Buildings 637 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS 641 

APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE 

QUALIFICATIONS 671 

Section 

A 101 Building Official Qualifications 671 

A102 Referenced Standards 671 

APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS 675 

Section 

BlOl General 675 

APPENDIX C GROUP U— AGRICULTURAL 

BUILDINGS 679 

Section 

ClOl General 679 

C102 Allowable Height and Area 679 

C103 Mixed Occupancies 679 

C104 Exits 679 

APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS 683 

Section 

DlOl General 683 

D102 Building Restrictions 683 

D103 Changes to Buildings 684 

D104 Buildings Located Partially in the 

Fire District 684 

D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District . . . 684 

D106 Referenced Standards 685 

APPENDIX E RESERVED 689 

APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING 693 

Section 

FlOl General 693 

APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT 

CONSTRUCTION 697 

Section 

GlOl Administration 697 

G102 Applicability 697 

G103 Powers and Duties 697 

G104 Permits 698 

G105 Variances 698 

G201 Definitions 699 

G301 Subdivisions 700 

G401 Site Improvement 700 

xxxii 



G501 Manufactured Homes 700 

G601 Recreational Vehicles 700 

G701 Tanks 701 

G801 Other Building Work 701 

G901 Temporary Structures and 

Temporary Storage 701 

GlOOl Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 701 

Gl 101 Referenced Standards 702 

APPENDIX H SIGNS 705 

Section 

HlOl General 705 

H102 Definitions 705 

H103 Location 705 

H104 Identification 705 

H105 Design and Construction 706 

H106 Electrical 706 

H107 Combustible Materials 706 

H108 Animated Devices 706 

H109 Ground Signs 706 

HllO Roof Signs 707 

Hill Wall Signs 707 

H112 Projecting Signs 707 

H113 Marquee Signs 708 

H114 Portable Signs 708 

H115 Referenced Standards 708 

APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS 711 

Section 

1101 General 711 

1102 Definitions 711 

1103 Exterior Openings 711 

1104 Structural Provisions 711 

APPENDIX J GRADING 715 

Section 

JlOl General 715 

J102 Definitions 715 

J103 Permits Required 715 

J 104 Permit Application and Submittals 715 

J105 Inspections 716 

J106 Excavations 716 

J107 Fills 719 

J108 Setbacks 721 

J109 Drainage and Terracing 721 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Jl 10 Erosion Control 721 

Jl 1 1 Referenced Standards 721 

APPENDIX K ADMINISTRATIVE 

PROVISIONS 723 

Section 

KlOl Scope 723 

K102 Definitions 723 

K103 Structural Stability 724 

K104 Evacuation Locations 724 

K105 Space within the Building 724 

K106 Decks and Balconies That are 

Evacuation Locations 724 

K107 Rooftop Evacuation Locations 727 

K108 Attics That are Evacuation Locations 727 

K109 Alternate Means of Protection 727 

INDEX 691 

HISTORY NOTE 731 



201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE xxxili 



xxxiv 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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X 

















2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 1 - SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 








































Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 








































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 




X 


X 


X 


Chapter/Section 








































Division W-cont'd 








































105.2 Building: 1 -13 






X 


X 
































105.2.1 -105.2.2 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















105,2.3 


















X 


X 


X 


X 
















105.3-105.3.1 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















105.3.2 


















X 


X 




X 
















105.4 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















105.5 


















X 


X 


X 


X 
















105.6-105.7 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















106.1 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















106.1.1 














X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 
















106.1.2 


















X 


X 




X 
















106.2-106.3 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















107.1 -107.3 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















107.3.4.2 


















X 


X 




X 
















107.4 




X 














X 


X 




X 
















107.5 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















108.1 -108.4 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















109 


















X 


X 


X 


X 
















110.1 -110.3 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















110.3.1-110.3.3 






X 


X 










X 


X 


X 


X 
















110.3.4-110.3.6 




X 


X 


X 










X 


X 


X 


X 
















110.3.8-110.3.10 




X 


X 


X 










X 


X 


X 


X 
















110.4-110.6 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















111.1 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















111.2 




X 








X 






X 


X 


X 


X 
















111.3-111.4 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















112 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















113 


















X 


X 


X 


X 
















114.1 -114.2 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 
















114.2-114.3 


















X 


X 


X 


X 
















115-116 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 

















2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 1 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 

DIVISION I 
CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION 



M 



d 



SECTION 1.1 
GENERAL 

1.1.1 Title, These regulations shall be known as the California 
Building Code, may be cited as such and will be referred to 
herein as '*this code." The California Building Code is Part 2 of 
twelve parts of the official compilation and publication of the 
adoption amendment and repeal of building regulations to the 
California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the 
California Building Standards Code. This part incorporates by 
adoption the 2009 International Building Code of the Interna- 
tional Code Council with necessary California amendments. 

1.1.2 Purpose, The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and 
general welfare through structural strength, means of egress 
facilities, stability, access to persons with disabilities, sanita- 
tion, adequate lighting and ventilation and energy conservation; 
safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed 
to the built environment; and to provide safety to fire fighters and 
emergency responders during emergency operations. 

1.1.3 Scope* The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or 
structures throughout the State of California. 

L 1.3,1 Nonstate-regulated buildings, structures and 
applications. Except as modified by local ordinance pursu- 
ant to Section LI. 8, the following standards in the Califor- 
nia Code of Regulations, Title 24, Parts 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 
10 and 11 shall apply to all occupancies and applications 
not regulated by a state agency. 

1.1.3.2 State-regulated buildings, structures and applica- 
tions. The model code, state amendments to the model code, 
and/or state amendments where there are no relevant model 
code provisions shall apply to the following buildings, 
structures, and applications regulated by state agencies as 
referenced in the Matrix Adoption Tables and as specified in 
Sections 1.2 through 1.14, except where modified by local 
ordinance pursuant to Section LI. 8. When adopted by a 
state agency, the provisions of this code shall be enforced by 
the appropriate enforcing agency, but only to the extent of 
authority granted to such agency by the state legislature. 

Note: See Preface to distinguish the model code provi- 
sions from the California provisions. 

1. State -owned buildings, including buildings con- 
structed by the Trustees of the California State 
University, and to the extent permitted by Cali- 
fornia laws, buildings designed and constructed 
by the Regents of the University of California, 



and regulated by the Building Standards Com- 
mission. See Section L2 for additional scope \ \ 
provisions. 

2. Local detention facilities regulated by the Cor- 
rections Standards Authority. See Section 1.3 for I I 
additional scope provisions. 

3. Barbering, cosmetology or electrolysis estab- 
lishments, acupuncture offices, pharmacies, vet- 
erinary facilities and structural pest control 
locations regulated by the Department of Con- 
sumer Affairs. See Section 1.4 for additional I I 
scope provisions. 

4. Energy efficiency standards regulated by the 
California Energy Commission. See Section 1.5 II 
for additional scope provisions. 

5. Dairies and places of meat inspection regulated 
by the Department of Food and Agriculture. See 
Section 1.6 for additional scope provisions. I I 

6. Organized camps, laboratory animal quarters, 
public swimming pools, radiation protection, 
commissaries serving mobile food preparation 
vehicles and wild animal quarantine facilities 
regulated by the Department of Public Health. I I 
See Section 1. 7 for additional scope provisions. I I 

7. Hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment 
houses, dwellings, dormitories, condominiums, 
shelters for homeless persons, congregate resi- 
dences, employee housing, factory-built housing 
and other types of dwellings containing sleeping 
accommodations with or without common toilets 

or cooking facilities. See Section 1.8.2.1.1 for I I 
additional scope provisions. 

8. Accommodations for persons with disabilities in 
buildings containing newly constructed covered 
multifamily dwellings, new common use spaces 
serving existing covered multifamily dwellings, 
additions to existing buildings where the addi- 
tion alone meets the definition of "COVERED 
MULTIFAMILY DWELLING, " and common- 
use spaces serving covered multifamily dwell- 
ings, which are regulated by the Department of 
Housing and Community Development. See Sec- 
tion L8.2. 1.2 for additional scope provisions. 

9. Permanent buildings and permanent accessory 
buildings or structures constructed within 
mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks 
regulated by the Department of Housing and 
Community Development. See Section 1.8.2.1.3 
for additional scope provisions. 



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10. Accommodations for persons with disabilities 
regulated by the Division of the State Architect 
See Section 1.9.1 for additional scope provi- 
sions. 

11. Public elementary and secondary schools, com- 
munity college buildings and state-owned or 
state-leased essential service buildings regu- 
lated by the Division of the State Architect. See 
Section 1.9.2 for additional scope provisions. 

12. Qualified historical buildings and structures and 
their associated sites regulated by the State His- 
torical Building Safety Board with the Division 
of the State Architect See Section 1.9.3 for addi- 
tional scope provisions. 

13. General acute care hospitals, acute psychiatric 
hospitals, skilled nursing and/or intermediate 
care facilities, clinics licensed by the Department 
of Public Health and correctional treatment cen- 
ters regulated by the Office of Statewide Health 
Planning and Development. See Section 1.10 for 
additional scope provisions. 

14. Applications regulated by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal include, but are not limited to, the 
following in accordance with Section 1.11: 

14.1 , Buildings or structures used or intended 
for use as an: 

1. Asylum, jail, prison 

2. Mental hospital, hospital, home for 
the elderly, children's nursery, 
children's home or institution, 
school or any similar occupancy of 
any capacity 

3. Theater, dancehall, skating rink, 
auditorium, assembly hall, meet- 
ing hall, nightclub, fair building or 
similar place of assemblage where 
50 or more persons may gather 
together in a building, room or 
structure for the purpose of amuse- 
ment, entertainment, instruction, 
deliberation, worship, drinking or 
dining, awaiting transportation, or 
education 

4. Small family day-care homes, 
large family day-care homes, resi- 
dential facilities and residential 
facilities for the elderly, residential 
care facilities 

5. State institutions or other state- 
owned or state-occupied buildings 

6. High rise structures 

7. Motion picture production studios 

8. Organized camps 

9. Residential structures 



14.2. Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures 
used in connection with any occupancy 

14.3. Fire alarm devices, equipment and sys- 
tems in connection with any occupancy 

14.4. Hazardous materials, flammable and 
combustible liquids 

14.5. Public school automatic fire detection, 
alarm and sprinkler systems 

14.6. Wildland-urban interface fire areas 

1 5. Public libraries constructed and renovated using 
funds from the California Library Construction 
and Renovation Bond Act of 1988 and regulated 
by the State Librarian. See Section 1.12 for addi- 
tional scope provisions. 

1 6. Graywater systems regulated by the Department 
of Water Resources. See Section 1.13 for addi- 
tional scope provisions. 

17. For applications listed in Section 1.9.1 regulated 
by the Division of the State Architect— Access 
Compliance, outdoor environments and uses 
shall be classified according to accessibility uses 
described in Chapters 11 A, IIB and IIC. 

18. Marine Oil Terminals regulated by the Califor- 
nia State Lands Commission. See Section 1.14 
for additional scope provisions. 

L1.4 Appendices. Provisions contained in the appendices of 
this code shall not apply unless specifically adopted by a state 
agency or adopted by a local enforcing agency in compliance 
with Health and Safety Code Section 18901 et seq. for Build- 
ing Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 1 7950 for 
State Housing Law and Health and Safety Code Section 
13869.7 for Fire Protection Districts. See Section 1.1.8 of this 
code. 

1.L5 Referenced codes. The codes, standards and publica- 
tions adopted and set forth in this code, including other codes, 
standards and publications referred to therein are, by title and 
date of publication, hereby adopted as standard reference doc- 
uments of this code. When this code does not specifically cover 
any subject related to building design and construction, recog- 
nized architectural or engineering practices shall be 
employed. The National Fire Codes, standards, and the Fire 
Protection Handbook of the National Fire Protection Associa- 
tion are permitted to be used as authoritative guides in deter- 
mining recognized fire prevention engineering practices. 

1.1.6 Nonbuilding standards, orders and regulations. 

Requirements contained in the International Building Code, or 
in any other referenced standard, code or document, which are 
not building standards as defined in Health and Safety Code 
Section 18909, shall not be construed as part of the provisions 
of this code. For nonbuilding standards, orders and regula- 
tions, see other titles of the California Code of Regulations. 

1.1.7 Order of precedence and use, 

1,1,7,1 Differences, In the event of any differences between 
these building standards and the standard reference docu- 
ments, the text of these building standards shall govern. 



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2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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1.1.7.2 Specific provisions. Where a specific provision var- 
ies from a general provision, the specific provision shall 
apply. 

1.1.7.3 Conflicts, When the requirements of this code con- 
flict with the requirements of any other part of the California 
Building Standards Code, Title 24, the most restrictive 
requirements shall prevail. 

1.1.8 City, county or city and county amendments, additions 
or deletions. The provisions of this code do not limit the author- 
ity of city, county, or city and county governments to establish 
more restrictive and reasonably necessary differences to the 
provisions contained in this code pursuant to complying with 
Section 1.1.8.1. The effective date of amendments, additions or 
deletions to this code by a city, county, or a city and county filed 
pursuant to Section 1.1.8.1 shall be the date filed. However, in 
no case shall the amendments, additions or deletions to this 
code be efi'ective any sooner than the effective date of this code. 

Local modifications shall comply with Health and Safety 
Code Section 18941,5 for Building Standards Law, Health and 
Safety Code Section 17958 for State Housing Law or Health 
and Safety Code Section 13869. 7 for Fire Protection Districts. 

1.1.8.1 Findings and filings, 

L The city, county, or city and county shall make 
express findings for each amendment, addition or 
deletion based upon climatic, topographical or geo- 
logical conditions. 

Exception: Hazardous building ordinances and 
programs mitigating unreinforced masonry build- 
ings. 

2. The city, county, or city and county shall file the 
amendments, additions or deletions expressly marked 
and identified as to the applicable findings. Cities, 
counties, cities and counties, and fire departments 
shall file the amendments, additions or deletions, and 
the findings with the California Building Standards 
Commission at 2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130, 
Sacramento, CA 95833. 

3, Findings prepared by fire protection districts shall be 
ratified by the local city, county or city and county and 
filed with the California Department of Housing and 
Community Development, Division of Codes and 
Standards, P.O. Box 1407, Sacramento, CA 
95812-1407 or 1800 3rd Street, Room 260, Sacra- 
mento, CA 95811. 

1.1.9 Effective date of this code. Only those standards 
approved by the California Building Standards Commission 
that are effective at the time an application for building permit 
is submitted shall apply to the plans and specifications for, and 
to the construction performed under, that permit. For the effec- 
tive dates of the provisions contained in this code, see the His- 
tory Note page of this code. 

1.1.10 Availability of codes. At least one complete copy each of 
Titles 8, 19, 20, 24 and 25 with all revisions shall be maintained 
in the office of the building official responsible for the adminis- 
tration and enforcement of this code. Each state department 
concerned and each city, county, or city and county shall have 



an up-to-date copy of the code available for public inspection. 
See Health and Safety Code Section 18942(d)(1) and (2), 

1.1.11 Format, This part fundamentally adopts the Interna- 
tional Building Code by reference on a chapter-by -chapter 
basis. Such adoption is reflected in the Matrix Adoption Table 
of each chapter of this part. When the Matrix Adoption Tables 
make no reference to a specific chapter of the International 
Building Code such chapter of the International Building Code 
is not adopted as a portion of this code. 

1.1.12 Validity, If any chapter, section, subsection, sentence, 
clause or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be uncon- 
stitutional, contrary to statute, exceeding the authority of the 
state as stipulated by statutes or otherwise inoperative, such 
decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portion of 
this code. 



SECTION 1.2 
BUILDING STANDARDS COMMISSION 

1,2,1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated, 

1. State buildings for all occupancies. 

Application — State buildings (all occupancies), 
including buildings constructed by the Trustees of the 
California State University and the Regents of the 
University of California where no state agency has 
the authority to adopt building standards applicable 
to such buildings. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 
18934,6. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 2.5, commencing with Section 18901. 

2. University of California, California State Universities 
and California Community Colleges, 

Application — Standards for lighting for parking lots 
and primary campus walkways at the University of 
California, California State Universities and Califor- 
nia Community Colleges. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Government Code Section 14617. 

Reference — Government Code Section 14617, 

3. Existing state-owned buildings, including those owned 
by the University of California and by the California 
State University, 

Application — Building seismic retrofit standards 
including abating falling hazards of structural and 
nonstructural components and strengthening of build- 
ing structures. See also Division of the State Architect. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 
16600. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 16600 
through 16604. 

4, Unreinforced masonry-bearing wall buildings. 

Application — Minimum seismic strengthening stan- 
dards for buildings specified in Appendix Chapter A 1 
of the California Existing Building Code, except for 
buildings subject to building standards adopted pur- 
suant to Health and Safety Code (commencing) with 
Section 17910. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 
18934.6. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 18901 
through 18949. 

1.2.1.1 State building. For purposes of this code, a "state 
building " is a structure for which a state agency or state 
entity has authority to construct, alter, enlarge, replace, 
repair or demolish. 

1.2.1.2 Enforcement. [CSU, UC, Judicial Council and 
CDCR] State agencies or state entities authorized to con- 
struct state buildings may appoint a building official who is 
responsible to the agency for enforcement of the provisions 
of the California Building Standards Code. 

Exception: State buildings regulated by other sections of 
this code remain the enforcement responsibility of the 
designated entities. 

1.2.1.3 Enforcement. Reserved for DGS. 

1.2.2 Alternative materials, design and methods of construc- 
tion and equipment. The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approved where the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, 
effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

1.2.2.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

1.2.2.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that 
a material or method does not conform to the requirements 
of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alterna- 
tive materials or methods, the building official shall have 
the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be 
made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be 



as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. 
In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the 
building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests 
shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such 
tests shall be retained by the building official for the period 
required for retention of public records. 

SECTION 1.3 
CORRECTIONS STANDARDS AUTHORITY 

1.3,1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Local detention facilities. 

Enforcing agency — Corrections Standards Authority. 

Authority cited — Penal Code Section 6030; Welfare and 
Institutions Code Sections 207.1, 210 and 885. 

Reference — Penal Code Section 6030; Welfare and Institu- 
tions Code Sections 207.1, 210 and 885. 



SECTION 1A 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS 

1.4.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

1. Board ofBarbering and Cosmetology. 

Application — Any establishment or mobile unit 
where barbering, cosmetology or electrolysis is being 
performed. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 7312. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
7303, 7303.1, 7312 and 7313. 

2. Acupuncture Board. 

Application — Acupuncture ofiices. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 4933. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
4928, 4928.1 and 4933. 

3. Board of Pharmacy. 

Application — Pharmacies. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 4005. 



m 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
4005,4127.7 and 4201. 

Veterinary Medical Board, 

Application — Veterinary facilities. 

Enforcing agency — State or local agency specified 
by the applicable provisions of law. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 4808. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
4800, 4800.1, 4808 and 4809 J. 

Structural Pest Control Board, 

Application — structural pest control locations. 

Enforcing agency — Structural Pest Control Board. 

Authority cited — Business and Professions Code 
Section 8525. 

Reference — Business and Professions Code Sections 
8520, 8520.1 and 8525. 



Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 1660, 
18897.2, 110065, 112165, 113710, 114304, 115061, < 
116050, 121795 and 131200. I I 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 1650, 
1660, 18897.2, 18897.4, 18897.7, 100150, 110065, < 
113705, 113710, 114825, 114965, 115061, 116050, 
116503, 112165, 121795 and 131200. I I 



SECTION 1.8 

DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING 

AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT 

1,8 J Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements necessary to protect the health, safety and 
general welfare of the occupants and the public by governing 
accessibility, erection, construction, reconstruction, enlarge- I I 
ment, conversion, alteration, repair, moving, removal, demoli- 
tion, occupancy, use, height, court, area, sanitation, 
ventilation, maintenance and safety to life and property from \ \ 
fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment. 



SECTION 1.5 
Reserved 



SECTION 1.6 
DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 

1.6.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Dairies and places of meat and poultry 
inspection. 

Enforcing agency — Department of Food and Agriculture. 

Authority cited — Food and Agricultural Code Sections 
18735, 18960, 19384, 33481 and 33731. 

Reference — Food and Agricultural Code Sections 18735, 
18960, 19384, 33481 and 33731. 



SECTION 1.7 
CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH 

1,7,1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

California Department of Public Health 

Application — Organized camps, laboratory animal 
quarters, public swimming pools, radiation protection 
and producing facilities, commissaries serving mobile 
food preparation vehicles, wild animal quarantine facili- 
ties, shellfish facilities and food establishments. 

Enforcing agency — The California Department of Pub- 
lic Health and the local health agencies. 



SECTION 1.8.2 
AUTHORITY AND ABBREVIATIONS 

1.8.2,1 General. The Department of Housing and Commu- 
nity Development is authorized by law to promulgate and 
adopt building standards and regulations for several types 
of building applications. These applications are grouped 
and identified by abbreviation in the Matrix Adoption 
Tables to show which model code sections and amendments 
are applicable to each application. The applications under 
the authority of the Department of Housing and Community 
Development are listed in Sections 1.8,2.1.1 through 
1.8.2.13. 

Note: See the California Residential Code for detached 
one- and two family dwellings and townhouses. 

1.8.2.1.1 Housing construction. Application-Hotels, 
motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, 
dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless per- 
sons, congregate residences, employee housing, fac- 
tory-built housing and other types of dwellings 
containing sleeping accommodations with or without 
common toilet or cooking facilities including accessory 
buildings, facilities, and uses thereto. Sections of this 
code which pertain to applications listed in this section 
are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the 
abbreviation "HCD 1." 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
the Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 
17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 
17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 
18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 
18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 
18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; 
and Government Code Section 12955.1. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 
through 17062,5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 
through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and Sections 
19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sec- 
tions 12955,1 and 12955,1.1. 

1,8,2,1,2 Housing accessibility. Application - Covered 
I I multifamily dwellings as defined in Chapter llA includ- 

ing, but .not limited to, lodging houses, dormitories, 
timeshares, condominiums, shelters for homeless per- 
sons, congregate residences, apartment houses, dwell- 
ings, employee housing, factory-built housing and other 
types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations 
with or without common toilet or cooking facilities. 

Sections of this code identified in the Matrix Adoption 
Table by the abbreviation ''HCD 1-AC" require specific 
I I accommodations for ''Persons with disabilities" as 

defined in Chapter HA. The application of such provi- 
sions shall be in conjunction with other requirements of 
* I this code and apply only to newly constructed ''Covered 

I multifamily dwellings " as defined in Chapter llA of the 

California Building Code. "HCD 1-AC" applications 
include, but are not limited to, the following: 

L All newly constructed "Covered multifamily 
dwellings" as defined in Chapter 11 A. 

2. New "Common use areas" as defined in Chapter 
HA serving existing covered multifamily dwell- 
ings. 

3. Additions to existing buildings, where the addition 
alone meets the definition of "Covered multifamily 

I I dwellings" as defined in Chapter HA. 

4. Common use areas serving covered multifamily 
dwellings. 

5. Where any portion of a building 's exterior is pre- 
served, but the interior of the building is removed, 
including all structural portions of floors and ceil- 
ings, the building is considered a new building for 
determining the application of Chapter HA, 

''HCD 1-AC" building standards generally do not 
apply to public use areas or public accommodations 
such as hotels and motels. Public use areas, public 
accommodations and housing which is publicly funded 

> as defined in Chapter 2 of this code are subject to the 

Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) and are refer- 

I I enced in Section 1,9,1, 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
the Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment, 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921,6, 
17921.10, 17922; 17922.6, 17922,12, 17927, 17928, 
17959,6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 
18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871,3, 
18871,4, 18873, 18873,1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 
18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; 
and Government Code Section 12955. L 



Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 
through 17062,5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 
through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and 19960 
through 19997; and Government Code Sections 
12955,1 and 12955,1.1, 

1,8,2.1,3 Permanent buildings in mobilehome parks 
and special occupancy parks, Application-Permanent 
buildings, and permanent accessory buildings or struc- 
tures, constructed within mobilehome parks and special 
occupancy parks that are under the control and ownership 
of the park operator. Sections of this code which pertain to 
applications listed in this section are identified in the 
Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation "HCD 2," 

Enforcing agency — Local building department or 
other local agency responsible for the enforcement of 
Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.1 com- 
mencing with Section 18200 for mobilehome parks 
and Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.3 
commencing with Section 18860 for special occu- 
pancy parks or the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 
17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 
17821.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922,12, 17927, 17928, 
17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 
18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871,3, 
18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 
18873,4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; 
and Government Code Section 12955.1. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 
through 17062,5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 
through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and 19960 
through 19997; and Government Code Sections 
12955.1 and 12955.1,1. 



SECTION 1.8.3 
LOCAL ENFORCING AGENCY 

1,8.3,1 Duties and powers. The building department of 
every city, county or city and county shall enforce all the 
provisions of law, this code, and the other rules and regula- 
tions promulgated by the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development pertaining to the installation, erection, 
construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, con- \ \ 
version, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or arrange- 
ment of apartment houses, hotels, motels, lodging houses \ \ 
and dwellings, including accessory buildings, facilities and 
uses thereto. 

The provisions regulating the erection and construction 
of dwellings and appurtenant structures shall not apply to 
existing structures as to which construction is commenced 
or approved prior to the effective date of these regulations. 
Requirements relating to use, maintenance and occupancy 
shall apply to all dwellings and appurtenant structures 
approved for construction or constructed before or after the 
effective date of this code. 

For additional information regarding the use and occu- 
pancy of existing buildings and appurtenant structures, see 



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California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chap- 
ter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Article 1, Section 1. 

1.8,3.2 LawSy rules and regulations. Other than the build- 
ing standards contained in this code, and notwithstanding 
other provisions of law, the statutory authority and location 
of the laws, rules and regulations to be enforced by local 
enforcing agencies are listed by statute in Sections 1.8.3. 2 A 
through 1.8.3.2.5 below: 

1.8.3.2.1 State Housing Law. Refer to the State Housing 
Law, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 1.5 commencing with Section 17910 and California 
Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1, for the erec- 
tion, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlarge- 
ment, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition 
or arrangement of apartment houses, hotels, motels, 
lodging houses and dwellings, including accessory 
buildings, facilities and uses thereto, 

1.8.3.2.2 Mobilehome Parks Act. Refer to the 
Mobilehome Parks Act, California Health and Safety 
Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 
18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Divi- 
sion 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000 for 
mobilehome park administrative and enforcement 
authority, permits, plans, fees, violations, inspections and 
penalties both within and outside mobilehome parks. 

Exception: Mobilehome parks where the Department 
of Housing and Community Development is the 
enforcing agency. 

1.8.3.2.3 Special Occupancy Parks Act. Refer to the 
Special Occupancy Parks Act, California Health and 
Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with 
Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 
25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 
2000 for special occupancy park administrative and 
enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspec- 
tions and penalties both within and outside of special 
occupancy parks. 

Exception: Special occupancy parks where the 
Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment is the enforcing agency. 

1.8.3.2.4 Employee Housing Act. Refer to the Employee 
Housing Act, California Health and Safety Code, Divi- 
sion 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and 
California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, 
Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600 
for employee housing administrative and enforcement 
authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections and pen- 
alties. 

108.3.2.5 Factory-Built Housing Law. Refer to the Fac- 
tory-Built Housing Law, California Health and Safety 
Code, Division 13, Part 6 commencing with Section 
19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, 
Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with 
Section 3000 for factory-built housing administrative 
and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, 
inspections and penalties. 



SECTION 1.8.4 

PERMITS, FEES, 

APPLICATIONS AND INSPECTIONS 

1.8.4.1 Permits. A written construction permit shall be 
obtained from the enforcing agency prior to the erection, 
construction, reconstruction, installation, moving or alter- 
ation of any building or structure. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Work exempt from permits as specified in Chapter 

1, Administration, Division II, Section 105.2, I I 

2. Changes, alterations or repairs of a minor nature 
not affecting structural features, egress, sanita- 
tion, safety or accessibility as determined by the 
enforcing agency. 

Exemptions from permit requirements shall not be deemed 
to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner 
in violation of other provisions of law or this code. 

1.8.4.2 Fees. Subject to other provisions of law, the govern- 
ing body of any city, county or city and county may prescribe 
fees to defray the cost of enforcement of rules and regula- 
tions promulgated by the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development The . amount of the fees shall not 
exceed the amount reasonably necessary to administer or 
process permits, certificates, forms or other documents, or 
to defray the costs of enforcement For additional informa- 
tion, see the State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code, 
Division 13, Part 1.5, Section 17951 and California Code of 
Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, 
Article 3, commencing with Section 6. 

1.8.4.3 Plan review and time limitations. Subject to other 
provisions of law, provisions related to plan checking, pro- 
hibition of excessive delays and contracting with or employ- 
ment of private parties to perform plan checking are set 
forth in the State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code Sec- 
tion 17960.1, and for employee housing, in Health and 
Safety Code Section 17021. 

1.8.4.3.1 Retention of plans. The building department of 
every city, county or city and county shall maintain an 
official copy, microfilm, electronic or other type of photo- 
graphic copy of the plans of every building, during the 
life of the building, for which the department issued a 
building permit. 

Exceptions: 

1. Single or multiple dwellings not more than two 
stories and basement in height. 

2. Garages and other structures appurtenant to 
buildings listed in Exception 1. 

3. Farm or ranch buildings appurtenant to build- 
ings listed in Exception 1. 

4. Any one-story building where the span between 
bearing walls does not exceed 25 feet (7620 
mm), except a steel frame or concrete building. 

All plans for common interest developments as defined 
in Section 1351 of the California Civil Code shall be 
retained. For additional information regarding plan 



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retention and reproduction of plans by an enforcing 
agency, see Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 
I I through 19852, 

1,8,4,4 Inspections, Construction or work for which a per- 
mit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building 
official and such construction or work shall remain accessi- 
ble and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. 
Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed 
to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code 
or other regulations of the Department of Housing and 
Community Development. Required inspections are listed 

I in Chapter 1, Administration, Division //, Sections 110.3,1 
through 110.3.6, 110.3.8, 110.3.9 and 110.3,10. 



SECTION 1.8.5 
RIGHT-OF-ENTRY FOR ENFORCEMENT 

1,8.5,1 General Subject to other provisions of law, officers 
and agents of the enforcing agency may enter and inspect 
public and private properties to secure compliance with the 
rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of 
Housing and Community Development. For limitations and 
additional information regarding enforcement, see the foU 
lowing: 

1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as 
referenced in Section 1.8.3.2,1 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part L5, com- 
mencing with Section 17910 and California Code of 
Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1. 

2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks 
Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 
2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California 
Code of Regulations y Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, 
commencing with Section 1000. 

3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy 
Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and Cali- 
fornia Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, 
Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000. 

4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing 
Act as referenced in Section 1,8.3.2.4 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, 
commencing with Section 1 7000 and California Code 
of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600. 

5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Hous- 
ing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and Califor- 
nia Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 
3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000. 



SECTION 1.8.6 

LOCAL MODIFICATION BY 

ORDINANCE OR REGULATION 

1.8.6.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, a city, 
county or city and county may make changes to the 
provisions adopted by the Department of Housing and 
Community Development, If any city, county or city and 
county does not amend, add or repeal by local ordinances 
or regulations the provisions published in this code or other 
regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and 
Community Development, those provisions shall be appli- 
cable and shall become effective 180 days after publication 
by the California Building Standards Commission, Amend- 
ments, additions and deletions to this code adopted by a city, 
county or city and county pursuant to California Health and 
Safety Code Sections 17958.5, 17958.7 and 18941.5, 
together with all applicable portions of this code, shall also 
become effective 180 days after publication of the Califor- 
nia Building Standards Code by the California Building 
Standards Commission. 

1.8.6.2 Findings, filings and rejections of local modifica- 
tions. Prior to making any modifications or establishing 
more restrictive building standards, the governing body 
shall make express findings and filings, as required by Cali- 
fornia Health and Safety Code Section 1 7958. 7, showing 
that such modifications are reasonably necessary due to 
local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. No 
modification shall become effective or operative unless the 
following requirements are met: 

1. The express findings shall be made available as a 
public record. 

2. A copy of the modification and express finding, each 
document marked to cross-reference the other, shall 
be filed with the California Building Standards Com- 
mission for a city, county, or city and county and with 
the Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment for fire protection districts. 

3. The California Building Standards Commission has 
not rejected the modification or change. 

Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of fire pro- 
tection districts pursuant to California Health and Safety 
Code Section 13869.7(a). 



SECTION L8.7 

ALTERNATE MATERIALS, DESIGNS, 

TESTS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION 

1.8,7,1 General. The provisions of this code, as adopted by 
the Department of Housing and Community Development 
are not intended to prevent the use of any alternate material, 
appliance, installation, device, arrangement, design or 
method of construction not specifically prescribed by this 
code. Consideration and approval of alternates shall com- 
ply with Section 1.8. 7.2 for local building departments and 
Section 1.8. 7.3 for the Department of Housing and Commu- 
nity Development 



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1.8.7.2 Local building departments. The building depart- 
ment of any city, county or city and county may approve 
alternates for use in the erection, construction, reconstruc- 
tion, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, 
repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of an apartment 
house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling or an acces- 
sory structure, except for the following: 

1. Structures located in mobilehome parks as defined in 
California Health and Safety Code Section 18214. 

2. Structures located in special occupancy parks as 
defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 
18862.43. 

3. Factory-built housing as defined in California Health 
and Safety Code Section 19971. 

1.8.7.2.1 Approval of alternates. The consideration and 
approval of alternates by a local building department 
shall comply with the following procedures and limita- 
tions: 

1. The approval shall be granted on a case-by-case 
basis. 

2. Evidence shall be submitted to substantiate claims 
that the proposed alternate, in performance, safety 
and protection of life and health, conforms to, or is 
at least equivalent to, the standards contained in 
this code and other rules and regulations promul- 
gated by the Department of Housing and Commu- 
nity Development. 

3. The local building department may require tests 
performed by an approved testing agency at the 
expense of the owner or owner's agent as proof of 
compliance. 

4. If the proposed alternate is related to accessibility 
in covered multifamily dwellings or in facilities 
serving "Covered multifamily dwellings" as 
defined in Chapter 11 A, the proposed alternate 
must also meet the threshold set for "Equivalent 
facilitation" as defined in Chapter 11 A. 

For additional information regarding approval of 
alternates by a building department pursuant to the State 
Housing Law, see California Health and Safety Code 
Section 17951(e) and California Code of Regulations, 
Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1. 

1.8.7.3 Department of Housing and Community Develop- 
ment. The Department of Housing and Community Devel- 
opment may approve alternates for use in the erection, 
construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, con- 
version, alteration, repair, removal or demolition of an 
apartment house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling or 
an accessory thereto. The consideration and approval of 
alternates shall comply with the following: 

1 . The department may require tests at the expense of the 
owner or owner's agent to substantiate compliance 
with the California Building Standards Code, 



2. The approved alternate shall, for its intended pur- 
pose, be at least equivalent in performance and safety 
to the materials, designs, tests or methods of con- 
struction prescribed by this code. 



SECTION L8.8 
APPEALS BOARD 

1.8.8.1 General. Every city, county or city and county shall 
establish a local appeals board and a housing appeals 
board. The local appeals board and housing appeals board 
shall each be comprised of at least five voting members that 
shall serve at the pleasure of the city, county or city and 
county. Appointees shall not be employees of the jurisdic- 
tion and shall be qualified and specifically knowledgeable 
in the California Building Standards Codes and applicable 
local ordinances. 

1.8.8.2 Definitions. The following terms shall for the pur- 
poses of this section have the meaning shown. 

HOUSING APPEALS BOARD. The board or agency of 
a city, county or city and county which is authorized by 
the governing body of the city, county or city and county 
to hear appeals regarding the requirements of the city, 
county or city and county relating to the use, mainte- 
nance and change of occupancy of buildings and struc- 
tures, including requirements governing alteration, 
additions, repair, demolition and moving. In any area in 
which there is no such board or agency, ''Housing 
appeals board'' means the local appeals board having 
jurisdiction over the area, 

LOCAL APPEALS BOARD. The board or agency of a 
city, county or city and county which is authorized by the 
governing body of the city, county or city and county to 
hear appeals regarding the building requirements of the 
city, county or city and county. In any area in which there 
is no such board or agency, ''Local appeals board" 
means the governing body of the city, county or city and 
county having jurisdiction over the area. 

1.8.8.3 Appeals. Except as otherwise provided in law, any 
person, firm or corporation adversely affected by a deci- 
sion, order or determination by a city, county or city and 
county relating to the application of building standards 
published in the California Building Standards Code, or 
any other applicable rule or regulation adopted by the 
Department of Housing and Community Development, or 
any lawfully enacted ordinance by a city, county or city and 
county, may appeal the issue for resolution to the local 
appeals board or housing appeals board as appropriate. 

The local appeals board shall hear appeals relating to 
new building construction and the housing appeals board 
shall hear appeals relating to existing buildings. 



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SECTION 1.8.9 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS OR STRUCTURES 

1,8,9 J Authority to enforce. Subject to other provisions of 
law, the administration, enforcement, actions, proceedings, 
abatement, violations and penalties for unsafe buildings 
and structures are contained in the following statutes and 
regulations: 

L For applications subject to the State Housing Law as 
referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, com- 
mencing with Section 17910 and California Code of 
Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1. 

2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks 
Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 
2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California 
Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, 
commencing with Section 1000. 

3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy 
Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and Cali- 
fornia Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, 
Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000. 

4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing 
Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, 
commencing with Section 1 7000 and California Code 
of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600. 

5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Hous- 
ing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 6, commencing with Sectionl9960 and Califor- 
nia Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 
3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000. 

1,8.9,2 Actions and proceedings. Subject to other provi- 
sions of law, punishments, penalties and fines for violations 
of building standards are contained in the following statutes 
and regulations: 

1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as 
referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code, refer to 
Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, com- 
mencing with Section 17910 and California Code of 
Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1. 

2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks 
Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 
2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California 
Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, 
commencing with Section 1000. 

3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy 
Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and Cali- 



fornia Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, 
Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000. 

4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing 
Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, 
refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, 
commencing with Section 17000 and California Code 
of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, 
Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600. 

5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Hous- 
ing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this 
code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, 
Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and Califor- 
nia Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 
3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000. 



SECTION 1.8.10 
OTHER BUILDING REGULATIONS 

1,8.10 A Existing structures. Subject to the requirements of 
California Health and Safety Code Sections 17912, 
179203, 17922, 17922.3, 17958.8 and 17958.9, the provi- 
sions contained in Chapter 34 relating to existing structures 
shall only apply as identified in the Matrix Adoption Table 
under the authority of the Department of Housing and Com- 
munity Development as listed in Sections 1.8.2. LI through 
1.8.2.1 .3 of this code. 

1.8.10.2 Moved structures. Subject to the requirements of 
California Health and Safety Code Sections 17922.3 and 
17958.9, the provisions contained in Chapter 34 relating to 
a moved residential structure shall only apply as identified 
in the Matrix Adoption Table under the authority of the 
Department of Housing and Community Development as 
listed in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 through 1.8.2.1.3 of this code. 



SECTION 1.9 
DIVISION OF THE STATE ARCHITECT 

1.9.1 Division of the State Architect — Access Compliance. 

General. The purpose of this code is to ensure that barrier-free 
design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site work and 
other improvements to which this code applies in compliance 
with state law to ensure that these improvements are accessible 
to and usable by persons with disabilities. Additions, alter- 
ations and structural repairs in all buildings and facilities shall 
comply with these provisions for new buildings, except as oth- 
erwise provided and specified herein. 

The provisions of these regulations shall apply to any porta- 
ble buildings leased or owned by a school district, and shall 
also apply to temporary and emergency buildings and facili- 
ties. Temporary buildings and facilities are not of permanent 
construction but are extensively used or are essential for public 
use for a period of time. Examples of temporary buildings or 
facilities covered include, but are not limited to: reviewing 
stands, temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, exhibit areas, 
temporary banking facilities, temporary health screening ser- 
vices or temporary safe pedestrian passageways around a con- 
struction site. 




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In addition, to incorporate standards at least as restrictive 
as those required by the federal government for barrier-free 
design under (1) Title III (Public Accommodations and Com- 
mercial Facilities), Subpart D (New Construction and Alter- 
ation) and Appendix A (Americans with Disabilities Act 
Standards for Accessible Design) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 36), and 
(2) Title II (Public Entities), Section 35.151 (New Construction 
and Alterations) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 35) both from the Ameri- 
cans with Disabilities Act ofl 990, and (3) under the Fair Hous- 
ing Amendments Act of 1988. Some of these regulations may be 
more stringent than state law in order to meet the federal 
requirement. 

1.9.1.1 Application, See Government Code commencing 
with Section 4450. 

Publicly funded buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs 
and related facilities shall be accessible to and usable by 
persons with disabilities as follows: 

1.9.1.1.1 All buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and 
related facilities constructed in the state by the use of 
state, county or municipal funds, or the funds of any 
political subdivision of the state. 

1.9.1.1.2 All buildings, structures and facilities that are 
leased, rented, contracted, sublet or hired by any munici- 
pal, county or state division of government, or by a spe- 
cial district. 

1.9.1.1.3 All publicly funded buildings used for congre- 
gate residences or for one- or two-family dwelling unit 
purposes shall conform to the provisions applicable to 
living accommodations. 

1.9.1.1.4 All existing publicly funded buildings and facil- 
ities when alterations, structural repairs or additions are 
made to such buildings or facilities. For detailed require- 
ments on existing buildings, see Chapter IIB, Division 
IV. 

1.9.1.1.5 With respect to buildings, structures, sidewalks, 
curbs and related facilities not requiring a building per- 
mit, building standards published in the California 
Building Standards Code relating to access for persons 
with disabilities and other regulations adopted pursuant 
to Government Code Section 4450, and in effect at the 
time construction is commenced, shall be applicable. 

1.9.1.2 Application, See Health and Safety Code commenc- 
ing with Section 19952. 

All privately funded public accommodations, as defined 
and commercial facilities, as defined, shall be accessible to 
persons with disabilities as follows: 

Exception: Certain types of privately funded multistory 
buildings do not require installation of an elevator to 
provide access above and below the first floor. See Chap- 
ter 1 IB. 

1.9,1,2,1 Any building, structure, facility, complex or 
improved area, or portions thereof which are used by the 
general public. 



1.9.1.2.2 Any sanitary facilities which are made avail- 
able for the public, clients or employees in such accom- 
modations or facilities, 

1.9.1.2.3 Any curb or sidewalk intended for public use 
that is constructed in this state with private funds. 

1.9.1.2.4 All existing privately funded public accommo- 
dations when alterations, structural repairs or additions 
are made to such public accommodations as set forth 
unde r Chap ter IIB. 

1.9.1.3 Application — Public housing and private housing 
available for public use. See Government Code Sections 
4450 and 12955.1(d). 

1.9.1.4 Enforcing agency, 

1.9.1.4.1 The director of the Department of General Ser- 
vices where state funds are utilized for any project or 
where funds of counties, municipalities or other political 
subdivisions are utilized for the construction of elemen- 
tary, secondary or community college projects. 

1.9.1.4.2 The governing bodies where funds of counties, 
municipalities or other political subdivisions are utilized 
except as otherwise provided above. 

1.9.1.4.3 The building department of every city, county 
or city and county within the territorial area of its city, 
county or city and county, where private funds are uti- 
lized. ''Building department" means the department, 
bureau or officer charged with the enforcement of laws or 
ordinances regulating the erection or construction, or 
both the erection and construction, of buildings. 

1.9.1.5 Special conditions for persons with disabilities 
requiring appeals action ratification. Whenever reference is 
made in these regulations to this section, the findings and 
determinations required to be rendered by the local enforc- 
ing agency shall be subject to ratification through an 
appeals process. 

1.9.1.6 Authority cited — Government Code Section 4450. 

1.9.1.7 Reference cited — Government Code Sections 4450 
through 4461 and 12955.1(d) and Health and Safety Code 
Sections 18949.1, 19952 through 19959. 

1,9,2 Division of the State Architect — Structural Safety. 

1.9,2,1 DSA-SS Division of the State Architect-Structural 
Safety. 

Application — Public elementary and secondary 
schools, community colleges and state-owned or 
state-leased essential services buildings. 

Enforcing agency — The Division of the State Archi- 
tect — Structural Safety (DSA-SS) has been delegated the 
responsibility and authority by the Department of Gen- 
eral Services to review and approve the design and 
observe the construction of public elementary and sec- 
ondary schools, community colleges and state-owned or 
state -leased essential services buildings. 



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Authority cited — Education Code Sections 17310 and 
81142 and Health and Safety Code Section 16022. 

Reference — Education Code Sections 17280 through 
17317, and 81 130 through 81 147 and Health and Safety 
Code Sections 16000 through 16023, 

1.9.2.1.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1 . Title 24, Part i, California Code of Regulations: 

1.1 Sections 4-301 through 4-355, Group 1, 
Chapter 4, for public elementary and second- 
ary schools and community colleges. 

1.2 Sections 4-201 through 4-249, Chapter 4, for 
state-owned or state-leased essential services 
buildings. 

2. Title 24y Part 2, California Code of Regulations: 

[applies to public elementary and secondary 
schools, community colleges and state-owned or 
state-leased essential services building(s)]: 

I I 2.1. Sections 1.1 and 1.9.2 ofChapterl, Division I. 

2.2. Sections 102.1, 102.2, 102.3, 102.4, 102.5, 
I I 104.9, 104.10 and 104.11 of Chapter 1, Divi- 

I I sionlL 

1.9.2.1.2 Applicable building standards, California 
Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 
11 and 12, California Code of Regulations, for school 
buildings, community colleges and state-owned or 
state-leased essential service buildings. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by the Division of the State Architect — Struc- 
tural Safety, shall apply to the applications listed in Sec- 

II tion 1.9.2.1. 

The Division of the State Architect — Structural 
Safety adopts the following building standards in Title 
24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17 A, 18A, 
19A, 20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 
and Appendix J. 

1.9.2.1.3 Amendments. Division of the State Archi- 
tect — Structural Safety amendments in this code appear 
preceded with the acronym [DSA-SS]. 

Exceptions: 

1. Chapters 16A, 17 A, 18A, 19 A, 21 A, and22A— 
Amendments appearing in these chapters with- 
out an acronym have been co-adopted by 
DSA-SS and OSHPD. 

2. Chapter 34, Sections 3115-3421— DSA-SS 
adopts these sections without the use of the 
DSA-SS acronym. 

1.9.2.1.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference 
is made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 
18, 19, 21 and 22, the respective sections in Chapters 
16A, 17 A, 18A, 19A, 21 A and22A shall apply instead. 



1.9.2.2 DSA-SS/CC Division of the State Architect- Struc- 
tural Safety/Community Colleges 

Application — Community Colleges. The Division of the 
State Architect has been delegated the authority by the 
Department of General Services to promulgate alternate 
building standards for application to community col- 
leges, which a community college may elect to use in lieu 
of standards promulgated by DSA-SS in accordance with 
Section 1.9.2.L 

Enforcing agency — Division of the State Architect- 
Structural Safety/Community Colleges (DSA-SS/CC) 

The Division of the State Architect has been delegated 
the authority by the Department of General Services to 
review and approve the design and oversee construction 
of community colleges electing to use the alternative 
building standards as provided in this section. 

Authority cited — Education Code Section 81053. 

Reference — Education Code Sections 81052, 81053, 
and 81130 through 81147. 

1.9.2.2.1 Applicable administrative standards, 

1, Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 

LI. Sections 4-301 through 4-355, Group 1, 
Chapter 4. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: 

2.1. Sections 1.1 and 1.9.2 of Chapter 1, Divi- 
sion I. 

2.2. Sections 102.1, 102.2, 102.3, 102.4, 102.5, 
104.9, 104.10 and 104.11 of Chapter 1, 
Division 11. 

1.9.2.2.2 Applicable building standards. California 
Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 
11 and 12, California Code of Regulations. 

The Division of the State Architect-Structural 
Safety/Community Colleges [DSA-SS/CC] adopts the 
following building standards in Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17 A, 18A, 19, 
20, 21, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

1.9.2.2.3 Amendments. Division of the State Archi- 
tect — Structural Safety/Community Colleges amend- 
ments in this code appear preceded with the acronym 
[DSA-SS/CC]. 

Exceptions: 

1. Chapters 1 7 A, and 1 8A— Amendments appear- 
ing in these chapters without an acronym have 
been co-adopted by DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, and 
OSHPD. 

2. Chapter 34, Sections 3115-3421— DSA-SS/CC 
adopts these sections without the use of the 
DSA-SS/CC acronym. 



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« 



II 



II 



1,9,2.2,4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference 
is made within this code to sections in Chapters 17 and 
18, the respective sections in Chapters 17 A and 18A shall 
apply instead. 



SECTION 1.10 
OFFICE OF STATEWIDE HEALTH 
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT 

1,10,1 OSHPD 1, Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — General acute care hospitals and acute psy- 
chiatric hospitals, excluding distinct part units or distinct 
part freestanding buildings providing skilled nursing or 
intermediate care services. For structural regulations: 
Skilled nursing facilities and/or intermediate care facilities 
except those skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care 
facilities of single-story, Type V, wood or light steel-frame 
construction. 

Enforcing agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning 
and Development (OSHPD). The office shall enforce the 
Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance regula- 
tions and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Mar- 
shal for the above stated facility types. 

1.10.1.1 Applicable administrative standards* 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapters 6 and 7. 

2, Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions LI and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division I, and Sections 
101-116, Chapter 1, Division 11. 

1.10.1.2 Applicable building standards, California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 1.10.1. 

OSHPD 1 adopts the following building standards in Title 

24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17 A, ISA, 19A, 

20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

1.10.1.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 1.10,1, amendments appear in this code 
preceded with the acronym [OSHPD 1], unless the entire 
chapter is applicable. 

1.10.1.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is 
made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 

21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17 A, 
ISA, 19A, 21 A, 22A and 34A shall apply instead. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129850, 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 19958, 
127010, 127015, 129680, 1275 and 129675 through 
130070, 



1.10.2 OSHPD 2. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Skilled nursing facilities and intermediate 
care facilities, including distinct part skilled nursing and 
intermediate care services on a general acute care or acute 
psychiatric hospital license, provided either are in a sepa- 
rate unit or a freestanding building. For structural regula- 
tions: Single-story, Type V skilled nursing facility and/or 
intermediate care facilities utilizing wood or light 
steel-frame construction. 

Enforcing agency — Office of Statewide Health Planning 
and Development (OSHPD), The office shall also enforce 
the Division of the State Architect— Access Compliance reg- 
ulations and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal for the above-stated facility type. 

1.10.2.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 1.1 and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division 1, and Sections 
101-116, Chapter 1, Division 11. 

1.10.2.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11, 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
in Section 1,10,2. 

OSHPD 2 adopts the following building standards in 
Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J. 

1.10.2.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
listed in Section 1.10,2, amendments appear in this code 
preceded with the acronym [OSHPD 2]. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129850. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129680, 

1.10.3 OSHPD 3. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Licensed clinics and any freestanding build- 
ing under a hospital license where outpatient clinical ser- 
vices are provided. 

Enforcing agency — Local building department, 

1,10.3.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7, 

2, Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 
tions 1. 1 and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division I, and Sections 
101-116, Chapter 1, Division 11. 



II 



II 



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LIO.3.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
I I ing Standards Code, Title24, Parts!, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
I I in Section 1.10.3. 

OSHPD 3 adopts the following building standards in 
Title 24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J . 

1,1033 Identification of amendments. For applications 

I I listed in Section 1.103, amendments appear in this code 

without the acronym [OSHPD 3]. Adoptions are shown in 

> the adoption matrix. 

Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015 and 1226 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 129885 and 1226, Government Code Section 
54350 and State Constitution Article 11, Section 7. 

1.10.4 OSHPD 4. Specific scope of application of the agency 
responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the spe- 
cific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this 
code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Correctional treatment centers. 

Enforcing agency — Ojfice of Statewide Health Planning 
and Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce 
the Division of the State Architect^Access Compliance reg- 
ulations and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal for the above -stated facility types, 

1.10.4.1 Applicable administrative standards. 

1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: 
Chapter 7. 

2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sec- 

Htions 1 . 1 and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division 1, and Sections 
101-116, Chapter 1, Division 11. ^ 

1.10.4.2 Applicable building standards. California Build- 
I I ing Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5,9, 10 and 11. 

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and 
amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed 
I I in Section 1.10.4. 

OSHPD 4 adopts the following building standards in Title 
24, Part 2: 

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17 A, 18A, 19A, 

20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and 
Appendix J. 

1.10.4.3 Identification of amendments. For applications 
I I listed in Section 1.10.4, amendments appear in this code 

preceded with the acronym [OSHPD 4], unless the entire 

> chapter is applicable. 

1.10.4.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is 
made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 

21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 1 7 A, 
18 A, 19 A, 21 A, 22 A and 34 A shall apply instead. 



Authority — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015 and 129790. 

References — Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 
127015, 1275 and 129675 through 130070. 



SECTION 1.11 
OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL 

1.11.1 SFM — Office of the State Fire Marshal. Specific scope 
of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the 
enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and 
enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated. 

Application: 

Institutional, educational or any similar occupancy. Any 

building or structure used or intended for use as an asylum, 
jail, mental hospital, hospital, sanitarium, home for the aged, 
children's nursery, children's home, school or any similar 
occupancy of any capacity. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Assembly or similar place of assemblage. Any theater, 
dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly hall, meeting 
hall, nightclub, fair building or similar place of assemblage 
where 50 or more persons may gather together in a building, 
room or structure for the purpose of amusement, entertain- 
ment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or dining, 
awaiting transportation, or education. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143, 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Small family day-care homes. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 

1597.45, 1597.54, 13143 and 17921. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
Large family day-care homes. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 

1597.46, 1597.54 and 17921. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residentialfacilities and residential facilities for the elderly. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13133. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Any state institution or other state-owned or state-occupied 
building. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13108. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
High-Rise structures. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13211. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 
Motion picture production studios. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.1. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 



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Organized camps. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 18897.3. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residential All hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment 
houses and dwellings, including congregate residences and 
buildings and structures accessory thereto. 

Multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for 
human habitation, including and limited to, hotels, motels and 
apartment houses, less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the low- 
est floor level having building access, wherein rooms used for 
sleeping are let above the ground floor 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.2 
and 17921. 

Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Residential care facilities. Certified family care homes, 
out-of-home placement facilities, halfway houses, drug and/or 
alcohol rehabilitation facilities and any building or structure 
used or intended for use as a home or institution for the housing 
of any person of any age when such person is referred to or 
placed within such home or institution for protective social 
care and supervision services by any governmental agency. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6. 

I I Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection 
with any occupancy. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13116. 

> Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection 
with any occupancy. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13114. 

I I Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Hazardous materials. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.9. 

I I Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Flammable and combustible liquids. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6. 

I I Reference — Health and Safety Code Section 13143. 

Public School Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm and Sprin- 
kler Systems. 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Section 13143 
and California Education Code Article 7.5, Sections 
17074.50, 17074.52 and 17074.54. 

Reference — Government Code Section 11152.5, Health 
and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education 
Code Chapter 12.5, Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 
1998, Article 1. 

Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area, 

Authority cited — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, 
13108.5(a) and 18949.2(b) and (c) and Government Code 
Section 51189. 



Reference — Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, Gov- 
ernment Code Sections 51176, 51177, 51178 and 51179 
and Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204. 

1.11,2 Duties and powers of the enforcing agency, 

1.11,2.1 Enforcement, 

1.11.2.1.1 The responsibility for enforcement of building 
standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and pub- 
lished in the California Building Standards Code relat- 
ing to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the 
State Fire Marshal shall, except as provided in Section 
1.11.2.1.2, be as follows: 

1. The city, county or city and county with jurisdic- 
tion in the area affected by the standard or regula- 
tion shall delegate the enforcement of the building 
standards relating to fire and panic safety and 
other regulations of the State Fire Marshal as they 
relate to Group R-3 occupancies, as described in 
Section 310.1 of Part 2 of the California Building 
Standards Code, to either of the following. ■ 

1.1. The chief of the fire authority of the city, 
county or city and county, or an authorized 
representative. 

1.2. The chief building official of the city, 
county or city and county, or an authorized 
representative. 

2. The chief of any city or county fire department or of 
any fire protection district, and authorized repre- 
sentatives, shall enforce within the jurisdiction the 
building standards and other regulations of the 
State Fire Marshal, except those described in Item 
1 or 4. 

3. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to 
enforce the building standards and other regula- 
tions of the State Fire Marshal in areas outside of 
corporate cities and districts providing fire pro- 
tection services. 

4. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to 
enforce the building standards and other regula- 
tions of the State Fire Marshal in corporate cities 
and districts providing fire protection services on 
request of the chief fire official or the governing 
body. 

5. Any fee charged pursuant to the enforcement 
authority of this section shall not exceed the esti- 
mated reasonable cost of providing the service for 
which the fee is charged pursuant to Section 66014 
of the Government Code. 

1.11.2.1.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13108, and except as otherwise provided in this section, 
building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal 
published in the California Building Standards Code 
relating to fire and panic safety shall be enforced by the 
State Fire Marshal in all state-owned buildings, 
state -occupied buildings, and state institutions through- 
out the state. Upon the written request of the chief fire 
official of any city, county or fire protection district, the 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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State Fire Marshal may authorize such chief fire official 
and his or her authorized representatives, in their geo- 
graphical area of responsibility, to make fire prevention 
inspections of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, 
other than state institutions, for the purpose of enforcing 
the regulations relating to fire and panic safety adopted 
by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to this section and 
building standards relating to fire and panic safety pub- 
lished in the California Building Standards Code. Autho- 
rization from the State Fire Marshal shall be limited to 
those fire departments or fire districts which maintain a 
fire prevention bureau staffed by paid personnel. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, 
any requirement or order made by any chief fire official 
who is authorized by the State Fire Marshal to make fire 
prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied 
buildings, other than state institutions, may be appealed 
to the State Fire Marshal The State Fire Marshal shall, 
upon receiving an appeal and subject to the provisions of 
Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 18945) of Part 2.5 
of Division 13 of the Health and Safety Code, determine 
if the requirement or order made is reasonably consistent 
with the fire and panic safety regulations adopted by the 
State Fire Marshal and building standards relating to 
fire and panic safety published in the California Building 
Code. 

Any person may request a code interpretation from the 
State Fire Marshal relative to the intent of any regulation 
or provision adopted by the State Fire Marshal When the 
request relates to a specific project, occupancy or build- 
ing, the State Fire Marshal shall review the issue with the 
appropriate local enforcing agency prior to rendering 
such code interpretation. 

1.11,2,1.3 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13112, any person who violates any order, rule or regu- 
lation of the State Fire Marshal is guilty of a misde- 
meanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100.00 or 
more than $500.00, or by imprisonment for not less than 
six months, or by both. A person is guilty of a separate 
offense each day during which he or she commits, contin- 
ues or permits a violation of any provision of, or any 
order, rule or regulation of, the State Fire Marshal as 
contained in this code. 

Any inspection authority who, in the exercise of his or 
her authority as a deputy State Fire Marshal, causes any 
legal complaints to be filed or any arrest to be made shall 
notify the State Fire Marshal immediately following such 
action. 

1.11,2,2 Right of entry. The fire chief of any city, county or 
fire protection district, or such person 's authorized repre- 
sentative, may enter any state institution or any other 
state-owned or state -occupied building for the purpose of 
preparing afire suppression preplanning program or for the 
purpose of investigating any fire in a state-occupied build- 
ing. 

The State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried 
assistants, the chief of any city or county fire department or 
fire protection district and his or her authorized representa- 



tives may enter any building or premises not used for dwell- 
ing purposes at any reasonable hour for the purpose of 
enforcing this chapter The owner, lessee, manager or oper- 
ator of any such building or premises shall permit the State 
Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants and 
the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protec- 
tion district and his or her authorized representatives to 
enter and inspect them at the time and for the purpose stated 
in this section. 

1.11.2.3 More restrictive fire and panic safety building 
standards, 

1.11.2.3.1 Any fire protection district organized pursu- 
ant to Health and Safety Code Part 2.7 (commencing 
with Section 13800) of Division 12 may adopt building 
standards relating to fire and panic safety that are more 
stringent than those building standards adopted by the 
State Fire Marshal and contained in the California 
Building Standards Code. For these purposes, the dis- 
trict board shall be deemed a legislative body and the 
district shall be deemed a local agency. Any changes or 
modifications that are more stringent than the require- 
ments published in the California Building Standards 
Code relating to fire and panic safety shall be subject to 
Section 1.L8.L I I 

1.11.2.3.2 Any fire protection district that proposes to 
adopt an ordinance pursuant to this section shall, not 
less than 30 days prior to noticing a proposed ordinance 
for public hearing, provide a copy of that ordinance, 
together with the adopted findings made pursuant to Sec- 
tion 1.11.2.3.1, to the city, county, or city and county I I 
where the ordinance will apply. The city, county, or city 
and county may provide the district with written com- 
ments, which shall become part of the fire protection dis- 
trict' s public hearing record. 

1.11.2.3.3 The fire protection district shall transmit the 
adopted ordinance to the city, county, or city and county 
where the ordinance will apply. The legislative body of 
the city, county, or city and county may ratify, modify or 
deny an adopted ordinance and transmit its determina- 
tion to the district within 15 days of the determination. 
Any modification or denial of an adopted ordinance shall 
include a written statement describing the reasons for 
any modifications or denial No ordinance adopted by 
the district shall be effective until ratification by the city, 
county, or city and county where the ordinance will 
apply. Upon ratification of an adopted ordinance, the 
city, county or city and county shall file a copy of the find- 
ings of the district, and any findings of the city, county, or 
city and county, together with the adopted ordinance 
expressly marked and identified to which each finding 
refers, in accordance with Section 1.1.8.1(3). ' ' 

1.11.2.4 Request for alternate means of protection. 

Requests for approval to use an alternative material, assem- 
bly or materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment or means of protection 
shall be made in writing to the enforcing agency by the 
owner or the owner's authorized representative and shall be 
accompanied by a full statement of the conditions. Sufficient 



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evidence or proof shall be submitted to substantiate any 
claim that may be made regarding its conformance. The 
enforcing agency may require tests and the submission of a 
test report from an approved testing organization as set 
forth in Title 19, California Code of Regulation, to substan- 
tiate the equivalency of the proposed alternative means of 
protection. 

When a request for alternate means of protection involves 
hazardous materials, the authority having jurisdiction may 
consider implementation of the findings and recommenda- 
tions identified in a Risk Management Plan (RMP) devel- 
oped in accordance with Title 19, Division 2, Chapter 4.5, 
Article 3. 

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, 
assembly of materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment or means of protection 
made pursuant to these provisions shall be limited to the 
particular case covered by request and shall not be con- 
strued as establishing any precedent for any future request. 

1,11.2.5 Appeals, When a request for an alternate means of 
protection has been denied by the enforcing agency, the 
applicant may file a written appeal to the State Fire Marshal 
for consideration of the applicant's proposal. In consider- 
ing such appeal, the State Fire Marshal may seek the advice 
of the State Board of Fire Services. The State Fire Marshal 
shall, after considering all of the facts presented, including 
any recommendations of the State Board of Fire Services, 
determine if the proposal is for the purposes intended, at 
least equivalent to that specified in these regulations in 
quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability 
and safety, and shall transmit such findings and any recom- 
mendations to the applicant and to the enforcing agency. 

1.11,3 Construction documents, 

1.11.3.1 Public schools. Plans and specifications for the 
construction, alteration or addition to any building owned, 
leased or rented by any public school district shall be sub- 
mitted to the Division of the State Architect. 

1.11.3.2 Movable walls and partitions. Plans or diagrams 
shall be submitted to the enforcing agency for approval 
before the installation of, or rearrangement of, any movable 
wall or partition in any occupancy. Approval shall be 
granted only if there is no increase in the fire hazard. 

1.11.3.3 New construction high-rise buildings. 

1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be 
prepared covering all work required to comply with 
new construction high-rise buildings. Such plans and 
specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing 
agency having jurisdiction. 

2. All plans and specifications shall be prepared under 
the responsible charge of an architect or a civil or 
structural engineer authorized by law to develop con- 
struction plans and specifications, or by both such 
architect and engineer. Plans and specifications shall 
be prepared by an engineer duly qualified in that 
branch of engineering necessary to perform such ser- 
vices. Administration of the work of construction 
shall be under the charge of the responsible architect 



or engineer except that where plans and 
specifications involve alterations or repairs, such 
work of construction may be administered by an engi- 
neer duly qualified to perform such services and hold- 
ing a valid certificate under Chapter 7 (commencing 
with Section 65700) of Division 3 of the Business and 
Professions Code for performance of services in that 
branch of engineering in which said plans, specifica- 
tions and estimates and work of construction are 
applicable. 

This section shall not be construed as preventing the 
design of fire-extinguishing systems by persons holding a 
C- 16 license issued pursuant to Division 3, Chapter 9, Busi- 
ness and Professions Code. In such instances, however, the 
responsibility charge of this section shall prevail. 

1.11.3.4 Existing high-rise buildings, 

1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be 
prepared covering all work required by Section 3412 
for existing high-rise buildings. Such plans or specifi- 
cations shall be submitted to the enforcing agency 
having jurisdiction. 

2. When new construction is required to conform with 
the provisions of these regulations, complete plans or 
specifications, or both, shall be prepared in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this subsection. As used 
in this section, "new construction " is not intended to 
include repairs, replacements or minor alterations 
which do not disrupt or appreciably add to or affect 
the structural aspects of the building. 

1.11.3.5 Retention of plans. Refer to Building Standards 
Law, Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 and 1 985 1 for 
permanent retention of plans. 

1.11.4 Fees. 

1.11.4.1 Other fees. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code 
Section 1 3 146.2, a city, county or district which inspects a 
hotel, motel, lodging house or apartment house may charge 
and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the 
structure in an amount, as determined by the city, county or 
district, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection. 

1.11.4.2 Large family day-care. Pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 1597.46, Large Family Day-Care 
Homes, the local government shall process any required 
permit as economically as possible, and fees charged for 
review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit 
process. 

1.11.4.3 High-Rise. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code 
Section 13217, High-Rise Structure Inspection: Fees and 
costs, a local agency which inspects a high-rise structure 
pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13217 may 
charge and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of 
the high-rise structure in an amount, as determined by the 
local agency, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection. 

1.11.4.4 Fire clearance preinspection. Pursuant to Health 
and Safety Code Section 13235, Fire Clearance 
Preinspection, fee, upon receipt of a request from a prospec- 
tive licensee of a community care facility, as defined in Sec- 
tion 1502, of a residential care facility for the elderly, as 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



defined in Section 1569.2, or of a child day care facility, as 
defined in Section 1596. 750, the local fire enforcing agency, 
as defined in Section 13244, or State Fire Marshal, which- 
ever has primary jurisdiction, shall conduct a preinspection 
of the facility prior to the final fire clearance approval At 
the time of the preinspection, the primary fire enforcing 
agency shall price consultation and interpretation of the fire 
safety regulations and shall notify the prospective licensee 
of the facility in writing of the specific fire safety regulations 
which shall be enforced in order to obtain fire clearance 
approval. A fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of 
the preinspection may be charged for the preinspection of a 
facility with a capacity to serve 25 or fewer persons, A fee 
equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the 
preinspection may be charged for a preinspection of a facil- 
ity with a capacity to serve 26 or more persons, 

1.11.4.5 Care facilities. The primary fire enforcing agency 
shall complete the final fire clearance inspection for a com- 
munity care facility, residential care facility for the elderly, 
or child day care facility within 30 days of receipt of the 
request for the final inspection, or as of the date the prospec- 
tive facility requests the final prelic ensure inspection by the 
State Department of Social Services, whichever is later 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, a 
preinspection fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost 
of the preinspection may be charged for a facility with a 
capacity to serve 25 or less clients. A fee equal to, but not 
exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection may be 
charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to 
serve 26 or more clients. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13131.5, a 
reasonable final inspection fee, not to exceed the actual cost 
of inspection services necessary to complete a final inspec- 
tion may be charged for occupancies classified as residen- 
tial care facilities for the elderly (RCFE). 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1569.84, 
neither the State Fire Marshal nor any local public entity 
shall charge any fee for enforcing fire inspection regulations 
pursuant to state law or regulation or local ordinance, with 
respect to residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) 
which service six or fewer persons. 

1.11.4.6 Requests of the Office of the State Fire Marshal, 

Whenever a local authority having jurisdiction requests 
that the State Fire Marshal perform plan review and/or 
inspection services related to a building permit, the applica- 
ble fees for such shall be payable to the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal. 

1,11,5 Inspections, Work performed subject to the provisions 
of this code shall comply with the inspection requirements of 
Sections 109.1, 109.3, 109.3.4, 109.3.5, 109.3.6, 109.3.8, 
109.3.9, 109.3.10 109.5 and 109.6 as adopted by the Office of 
the State Fire Marshal. 

1,11,5,1 Existing Group I -1 or R occupancies. Licensed 
24 -hour care in a Group I-l orR occupancy in existence and 
originally classified under previously adopted state codes 
shall be reinspected under the appropriate previous code, 
provided there is no change in the use or character which 
would place the facility in a different occupancy group. 



20 



1.11.6 Certificate of Occupancy, A Certificate of Occupancy 
shall be issued as specified in Section 111. \ 

Exception: Group R, Division 3 and Group U occupancies. 

1.11.7 Temporary structures and uses. See Section 107. < 

1.11.8 Service utilities. See Section 112. \ \\ 

1.11.9 Stop work order. See Section 115. I I < 

1.11.10 Unsafe buildings, structures and equipment. See Sec- < 
tion 116. I ' 



SECTION 1.12 
STATE LIBRARIAN 

1,12.1 Specific scope of. application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Public library construction and renovation 
using funds from the California Library Construction and 
Renovation Bond Act of 1988. 

Enforcing agency — State librarian. 

Authority cited — Education Code Sections 19950 through 
19981. 

Reference — Education Code Sections 19950 through 
19981. 



SECTION 1.13 
Reserved 



SECTION 1.14 
CALIFORNIA STATE LANDS COMMISSION 

1,14,1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible 
for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific 
authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, 
unless otherwise stated. 

Application — Marine oil terminals. 

Enforcing agency — California State Lands Commission. 

Authority cited — Public Resources Code Section 8755. 

Reference — Public Resources Code Section 8755. 

2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DIVISION II 
SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



4 



Sections adopted or amended by state agencies are specifically 
indicated by an agency banner or identified in the Matrix 
Adoption Table, 



SECTION 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the California 
Building Code of the State of Calif ornia, hereinafter referred to 
as "this code." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the con- 
struction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, 
repair, equipment, used and occupancy, location, maintenance, 
removal and demolition of every building or structure or any 
appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or 
structures. 

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and 
multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more 
than three stories above grade plane in height with a sepa- 
rate means of egress and their accessory structures shall 
comply with the California Building Code. 

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not 
apply unless specifically adopted. 

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the mini- 
mum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and 
general welfare through structural strength, means of egress 
facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, 
energy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire 
and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to 
provide safety to firefighters and emergency responders during 
emergency operations. 

> 101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 
101.4.1 through 101.4.6 and referenced elsewhere in this code 
shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the 
prescribed extent of each such reference. 

101.4.1 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas 
Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the 
point of delivery, gas apphances and related accessories as 
covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping 
systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet 
connections of appliances and the installation and operation 
of residential and commercial gas appliances and related 
accessories. 

101.4.2 Mechanical. The provisions of the International 
Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, 
repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurte- 
nances, including ventilating, heating, cooUng, air-condi- 
tioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other 
energy-related systems. 

101.4.3 Plumbing. The provisions of the International 
Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration. 



repair and replacement of plumbing systems, including 
equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, 
and where connected to a water or sewage system and all 
aspects of a medical gas system. The provisions of the Inter- 
national Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems. 

101.4.4 Property maintenance. The provisions of the 
International Property Maintenance Code shall apply to 
existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; 
light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire 
safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and 
occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and struc- 
tures. 

101.4.5 Fire prevention. The provisions of the Interna- 
tional Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating 
to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire 
and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of 
structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous 
to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of struc- 
tures or premises; and from the construction, extension, 
repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm 
systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises 
from occupancy or operation. 

101.4.6 Energy. The provisions of the California Energy 
Code, Title 24, Part 6 shall apply to all matters governing the 
design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency. 

Exception: [OSHPD 1,2&4] Not required by OSHPD. 



SECTION 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general 
requirement and a specific requirement, the specific require- 
ment shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, different 
sections of this code specify different materials, methods of 
construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall 
govern. 

102,1.1 Additional requirements, [OSHPD i, 2, 3, & 4, 
DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] See Chapter I, Division /, Section 
1. 1,7. 

102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law. 

102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or sec- 
tion numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by 
number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or 
provision of this code. 

102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and stan- 
dards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the 
requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such 
reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this 
code shall apply. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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102.4.1 Code References. [OSHPD 1,2,3& 4, DSA-SS & 
DSA'SS/CC] All reference to International Codes or other 
similar codes in referenced standards shall be replaced by 
equivalent provisions in the California Building Standard 
Codes. 

102.4.2 Reference in Standards. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4, 
DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] All references listed in reference 
standards shall be replaced by referenced standards listed 
in Chapter 35 of this code, where applicable, and shall 
include all amendments to the reference standards in this 
code, 

102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision 
of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the 
effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provi- 
sions. 

102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any struc- 
ture existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to continue without change, except as is specifically 
covered in this code, the California Building Code or the Cali- 
fornia Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary by the building 
official for the general safety and welfare of the occupants and 
the public. 



SECTION 103 
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY 

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of 
Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge 
thereof shall be known as the building official. 

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed 
by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction. 

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures 
of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing 
authority, the building official shall have the authority to 
appoint a deputy building official, the related technical offi- 
cers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such 
employees shall have powers as delegated by the building offi- 
cial. For the maintenance of existing properties, see the Cali- 
fornia Building Code. 



SECTION 104 
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL 

104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and 
directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building 
official shall have the authority to render interpretations of this 
code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the 
application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and 
procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose 
of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the 
effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this 
code. 

104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall 
receive applications, review construction documents and issue 
permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving 



of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such 
permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the pro- 
visions of this code. 

104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all 
necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this 
code. 

104.4 Inspections. The building official shall make all of the 
required inspections, or the building official shall have the 
authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies 
or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing 
and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved 
agency or by the responsible individual. The building official is 
authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary 
to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the 
approval of the appointing authority. 

104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper 
identification when inspecting structures or premises in the 
performance of duties under this code. 

104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspec- 
tion to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the build- 
ing official has reasonable cause to beUeve that there exists in a 
structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or 
in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises 
unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official is autho- 
rized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to 
inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided 
that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials 
be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such struc- 
ture or premises is unoccupied, the building official shall first 
make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person 
having charge or control of the structure or premises and 
request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have 
recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry. 

104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for retention of public records. 

104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of 
appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this 
code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without 
malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or 
other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered 
liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability 
for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of 
any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of 
official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or 
employee because of an act performed by that officer or 
employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provi- 
sions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of 
the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. 
The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for 
cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursu- 
ance of the provisions of this code. 



22 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equip- 
ment and devices approved by the building official shall be 
constructed and installed in accordance with such approval. 

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used 
materials which meet the requirements of this code for new 
materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall 
not be reused unless approved by the building official. 

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficul- 
ties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the 
building official shall have the authority to grant modifications 
for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's 
representative, provided the building official shall first find that 
special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code 
impractical and the modification is in compliance with the 
intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does 
not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural 
requirements. The details of action granting modifications 
shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of 
building safety. 

104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of con- 
struction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not 
intended to prevent the installation of any material or to pro- 
hibit any design or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has 
been approved. An alternative material, design or method of 
construction shall be approved where the building official finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the 
intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, 
method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the 
equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, 
effectiveness, ^r^ resistance, durability and safety. 

104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where neces- 
sary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not 
specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid 
research reports from approved sources. 

104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of 
comphance with the provisions of this code, or evidence 
that a material or method does not conform to the require- 
ments of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for 
alternative materials or methods, the building official shall 
have the authority to require tests as evidence of comphance 
to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods 
shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test 
standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test 
methods, the building official shall approve the testing pro- 
cedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. 
Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building offi- 
cial for the period required for retention of public records. 

104.11.3 Peer review. [OSHPD 1&4] When peer review is 
required, it shall be performed pursuant to Section 3414A. 

104.11.4 Earthquake monitoring instruments. [OSHPD 1 

& 4] The enforcement agency may require earthquake mon- 
itoring instruments for any building that receives approval 
of an alternative system for the Lateral Force Resisting Sys- 
tem (LFRS). There shall be a sufficient number of instru- 
ments to characterize the response of the building during an 
earthquake and shall include at least one tri-axial free field 



instrument or equivalent. A proposal for instrumentation 
and equipment specifications shall be forwarded to the 
enforcement agency for review and approval. The Owner of 
the building shall be responsible for the implementation of 
the instrumentation program. Maintenance of the instru- 
mentation and removal/processing of the records shall be 
the responsibility of the enforcement agency or its desig- 
nated agent 



SECTION 105 
PERMITS 

105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change 
the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, 
enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which 
is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, 
shall first make apphcation to the building official and obtain 
the required permit. 

105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual perm/r for 
each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, 
mechanical or plumbing installation, the building official is 
authorized to issue an annual /?^nn/f upon application there- 
for to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing 
one or more qualified tradepersons in the building, structure 
or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for 
the permit. 

105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom an 
diXmudil permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alter- 
ations made under such dinmxdX permit. The building official 
shall have access to such records at all times or such records 
shall be filed with the building official as designated. 

105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from permit 
requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authori- 
zation for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the 
provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this 
jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for the following: 

Building: 

1. One-story detached accessory structures used as 
tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, 
provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square 
feet (11 m2). 

2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high. 

3. Oil derricks. 

4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in 
height measured from the bottom of the footing to 
the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or 
impounding Class I, II or IIIA liquids. 

5. Water tanks supported directly on grade if the 
capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) 
and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not 
exceed 2:1. 

6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above adjacent grade, and not over any 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



23 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



basement or story below and are not part of an 
accessible route. 

7. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, coun- 
ter tops and similar finish work. 

8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater 
stage sets and scenery. 

9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group 
R-3 occupancy that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) 
deep, do not exceed 5,000 gallons ( 1 8 925 L) and are 
installed entirely above ground. 

10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or 
agricultural purposes, not including service sys- 
tems. 

1 1 . Swings and other playground equipment accessory 
to detached one- and two-family dwellings. 

12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall that 
do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from 
the exterior wall and do not require additional sup- 
port of Groups R-3 and U occupancies. 

13. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, coun- 
ters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 
mm) in height. 

Electrical: 

Repairs and maintenance: Minor repair work, includ- 
ing the replacement of lamps or the connection of 
approved portable electrical equipment to approved per- 
manently installed receptacles. 

Radio and television transmitting stations: The provi- 
sions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment 
used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply 
to equipment and wiring for a power supply and the 
installations of towers and antennas. 

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be 
required for the installation of any temporary system 
required for the testing or servicing of electrical equip- 
ment or apparatus. 

Gas: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter 
approval of equipment or make such equipment 
unsafe. 

Mechanical: 

1. Portable heating appliance. 

2. Portable ventilation equipment. 

3. Portable cooling unit. 

4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating 
or coohng equipment regulated by this code. 

5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its 
approval or make it unsafe. 

6. Portable evaporative cooler. 



7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 
pounds (5 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by 
motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less. 

Plumbing: 

1. The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or 
vent pipe, provided, however, that if any concealed 
trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe 
becomes defective and it becomes necessary to 
remove and replace the same with the new material, 
such work shall be considered as new work and a per- 
mit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided 
in this code. 

2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in 
pipes, valves or fixtures and the removal and reinstal- 
lation of water closets, provided such repairs do not 
involve or require the replacement or rearrangement 
of valves, pipes or fixtures. 

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replace- 
ments and repairs must be performed in an emergency situa- 
tion, the permit application shall be submitted within the 
next working business day to the building official 

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building offi- 
cial is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, 
replacement of lamps or the connection of approved porta- 
ble electrical equipment to approved permanently installed 
receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away 
of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cut- 
ting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the 
removal or change of any required means of egress, or rear- 
rangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress 
requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, 
alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, 
water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, 
vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other 
work affecting public health or general safety. 

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be 
required for the installation, alteration or repair of genera- 
tion, transmission, distribution or metering or other related 
equipment that is under the ownership and control of public 
service agencies by established right. 

105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the appli- 
cant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form 
furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. 
Such application shall: 

1 . Identify and describe the work to be covered by th^ per- 
mit for which application is made. 

2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be 
done by legal description, street address or similar 
description that will readily identify and definitely locate 
the proposed building or work. 

3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed 
work is intended. 

4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other 
information as required in Section 107. 

5. State the valuation of the proposed work. 



24 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's authorized 
agent. 

7. Give such other data and information as required by the 
building official. 

105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined applications for permits 
and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after fil- 
ing. If the application or the construction documents do not 
conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building 
official shall reject such application in writing, stating the 
reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the 
proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code 
and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building 
official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable. 

105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for 
a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have 
been abandoned 1 80 days after the date of filing, unless such 
appUcation has been pursued in good faith or a permit has 
been issued; except that the building official is authorized to 
grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be 
requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. 
[OSHPD I, 2, & 4] Time limitation shall be in accordance 
with Title 24, Part 1, Chapter 7, Section 7-129. 

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of 2i permit 
shall not be construed to be ?i permit for, or an approval of, any 
violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other 
ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issu- 
ance of a permit based on construction documents and other 
data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the 
correction of errors in the construction documents and other 
data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occu- 
pancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of 
any other ordinances of this jurisdiction. 

105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid 
unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is com- 
menced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work autho- 
rized on the site by suchpermit is suspended or abandoned for a 
period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The 
building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more 
extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. 
The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable 
cause demonstrated. 

105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is 
authorized to suspend or revoke 2l permit issued under the pro- 
visions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on 
the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or 
in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provi- 
sions of this code. 

105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy shall 
be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the pro- 
ject. 



SECTION 106 
FLOOR AND ROOF DESIGN LOADS 

106.1 Live loads posted. Where the live loads for which each 
floor or portion thereof of a commercial or industrial building 
is or has been designed to exceed 50 psf (2.40 kN/m^), such 
design live loads shall be conspicuously posted by the owner in 
that part of each story in which they apply, using durable signs. 
It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such notices 

106 J J Snow Load Posting, [OSHPD 12,3& 4, DSA-SS 
& DSA-SS/CC] Snow loads used in design shall be posted 
as for live loads. 

106.L2 Load Posting Responsibility. [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] II 

The owner or governing board shall be responsible for 
keeping the actual load below the allowable limits. 

106.2 Issuance of certificate of occupancy. A certificate of 
occupancy required by Section 111 shall not be issued until the 
floor load signs, required by Section 106. 1, have been installed. 

106.3 Restrictions on loading. It shall be unlawful to place, or 
cause or permit to be placed, on any floor or roof of a building, 
structure or portion thereof, a load greater than is permitted by 
this code. 



SECTION 107 
SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTS 

107.1 General. Submittal documents consisting of construc- 
tion documents, statement of special inspections, geotechnical 
report and other data shall be submitted in two or more sets 
with each permit application. The construction documents 
shall be prepared by a registered design professional where 
required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project 
is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the build- 
ing official is authorized to require additional construction doc- 
uments to be prepared by a registered design professional. 

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the 
submission of construction documents and other data not 
required to be prepared by a registered design professional 
if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such 
that review of construction documents is not necessary to 
obtain compliance with this code. 

107.2 Construction documents. Construction documents 
shall be in accordance with Sections 107.2. 1 through 107.2.5. 

107.2.1 Information on construction documents. Con- 
struction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon 
suitable material. Electronic media documents are permit- 
ted to be submitted when approved by the building official. 
Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indi- 
cate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed 
and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of 
this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regula- 
tions, as determined by the building official. 

107.2.2 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop draw- 
ings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submitted to 
indicate conformance to this code and the construction docu- 
ments and shall be approved prior to the start of system instal- 
lation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as 
required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



25 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



107.2.3 Means of egress. The construction documents shall 
show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and 
character of all portions of the means of egress in compli- 
ance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupan- 
cies in Groups R-2, R-3, and I-l, the construction 
documents shall designate the number of occupants to be 
accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces. 

107.2.4 Exterior wall envelope. Construction documents 
for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in 
sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. 
The construction documents shall provide details of the 
exterior wall envelope as required, including flashing, inter- 
sections with dissimilar materials, comers, end details, con- 
trol joints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of 
drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around 
openings. 

The construction documents shall include manufac- 
turer's installation instructions that provide supporting doc- 
umentation that the proposed penetration and opening 
details described in the construction documents maintain 
the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The 
supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior 
wall system which was tested, where applicable, as well as 
the test procedure used. 

107.2.5 Site plan. The construction documents submitted 
with the application for permit shall be accompanied by a 
site plan showing to scale the size and location of new con- 
struction and existing structures on the site, distances from 
lot lines, the established street grades and the proposed fin- 
ished grades and, as applicable, flood hazard areas, 
floodways, and design flood elevations; and it shall be 
drawn in accordance with an accurate boundary line survey. 
In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construc- 
tion to be demolished and the location and size of existing 
structures and construction that are to remain on the site or 
plot. The building official is authorized to waive or modify 
the requirement for a site plan when the application for per- 
mit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted. 

107.2.5.1 Design flood elevations. Where design flood 
elevations are not specified, they shall be established in 
accordance with Section 1612.3.1. 

107.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall 
examine or cause to be examined the accompanying submittal 
documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether 
the construction indicated and described is in accordance with 
the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordi- 
nances. 

107.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the 
building official issues a permit, the construction documents 
shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as "Reviewed for 
Code Compliance." One set of construction documents so 
reviewed shall be retained by the building official. The other 
set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site 
of work and shall be open to inspection by the building offi- 
cial or a duly authorized representative. 

107.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require 
changes in the construction documents, construction or des- 



ignated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit 
has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully autho- 
rized, and the construction of which has been pursued in 
good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this 
code and has not been abandoned. 

107.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue ei permit for the construction of foundations or 
any other part of a building or structure before the construc- 
tion documents for the whole building or structure have 
been submitted, provided that adequate information and 
detailed statements have been filed complying with perti- 
nent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit 
for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure 
shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building oper- 
ation and without assurance that a permit for the entire 
structure will be granted. 

107.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge. 

107.3.4.1 General. When it is required that documents 
be prepared by a registered design professional, the 
building official shall be authorized to require the owner 
to engage and designate on the building permit applica- 
tion a registered design professional who shall act as the 
registered design professional in responsible charge. If 
the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a 
substitute registered design professional in responsible 
charge who shall perform the duties required of the origi- 
nal registered design professional in responsible charge. 
The building official shall be notified in writing by the 
owner if the registered design professional in responsible 
charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the 
duties. 

The registered design professional in responsible 
charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinat- 
ing submittal documents prepared by others, including 
phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibility 
with the design of the building. 

107.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this 
section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions 
of the design that are not submitted at the time of the 
application and that are to be submitted to the building 
official within a specified period. 

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior 
approval of the building official. The registered design 
professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred 
submittals on the construction documents for review by 
the building official. Documents for deferred submittal 
items shall be submitted to the registered design profes- 
sional in responsible charge who shall review them and 
forward them to the building official with a notation indi- 
cating that the deferred submittal documents have been 
reviewed and been found to be in general conformance to 
the design of the building. The deferred submittal items 
shall not be installed until the deferred submittal docu- 
ments have been approved by the building official. 
[OSHPD 7, 2, & 4] Deferred submittals shall be in 
accordance with Title 24, Part 1, Chapter 7, Section 
7-126. 



26 



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107.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be 
installed in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments, and any changes made during construction that are not 
in compliance with the approved construction documents shall 
be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction 

I ' documents. [OSHPD 1,2 & 4] Change in the work shall be in 
accordance with Title 24, Part h Chapter 7, Section 7-153. 

107.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of 

approved construction documents shall be retained by the 
building official for a period of not less than 1 80 days from date 
of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or 
local laws. 



SECTION 108 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

108.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be per- 
mitted for more than 180 days. The building official is 
authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause. 

108.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall con- 
form to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, 
accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of 
this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and gen- 
eral welfare. 

108.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to 
. give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of 

an electric installation before such installation has been fully 
completed and the final certificate of completion has been 
issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall 
comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, 
heat or power in NFPA 70. 

108.4 Termination of approval. The building official is autho- 
rized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use 
and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued. 



SECTION 109 
FEES 

109.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the 
fees prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment 
to di permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been 
paid. 

109.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, elec- 
trical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations 
requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as 
required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the 
applicable governing authority. 

109.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for di permit 
shall provide an estimated /?^wzzY value at time of application. 
Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including 
materials and labor, for which the permit is being issued, such 
as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and perma- 
nent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valu- 
ation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be 
denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to 



meet the approval of the building official. Final building perm// 
valuation shall be set by the building official. 

109.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person 
who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, 
gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the neces- 
sary ;7erm/Y5 shall be subject to a fee established by the building 
official that shall be in addition to the vequiicd permit fees. 

109.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 
connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

109.6 Refunds. The building official is authorized to establish 
a refund policy. 



SECTION 110 
INSPECTIONS 

110.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is 
required shall be subject to inspection by the building official 
and such construction or work shall remain accessible and 
exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a 
result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval 
of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordi- 
nances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give 
authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of 
other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be 
the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain 
accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the 
building official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense 
entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required 
to allow inspection. 

110.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the 
building official is authorized to examine or cause to be exam- 
ined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has 
been filed. 

110.3 Required inspections. The building official, upon noti- 
fication, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 
110.3.1 through 110.3.10. 

110.3.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Footing and 
foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for 
footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is 
in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall 
be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation 
shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in 
accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on 
the job. 

110.3.2 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. Con- 
crete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after 
in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service 
equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary 
equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is 
placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor. 

110.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, upon 
placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and 
prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certifica- 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



27 



SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



tion required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the 
building official. 

110.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall be 
made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, 
fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys 
and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough elec- 
trical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are 
approved. 

110.3.5 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath and 
gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and 
gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before 
any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints and fasten- 
ers are taped and finished. 

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly or a shear assembly. 

110.3.6 Fire- and smoke-resistant penetrations. Protec- 
tion of joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall not 
be concealed from view until inspected and approved. 

110.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections shall 
be made to determine compliance with Chapter 13 and shall 
include, but not be limited to, inspections for: envelope 
insulation/?- and L'^- values, fenestration [/-value, duct sys- 
tem 7?- value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment effi- 
ciency. 

110.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspections 
specified above, the building official is authorized to make 
or require other inspections of any construction work to 
ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and 
other laws that are enforced by the department of building 
safety. 

110.3.9 Special inspections. For special inspections, see 
Section 1704. 

110.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be 
made after all work required by the building permit is com- 
pleted. 

110.4 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized 
to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided 
such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and 
reliability. 

110.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of 
the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the 
building official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be 
the duty of the /?^rmiY holder to provide access to and means for 
inspections of such work that are required by this code. 

110.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the 
point indicated in each successive inspection without first 
obtaining the approval of the building official. The building 
official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections 
and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is 
satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or 
her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any 
portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion 
shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the build- 
ing official. 



SECTION 111 
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY 

111.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be 
used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy 
classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall 
be made, until the building official has issued a certificate of 
occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate 
of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a viola- 
tion of tiie provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the 
jurisdiction. 

Exception: Certificates of occupancy are not required for 
work exempt from permits under Section 105.2. 

111.2 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects 
the building or structure and finds no violations of the provi- 
sions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment of building safety, the building official shall issue a 
certificate of occupancy that contains the following: 

1 . The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. The name and address of the owner. 

4. A description of that portion of the structure for which 
the certificate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code for the occupancy and division of 
occupancy and the use for which the proposed occu- 
pancy is classified. 

6. The name of the building official. 

1. The edition of the code under which the permit was 
issued. 

8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 3. 

9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6. 

10. The design occupant load. 

11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether 
the sprinkler system is required. 

12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

111.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is autho- 
rized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the 
completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided 
that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The 
building official shall set a time period during which the tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

111.4 Revocation. The building official is authorized to, in 
writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or com- 
pletion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the 
certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation supplied, or where it is determined that the building or 
structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or 
regulation or any of the provisions of this code. 



28 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SECTION 112 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

112.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make 
connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to 
any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a 
permit is required, until released by the building official, 

112.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall have 
the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the 
building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power. 

112.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building 
official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of 
utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by 
this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in 
Section 101.4 in case of emergency where necessary to elimi- 
nate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such util- 
ity connection has been made without the approval required by 
Section 112.1 or 112.2. The building official shall notify the 
serving utility, and wherever possible the owner and occupant 
of the building, structure or service system of the decision to 
disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to 
disconnecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure 
or service system shall be notified in writing, as soon as practi- 
cal thereafter. 



SECTION 113 
BOARD OF APPEALS 

113.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, 
decisions or determinations made by the building official rela- 
tive to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall 
be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of 
appeals shall be appointed by the applicable governing author- 
ity and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt 
rules of procedure for conducting its business. 

113.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal 
shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the 
rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly inter- 
preted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an 
equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The 
board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this 
code. 

113.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of 
members who are qualified by experience and training to pass 
on matters pertaining to building construction and are not 
employees of the jurisdiction. 



SECTION 114 
VIOLATIONS 

114.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, 
remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equip- 
ment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in con- 
flict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

114.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized to 
serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible 
for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, 



moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in viola- 
tion of 3i permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this 
code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal 
action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

114.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not 
complied with promptly, the building official is authorized to 
request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the 
appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or 
abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of 
the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation 
of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made 
pursuant thereto. 

114.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provi- 
sion of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements 
thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or 
structure in violation of the approved construction documents 
or directive of the building official, or of di permit or certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION 115 
STOP WORK ORDER 

115.1 Authority. Whenever the building official finds any 
work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either 
contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, 
the building official is authorized to issue a stop work order. 

115.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and 
shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the 
owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance 
of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. 
The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the 
conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to 
resume. 

115.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue 
any work after having been served with a stop work order, 
except such work as that person is directed to perform to 
remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to pen- 
alties as prescribed by law. 



SECTION 116 
UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

116.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or 
hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of 
inadequate means of egress facilities, inadequate light and ven- 
tilation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dan- 
gerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve 
illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, 
shall be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be 
taken down and removed or made safe, as the building official 
deems necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant 
structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed 
unsafe. 

116.2 Record. The building official shall cause a report to be 
filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occu- 
pancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 



116.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the building offi- 
cial shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the 
structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed 
unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be 
made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe 
structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice 
shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to 
the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the 
order. 

116.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed prop- 
erly served if a copy thereof is (a) dehvered to the owner per- 
sonally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the 
owner at the last known address with the return receipt 
requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by 
local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing 
that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted 
in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such 
notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing manner upon the 
owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure 
shall constitute service of notice upon the owner. 

116.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment determined to 
be unsafe by the building official is permitted to be restored to a 
safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or addi- 
tions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the res- 
toration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions or 
change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34. 



30 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 
























Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 
















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter/Section 








































201.3 




X 




































201.4 




X 




































202 




X 




































Access Aisle 












X 




























Accessibility 












X 




























Accessible 












X 




























Accessible Element 












X 




























Accessible Means of Egress 












X 




























Accessible Route 












X 




























Accessible Route of Travel 












X 




























Accessible Space 












X 




























Adaptability 












X 




























Adaptable Dwelling Unit 












X 




























Addition 












X 




























Administrative Authority 












X 




























Aged Home or Institution 




X 




































Aisle 












X 




























Aisle, Employee Areas 












X 




























Alteration (or Alter) 












X 




























Alternate Card Reader 












X 




























ANSI 












X 




























Approved (with notes) 








































Approved (w/o notes) 












X 




























Approved Listing Agency 








































Approved Testing Agency 












X 




























Area of Refuge 












X 




























Assembly Area 












X 




























Assistive Device 












X 




























Automatic Door 












X 




























Bathroom 












X 




























Bedridden Person 




X 




































Building 




X 




































Building (with exception) 








































Building (w/o exceptions and 
notes) 












X 




























Building Entrance on an 
Accessible Route 












X 




























Building, Existing 












X 




























Building Official 












X 




























Care and Supervision 




X 





































(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



31 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS— continued 



Adopting agency 


BBC 


SFM 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 
























Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 
















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter/Section 








































Catastrophically Injured 




X 




































CCR 












X 




























Cellular Concrete 








































Child-Care Center 




X 




































Child or Children 




X 




































Chronically III 




X 




































Circulation Path 












X 




























Clear 












X 




























Clear Floor Space 












X 




























Closed-Circuit Telephone 












X 




























Commercial Facilities 












X 




























Common Use Areas 












X 




























Comply With 












X 




























Concrete, Cellular 








































Congregate Living Health 
Facility (CLHF) 




X 




































Congregate Residence 




X 




































Covered Multifamily Dwellings 












X 




























Cross Slope 












X 




























Curb Cut 












X 




























Curb Ramp 












X 




























Day-Care 




X 




































Day-Care Home, Large Family 




X 




































Day-Care Home, Small Family 




X 




































Department 








































Detached Single-Family 
Dwellling 








































Detectable Warning 










X 


X 




























Directional Sign 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Disability 












X 




























Disabled 












X 




























Dormitory 




X 








X 




























Dwelling Unit 












X 




























Efficiency Dwelling Unit 






X 


































Electric Vehicle 




X 




































Element 












X 





























(continued) 



32 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 
























Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 
















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter/Section 








































Elevator, Passenger 












X 




























Enforcement 






X 


X 
































Enforcing Agency 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






X 


X 


X 


X 
















Entrance 












X 




























Equivalent Facilitation 










X 


X 




























Existing Buildings 












X 




























Exit 












X 




























Facility (or Facilities) 










X 


X 




























Family 






X 


































Fire-Retardant Treated Wood 




X 




































Free-Standing Pedestal 












X 




























Full-Time Care 




X 




































Grab Bar 










X 


X 




























Grade (Adjacent Ground 
Elevation) 










X 


X 




























Ground Floor 










X 


X 




























Guard (or Guardrail) 






X 


X 




X 




























Handrail 






X 


X 


X 


X 




























Hazardous Substance 




X 




































Health Care Provider 












X 




























High-Rise Building 




X 




































Historical Buildings 












X 




























Hotel or Motel 






X 


X 
































If, lf...Then 












X 




























Impact Insulation Class (IIC) 






X 


X 


X 






























Independent Entity 












X 




























Infant 




X 




































International Symbol of 
Accessibility 










X 


X 




























Kick Plate 










X 


X 




























Laboratory 




X 




































Laboratory Suite 




X 




































Level Accessible Area 












X 




























Level Area 










X 


X 




























Lift, Platform (Wheelchair) 










X 


X 




























Listed 




X 


X 


X 


X 































(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



33 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS— continued 



Adopting agency 


BBC 


SFWI 


HCD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 
























Adopt entire chapter as 
annended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 
















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter/Section 








































Listing Agency 








































Lobby 




X 




































Lodging House 








































Marked Crossing 










X 


X 




























May 












X 




























Mentally Retarded Persons, 
Profoundly or Severely 




X 




































Modernization Project 




X 




































Motel 






X 


X 
































Motion Picture and Television 
Production Studio Sound 
Stage, Approved Production 
Facilities and Production 
Locations 




X 




































Multistory Dwelling Unit 












X 




























M ultiple-Accommodation 
Toilet Facility 












X 




























New Public School Campus 




X 




































Newly Constructed 












X 




























NFPA 












X 




























Nonambulatory Persons 




X 




































Noncombustible 




X 




































Normal 








































Nosing (or Nose) 












X 




























Occupiable Space 












X 




























Open Riser 












X 




























Operable Part 












X 




























Organized Camps 




X 




































Passage Door 












X 




























Passenger Elevator 












X 




























Passive Solar Energy 
Collector 








































Path of Travel 












X 




























Pedestrian 












X 




























Pedestrian Grade Separation 












X 




























Pedestrian Ramp 












X 




























Pedestrian Way 












X 




























Permanent 












X 





























(continued) 



34 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 
























Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 
















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter/Section 








































Permanent Portable Building 




X 




































Permit 












X 




























Person with Disabilities 












X 




























Platform 












X 




























Platform (Wheelchair) Lift 












X 




























Portable Building 




X 




































Portable Building, Exempted 




X 




































Powder Room 












X 




























Power-Assisted Door 












X 




























Primary Entry 








































Primary-Entry Level 








































Professional Office of a Health 
Care Provider 












X 




























Protective Social Care Facility 




X 




































Public Accommodation 












X 




























Public Entrance 








































Public-Use Areas 












X 




























Public Way 












X 




























Publicly Funded 








































Qualified Historical Building 
(or Property) 












X 




























Ramp 












X 




























Reasonable Portion 












X 




























Recommended 












X 




























Remodeling 












X 




























Repair 












X 




























Residential Care Facility for 
the Chronically III (RCF/CI) 




X 




































Residential Care Facility for 

the Elderly (RCFE) 




X 




































Residential Facility (RF) 




X 




































Restraint 




X 




































Restricted Entrance 








































Riser 












X 




























Running Slope 












X 




























Sanitary Facility 












X 




























Service Entrance 












X 





























(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



35 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 
























Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 
















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter/Section 








































Shall 












X 




























Shopping Center or Shopping 
Mall 












X 




























Should 












X 




























Sidewalk 












X 




























Signage 












X 




























Single-Accommodation 
Sanitary Facility 












X 




























Site 












X 




























Site Development 












X 




























Sleeping Accommodations 












X 




























Slope 












X 




























Sound Transmission Class 
(STC) 








































Space 












X 




























Special Access/Lift 












X 




























Specified Public 
Transportation 












X 




























Stage 












X 




























Stair 












X 




























Stainway 












X 




























State-Owned/Leased Building 




X 




































Story 












X 




























Story, First 












X 




























Structural Frame 












X 




























Structure 












X 




























Tactile 












X 




























Technically Infeasible 












X 




























Temporary 












X 




























Terminally III 




X 




































Testing Agency 








































Text Telephone 












X 




























Transient Lodging 












X 




























Transit Boarding Platform 












X 




























Tread 












X 




























Type of Motor Fuel 












X 





























(continued) 



36 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 2 - DEFINITIONS— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 
























Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


X 








X 


X 


X 


X 
















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 




























Chapter/Section 








































Unreasonable Hardship 












X 




























Vehicular or Pedestrian Arrival 
Points 












X 




























Vehicular Way 












X 




























Waiting Room 




X 




































Walk 












X 




























Wheelchair 












X 




























Wheelchair Occupant 
(or Wheelchair User) 












X 




























Wheelchair Space 








































Winery Caves 




X 




































Work Station 












X 





































































The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to 
Section 1.11. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



37 



38 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural, the singular. 

201.3 Terms deOned in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the California Fuel Gas 
Code, California Fire Code, California Mechanical Code or 
California Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the meanings 
ascribed to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 

I For applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, where terms are not defined through 
the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have 
ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies, Web- 
ster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing 
ordinarily accepted meanings. 



SECTION 202 
DEFINITIONS 

AAC MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

ACCESSIBLE. [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tion 1107A.1-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B, 

ACCESS AISLE. [DSA-ACJSee Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBILITY. [DSA-AC & HCD l-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE. [DSA-AC & HCD l-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 1 IB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter llA, Section 1107A.1-A. 

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chap- 
ter 1 IB, Section 11 02B. 

ACCESSIBLE SPACE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302.1. 



ADAPTABILITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

ADAPTABLE DWELLING UNIT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 

See Chapter llA, Section 1107AJ-A. 

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height 
of a building or structure. 

[DSA-AC] "Addition" is an extension, expansion or 
increase in floor area or height of a building, facility or struc- 
ture. 

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, stabilized. See Section 2102.1. 

Adobe, unstabilized. See Section 2102.1. 
[F] AEROSOL. See Section 307.2. 

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 307.2. 

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 307.2. 

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION See Section 310.2. I 

AGGREGATE. See Section 1502.1. I 

AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and 
constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, live- 
stock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be 
a place of human habitation or a place of employment where 
agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor 
shall it be a place used by the public. 

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 

AIRSUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2. 

Double skin. See Section 3102.2. 

Single skin. See Section 3102.2. 
AISLE. See Section 1002.1. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

AISLE ACCESS WAY. See Section 1002.1. 

AISLE, EMPLOYEE AREAS. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, 
Section 1102B. 

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 
902.1, 

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 
902.1. 

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



39 



DEFINITIONS 



ALTERATION OR ALTER. Any construction or renovation 
to an existing structure other than repair or addition. 

[DSA-AC] "Alteration or alter" is any change, addition or 
modification in construction or occupancy or structural repair 
or change in primary function to an existing structure made by^ 
on behalf of or for the use of a public accommodation or com- 
mercial facility. Alterations include, but are not limited to, 
remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, his- 
toric restoration, changes or rearrangement of the structural 
parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan 
configuration of walls and full-height partitions. 

ALTERNATE CARD READER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
lie, Section IIOIC.I 

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1. 

AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITY. Buildings or 
portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, 
nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to individu- 
als who are rendered incapable of self-preservation. 

ANCHOR. See Section 2102.1. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

ANNULAR SPACE. See Section 702.1. 

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1. 

ANSI [DSA-AC] means the American National Standards 
Institute. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or authority hav- 
ing jurisdiction. 

[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Approved" means meeting 
the approval of the enforcing agency, except as otherwise 
provided by law, when used in connection with any system, 
material, type of construction, fixture or appliance as the 
result of investigations and tests conducted by the agency, or 
by reason of accepted principles or tests by national author- 
ities or technical, health or scientific organizations or agen- 
cies. 

Notes: [HCD 1 & HCD 2] 

1. See Health and Safety Code Section 17920 for 
"Approved" as applied to residential construction 
and buildings or structures accessory thereto, as ref- 

I I erenced in Section 1.8.2.1.1. 

2. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.1 for 
"Approved" as applied to the use of hotplates in resi- 

I I dential construction referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.1. 

3. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.3 for 
"Approved" as applied to low-flush water closets in 
residential construction, as referenced in Section 

I I 1.8.2,1.1. 

4. See Health and Safety Code Section 19966 for 
"Approved" as applied to factory-built housing as 

I I referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5. 

5. See Health and Safety Code Section 18201 for 
"Approved" as applied to mobilehome parks as ref- 

I I erenced in Section L8.2.L3. 



6. See Health and Safety Code Section 18862.1 for 
"Approved" as applied to special occupancy parks as 
referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.3. 

APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED USTING AGENCY, [HCD I & HCD 2] Any 

agency approved by the enforcing agency, unless otherwise 
provided by law, which is in the business of listing and labeling 
and which makes available at least an annual published report 
of such listings in which specific information is included that 
the product has been tested to recognized standards and found 
to comply. 

APPROVED TESTING AGENCY, [HCD 1, HCD 2 & 
DSA-AC] Any agency, which is determined by the enforcing 
agency, except as otherwise provided by law, to have adequate 
personnel and expertise to carry out the testing of systems, 
materials, types of construction, fixtures or appliances. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. See Section 1702.1. 

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or cor- 
poration, approved by the building official, who is competent 
and experienced in the application of engineering principles to 
materials, methods or systems analyses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. See Section 2102. 1 . 

AREA (for masonry). See Section 2102.1. 

Bedded. See Section 2102.1. 

Gross cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

Net cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1. 

AREA, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1. 

ARE AWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at 
the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard. 

ASSEMBLY AREA. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 3 10.2, "Res- 
idential Care/Assisted living facilities." 

ASSISTIVE DEVICE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
11 A, Section 1107A.1-A. 

ATRIUM. See Section 404.1.1. 

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story 
and the roof rafters. 

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

See Section 902.1. 

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

AUTOMATIC DOOR. [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107AJ-A, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. 

See Section 902.1. 

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 



II 



p 



I 



40 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 
902.1. 

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather 
protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by 
the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of 
a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached. 

BACKING. See Section 1402.1. 

[F] BALED COTTON. See Section 307.2. 

[F] BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See Section 
307.2. 

BALLAST. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2. 

Artificial barricade. See Section 307.2. 

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2. 

BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 

BASEMENT (for other than flood loads). See Section 502. 1 . 

BASEMENT (for flood loads). See Section 1612.2. 

BATHROOM. [DSA^AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.2-B, 

BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2. 

BED JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

II BEDRIDDEN PERSON. See Section 310.2. 

BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1. 

BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2. 

[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2. 

BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1. 

^ BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1. 

BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

BRICK. See Section 2102.1. 

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1. 

Clay or shale. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. 

Exception: [HCD 1, BCD 2 & BCD 1-AC] For applica- 
I I tions listed in Section 1.8.2 regulated by the Department of 
Housing and Community Development, ''Building" shall 
not include the following: 

1. Any mobilehome as defined in Health and Safety 
Code Section 18008. 

2. Any manufactured home as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18007. 

3. Any commercial modular as defined in Health and 
Safety Code Section 18001.8 or any special purpose 
commercial modular as defined in Section 18012.5. 



II 



4. Any recreational vehicle as defined in Section Health 
and Safety Code 18010. 

5. Any multifamily manufactured home as defined in I I 
Health and Safety Code Section 18008.7. 

For additional information, see Health and Safety Code 
Section 18908. 

Note: Building shall have the same meaning as defined in 
Health and Safety Code Section 1 7920 and 18908 for the appli- 
cations specified in Section 1.11. 

BUILDING ENTRANCE ON AN ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. 

[DSA'AC& HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 1 A, Section 1107A.2-B. 

BUILDING, EXISTING. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] A 

building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for 
which a legal building permit has been issued. 

BUILDING ELEMENT. See Section 702. 1 . I 

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which 
a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by 
law. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated 
authority charged with the administration and enforcement of 
this code, or a duly authorized representative. 

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. ^ 

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUC- 
TURE. See Section 3102.2. 

CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection 
of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that pro- 
vides weather protection, identity or decoration, and shall be 
structurally independent or supported by attachment to a build- 
ing on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer 
end. 

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. 

See Section 902.1. 

CARE AND SUPERVISION See Section 310.2. \ \ 

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1. 

CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED. See Section 310.2. I I 

CCR [DSA-AC] means the California Code of Regulations. 

[F] CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1. 

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

CELL. See Section 408.1.1. 

CELL (masonry). See Section 2102.1. 

CELL COMPLEX. See Section 408.1.1. 

CELL TIER. See Section 408.1.1. 

CELLULAR CONCRETE. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] A lightweight 
product consisting ofportland cement and selected gas-form- 
ing chemicals or foaming agents which create homogeneous 
voids in the hardened concrete. 

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

CENTRAL CONTROL BUILDING. See Section 408.1.1. \ \ 

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. See Section 721.1.1. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



41 



DEFINITIONS 



I CHILD CARE FACILITIES. See Section 308.3.1. 
CHILD OR CHILDREN, See Section 310.2. 
CHILD CARE CENTER. See Section 310.2. 
CHIMNEY. See Section 2102.1. 
CHIMNEY TYPES. See Section 2102.1. 

High-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

Low-heat appliance type. See Section 2102,1. 

Masonry type. See Section 2102.1, 

Medium-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1. 

I I CHRONICALLY ILL See Section 310.2. 

CIRCULATION PATH. [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1. 

CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1. 

CLEAR. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

CLEAR FLOOR SPACE, [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEPHONE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

I CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. See Section 304. 1 . 1 . 

[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

COLLAR JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

COLLECTOR. See Section 2302.1, 

^ COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 
702,1. 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2, 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2, 

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class IL See Section 307,2. 

Class IIIA. See Section 307,2.^ 

Class IIIB. See Section 307.2. 

COMMERCIAL FACILITIES [DSA-AC] are facilities that 
are intended for nonresidential use and whose operations will 
affect commerce, including factories, warehouses, office build- 
ings and other buildings in which employment may occur 
Commercial facilities shall not include railroad locomotives, 
railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, railroad cars covered 
under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or 
facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage 
under the Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988 (42 USC 
3601-3631, etseq). 

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 

1002.1. 

COMMON USE AREAS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter llA, Section 1107A.3-C, and Chapter 11 B, Section 1102B. 

COMPLY WITH [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2. 



COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Section 
721.1.1. See ** Cellular concrete." 

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. See Sec 

tion 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, PERLITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. See Section 721.1,1. 

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 
721.1.1. 

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 3 10.2. 

CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF). See 

Section 310.2. 

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. See Section 310.2. 

CONNECTOR. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 
902,1. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and 
pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the 
design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of 
a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. 

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602. 

Type I. See Section 602.2. 
Type II. See Section 602.2. 
Type IH. See Section 602.3. 
Type IV. See Section 602.4. 
Type V. See Section 602.5. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See 

Section 415.2. 

[F] CONTROL AREA. See Section 307.2. 

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A 

self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a 
backfill in place of compacted fill. 

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. 

See Section 2302.1. 

CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1. 

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to 
withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when 
exposed to its environment. 

[F] CORROSIVE. See Section 307.2, 

COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, 
bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or 
other enclosing devices. 

COVER. See Section 2102.1. 



42 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 




COVERED MALL BUILDING. See Section 402.2. 

Mall. See Section 402.2. 

Open mall. See Section 402.2. 

Open mall building. See Section 402.2. 

COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS. [DSA-AC & 
HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 1107A.3-C 

CRIPPLE WALL. See Section 2302.1. 

CROSS SLOPE. [DSA-AC & HCD l-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section I107A.3-C, and Chapter IIB, Section I102B, 

[F] CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 307.2. 

CURB CUT. [DSA'AC & HCD l-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Sec- 
tion 1107A,3-Q and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

CURB RAMP. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.3-C, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

DALLE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

DANGEROUS. See Section 3402.1. 

[F] DAY BOX. See Section 307.2. 

DAY-CARE. See Section 310.2. 

DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. See Section 310.2. 

DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. See Section 310.2. 

DAY ROOM. See Section 408. LI . 

DEAD LOADS. See Section 1 602. 1 . 

DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402.1. 

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied 
over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or 
other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and 
surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decora- 
tive effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, 
vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam 
plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative 
materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window 
shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or 
less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a 
substrate. 

DEEP FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1. 

[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2. 

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

DEPARTMENT. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] The Department of Hous- 
ing and Community Development. 

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1908.1.1. 

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Sec 

tion 1613.2. 

DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2. 
DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2. 
DESIGN STRENGTH. See Section 1602.1. 
DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1. 
[F] DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 415.2. 



DETACHED SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLING. [HCD 1 & 

HCD 2] Any single-family dwelling which is separated from 
adjacent property lines by 3 feet (914 mm) or more or is sepa- 
rated from adjacent buildings by 6 feet (1829 mm) or more. 

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. 

See Section 1908.1.1. 

DETECTABLE WARNING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 

Chapter HA, Section 1107A.4-D, and Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1. 

[F] DETONATION. See Section 307.2. 

DETOXIFICATION FACILITY. See Section 308.3.1. 

DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2302.1. 

Diaphragm, blocked. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1. 

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302.1. 
DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1. 

Actual. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal. See Section 2102.1. 

Specified. See Section 2102.1. 

DIRECTIONAL SIGN. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] A pub- 
licly displayed notice which indicates by use of words or sym- 
bols a recommended direction or route of travel. 

DISABILITY. [DSA-AC] is (1) a physical or mental impair- 
ment that limits one or more of the major life activities of an 
individual, (2) a record of such an impairment, or (3) being 
regarded as having such an impairment. 

DISABLED. [DSA-AC] See ''Disability." 

[F] DISPENSING. See Section 307.2. 

DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1. 

DORMITORY. See Sections 3 10.2 and 408. LI. I 

DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1. 

DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1. 

DRILLED SHAFT. See Section 1802.1. 

Socketed drilled shaft. See Section 1802.1. 

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See 

Section 902.1. 

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2. 

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling 
units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let 
or hired out to be occupied for living purposes. 

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, inde- 
pendent living facilities for one or more persons, including per- 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



43 



DEFINITIONS 



manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and 
sanitation. 

[DSA-AC <fe BCD I'AC] See Chapter 1 1 A, Section 
1107A.4-D, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

EFFICIENCY DWELLING UNIT. [HCD I] A dwelling unit 
containing only one habitable room and includes an efficiency 
unit as defined by Health and Safety Code Section 1 7958. 1, See 
Section 1208,4. 

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1. 

ELECTRIC VEHICLE. See Section 406.7. 

ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ELEVATOR, PASSENGER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, 
Section 1102B. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See ''PASSENGER ELEVA- 
TOR.'' 

I ELEVATOR GROUP. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 
415.2. 

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See 

Section 1002.1. 

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICA- 

TIONS. See Section 902.1. 

ENFORCEMENT. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] The applicable section 
of the Health and Safety Code is repeated here for clarity and 
reads as follows: 

Section 17920. "Enforcement'' means diligent effort to 
secure compliance, including review of plans and permit 
applications, response to complaints, citation of violations, 
and other legal process. Except as otherwise provided in 
this party "enforcement" may, but need not, include inspec- 
tions of existing buildings on which no complaint or permit 
application has been filed, and effort to secure compliance 
as to these existing buildings. 

I ENFORCING AGENCY [DSA-AC, HCD 1, HCD 2, SFM & 
I OSHPD 1,2, 3 & 4]. The designated department or agency as 
specified by statute or regulation. 

ENTRANCE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 502.1. 

EQUIVALENT FACILITATION [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 

See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.5-E, and Chapter IIB, Sec- 
tion 1102B. 

ESSENTL\L FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415,2. 

EXISTING BUILDINGS. [DSA-AC] See "Building, exist- 
ing." 

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

EXISTINGSTRUCTURE. See Sections 1612.2 and3402.1. 

EXIT. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1. 

I EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. See Section 1002. 1 . 



EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OR See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1. 

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 
802.1. 

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 307.2. 

[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2. 

High explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Low explosive. See Section 307.2. 

Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2. 

Division l.I. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.2. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2. 

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS). 

See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM 
(EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1. 

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1. 

F RATING. See Section 702.1. 

FABRIC PARTITION. See Section 1602.1. 

FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1. 

[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2. 

FACILITY (OR FACILITIES). [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 

Chapter llA, Section 1107A.6-F, and Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

FAMILY [HCD 1] is an individual or two or more persons who 
are related by blood or marriage; or otherwise live together in 
a dwelling unit. 

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER. See Section 2602.1. 

Fiberglass Reinforced Polymer. See Section 2602.1. 

FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302. 1 . 

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1. 

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 



44 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE DOOR. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002. 1 . 

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to 
allow the passage of fire apparatus. A. fire lane is not necessar- 
ily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus. 

FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. See Section 702.1. 

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE-RETARDANT TREATED WOOD, [SFM] See Section 
2303.2. 

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE WALL. See Section 702.1. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1. 

FIREPLACE. See Section 2102.1. 

FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] FIREWORKS. See Section 307.2. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 307.2, 

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 307.2. 
FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). See Section 412.2. 
FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1. 
FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1. 
[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2. 

Class lA. See Section 307.2. 

Class IB. See Section 307.2. 

Class IC. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2. 
[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 415.2. 
[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2. 
FLIGHT. See Section 1002.1. 



FLOOD OR FLOODING. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Sec- 
tion 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH-VELOC- 
ITY WAVE ACTION. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 

1612.2. 

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2. 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1. 

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2. 

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 
902.1. 

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1. 

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 
1002.1. 

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2. 

FOUNDATION PIER. See Section 2102.1. 

FRAME STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2. 

FREE-STANDING PEDESTAL, [DSA-AC] See Chapter 
IIQ Section IIOIC.I. 

FULL-TIME CARE. See Section 310. 

[F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. See Section 42 1 .2. 

GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1. 

GRAB BAR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Sec- 
tion 1107A.7-G, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

GRADE (Adjacent Ground Elevation) [DSA-AC] [HCD 
1-AC] is the lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of 
the ground, paving or sidewalk within the area between the 
building and the property line or, when the property line is more 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the building, between the building 
and a line 5 feet (1524 mm) from the building. See Health and 
Safety Code Section 199553(d). 

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening 
located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 
44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level 
adjacent to the opening. 

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1. 

GRADE PLANE. See Section 502. L 

GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1. 

GRIDIRON. See Section 410.2. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



45 



DEFINITIONS 



GROUND FLOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
1 1 A, Section 1 107 AJ-G, 

GROUTED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Grouted multiwythe masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

II GUARD [DSA-AQ HCD 1& HCD 2] OR GUARDRAIL. Set 

Section 1002.1. 

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1. 

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleep- 
ing, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, 
storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered 
habitable spaces. 

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See 

Section 902.1. 

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2. " 
HANDRAIL. See Section 1002. 1 . 
HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 
[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 

See Section 415.2. 

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. [SFM] Hazardous Substance 
is a substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, 
toxic, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritant or otherwise 
harmful, is likely to cause injury. 

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1. 

HEALTH CARE PROVIDER. [DSA-AC] See ''Professional 
Office of a Health Care Provider" in Chapter IIB, Section 
11023. 

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1. 

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1. 

I HELICAL PILE. See Section 1802.1. 

HELIPORT. See Section 412.2. 

HELISTOP. See Section 412.2. 

I HIGH-RISE BUILDING. [SFM] See Section 403.1 J. 

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are hsted in or eligi- 
ble for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or 
designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law 
(see Sections 3409 and 3411.9). 

HISTORICAL BUILDINGS. [DSA-AC] See ''Qualified his- 
torical building or property,*' C.C.R., Title 24, Part 8. 

II HOLDING FACILITY. See Section 408.1.1. 
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1. 



HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 
308.3.1. 

HOTEL OR MOTEL [HCD I & HCD 2] is any building con- 
taining six or more guest rooms intended or designed to be 
used, or which are used, rented or hired out to be occupied, or 
which are occupied for sleeping purposes by guests. 

HOUSING UNIT. See Section 408.1.1. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. See Section 421.2. 

IF. IF... THEN [DSA-AC] See Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B. 

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 415 2. 

IMPACT INSULATION CLASS (IIC). See Chapter 12, Sec- 
tion 1207.2. 

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2. 

INDEPENDENT ENTITY [DSA-AC] is a not-for-profit prod- 
uct safety testing and certification organization, dedicated to 
testing for public safety. An independent entity would operate 
for the testing, certification and quality assessment of products, 
systems and services. 

[F] INERT GAS. See Section 307.2. 

INFANT See Section 310.2. 

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1. 

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1. 

[F] INTERIOR FLOOR- WALL BASE. See Section 802 1. 

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 
802.1. 

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

INTERNATIONAL SYMBOL OF ACCESSIBILITY. 
[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.9-I, 
and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See 

Section 1702.1. 

JOINT. See Section 702.1. 

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted 
this code under due legislative authority. 

KICK PLATE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107A.11-K, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

LABEL. An identification apphed on a product by the manu- 
facturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the func- 
tion and performance characteristics of the product or material, 



46 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



II 



and the name and identification of an approved agency and that 
indicates that the representative sample of the product or mate- 
rial has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency (see 
Section 1703.5 and "Inspection certificate," "Manufacturer's 
designation" and "'Mark''). 

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which has 
been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a 
nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or 
other organization concerned with product evaluation that 
maintains periodic inspection of the production of the 
above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that 
the equipment, material or product meets identified standards 
or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose. 

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Labeled" means equipment or materi- 
als to which has been attached a label, symbol or other iden- 
tifyi^S f^^rk of an organization, approved by the 
Department, that maintains a periodic inspection program 
of production of labeled products, installations, equipment, 
or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indi- 
cates compliance with appropriate standards or perfor- 
mance in a specified manner. 

LABORATORY. [SFM] A room, building or area where the 
use and storage of hazardous materials are utilized for testing, 
analysis, instruction, research or developmental activities. 

LABORATORY SUITE. [SFM] See Section 443.2 

LEVEL ACCESSIBLE AREA, [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIC, 
Section IIOIC.L 

LEVEL AREA. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, 
Section 1107AJ2-L, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

LIFT, PLATFORM (WHEELCHAIR). [DSA-AC & HCD 

1-AC] See *' Platform (Wheelchair) Lift" Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.16-P, and Chapter 11 B, Section 1102B. 

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction 
whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily 
formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel 
framing members. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. 

See Section 2602.1. 

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1602.1. 

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. 

See Section 415,2. 

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included 
in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code 
official and concerned with evaluation of products or services 
that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed 
equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and 
whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product 
or service meets identified standards or has been tested and 
found suitable for a specified purpose. 



[HCD 1 & HCD 2] "listed" means all products that appear in I I 
a list published by an approved testing or listing agency. For 
additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 
17920(h). 

For applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office I I 
of the State Fire Marshal, "listed" shall also mean equipment 
or materials accepted by the state fire marshal as conforming 
to the provisions of the State Fire Marshal's regulations and 
which are included in a list published by the State Fire Mar- 
shal. 

LISTING AGENCY [HCD 1& HCD 2] An agency approved II 

by the department that is in the business of listing and labeling 
products, materials, equipment and installations tested by an 
approved testing agency, and that maintains aperiodic inspec- 
tion program on current production of listed products, equip- 
ment and installations, and that, at least annually, makes 
available a published report of these listings. For additional 
information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(i). 

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1 602. 1 . 

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602. L 

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). 

See Section 1602.1. 

LOAD EFFECTS. See Section 1 602. 1 . 

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1. 

LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

LOBBY [HCD i, HCD 2 & SFM] An area not defined as a 
waiting room at the entrance of a building through which per- 
sons must pass. 

LODGING HOUSE. [HCD I] Any building or portion thereof 
containing not more than five guest rooms where rent is paid in 
money, goods, labor or otherwise. 

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a 
street or any public place. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 
415.2. 

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2. 

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1702.1. 

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification 
applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a 
product or material complies with a specified standard or set of 
rules (see also "Inspection certificate," ''LabeV and ''Mark''). 

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manu- 
facturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the func- 
tion of a product or material (see also "Inspection certificate," 
"Laber and "Manufacturer's designation"). 

MARKED CROSSING. [DSA-AC & HCD I-AC] See Chapter 
11 A, Section 1107A.13-M, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



47 



DEFINITIONS 



MARQUEE. A permanent roofed structure attached to and 
supported by the building and that projects into the pubHc 
right-of-way. 

MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Coursed ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Glass unit masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Plain masonry. See Section 2102.1, 

Random ashlar. See Section 2102.1. 

Reinforced masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. See Section 2102.1. 
MASONRY UNIT. See Section 2102.1. 

Clay. See Section 2102.1. 

Concrete. See Section 2102.1. 

Hollow. See Section 2102.1. 

Solid. See Section 2102.1. 

MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See Section 
1702.1. 

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND 
MOTION. See Section 1613.2. 

MAY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter I IB, Section 1102B. 

MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

See Section 406.3.2. 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 
1502.1. 

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. See Section 1613.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 
702.1. 

I MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 308.3.1. 

MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY OR 
SEVERELY. See Section 310.2, 

MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 
1402.1. 

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. 

See Section 1402.1. 

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502.1. 
METAL ROOF SHINGLE. See Section 1502.1. 
MEZZANINE. See Section 502.1. 
MICROPILE. See Section 1802.1. 



MINERAL BOARD. See Section 721.1.1. 

MINERAL FIBER. See Section 702.1. 

MINERAL WOOL. See Section 702.1. 

MODERNIZATION PROJECT. [SFM] Modernization Pro- 
ject is any construction effort that has an estimated total cost in 
excess of $200,000.00 that is in- tended to modify a permanent 
school building or structure and or the addition of a new school 
building or structure used to serve or house students from kin- 
dergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). Modernization efforts 
shall apply strictly to a public school that was established prior 
to July 1, 2002, and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, 
Section 17074.56, and Education Code commencing with Sec- 
tion 1 7070.10. Modernization projects that are to be completed 
in more than one phase may defer the installation of the auto- 
matic fire detection and alarm systems until the final phase of 
the modernization project. Solely for the purposes of Educa- 
tion Code Section 17074.20, routine maintenance and repair 
work shall not be considered a modernization project. 

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. See Section 

1502.1. 

MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. See Section 2102.1. 

MOTEL. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See ''Hotel or Motel" I I 

MOTION PICTURE AND TELEVISION PRODUCTION 
STUDIO SOUND STAGES, APPROVED PRODUCTION 
FACILITIES AND PRODUCTION LOCATIONS. See Chap- 
ter 46, California Fire Code. 

MULTIPLE-ACCOMMODATION TOILET FACILITY 
[DSA-AC] is a room that has more than one sanitary fixture, is 
intended for the use of more than one person at a time and 
which usually is provided with privacy compartments or 
screens shielding some fixtures from view. A bathroom serving 
a hotel guest room and a privacy toilet in small offices, stores 
and similar locations are not included in this category. < 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 
902.1. 

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

MULTISTORY DWELLING UNIT [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] 
See Chapter llA, Section 1107AJ3-M. < 

NAILING, BOUNDARY. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, EDGE. See Section 2302.1. 

NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302.1. 

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1. 

Decay resistant. See Section 2302.1. 

Termite resistant. See Section 2302.1. 

NEWLY CONSTRUCTED. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See 

Chapter llA, Section 1107A.14-N. 

NEW PUBLIC SCHOOL CAMPUS. [SFM] New public 
school campus is an educational institution established on or 
after July 1, 2002 that houses and or serves students from kin- 



48 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



dergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) and is funded pursuant 
to the Education Code, commencing with Section 17070.10. 

NFPA [DSA-AC] is the National Fire Protection Association. 

NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1. 

NOME^AL SIZE (LUMBER), See Section 2302.1. 

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS. See Section 310.2. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE, [SFM] Noncombustible as applied to 
building construction material means a material which, in the 
form in which it is used, is either one of the following: 

1. Material of which no part will ignite and burn when sub- 
jected to fire. Any material passing ASTME 136 shall be 
considered noncombustible. 

2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible 
material as defined in Item 1 above, with a surfacing 
material not over V^ inch (3.2 mm) thick which has a 
flame-spread index of 50 or less. 

"Noncombustible " does not apply to surface finish materi- 
als. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clear- 
ances to flues, heating appliances or other sources of high 
temperature shall refer to material conforming to Item 1. No 
material shall be classed as noncombustible which is subject to 
increase in combustibility or flame- spread index, beyond the 
limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture or 
other atmospheric condition. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See 

Section 3102.2. 

NORMAL [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Conforming to a pattern or 
standard regarded as usual or typical. 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 

(NTP). See Section 415.2. 

I I NOSING (OR NOSE). See Section 1002.1[DSA-AC, HCD 
1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.14-N, and Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

I NOTIFICATION ZONE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 
I NURSING HOMES. See Section 308.3.1. 

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. See Section 1602.1. 

OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1. 

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed 
for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for 
amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occu- 
pants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means 
of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the 
requirements of this code. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2. 

OPEN RISER. [DSA-AC Sl HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.15-O, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2. 

OPERABLE PART. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

[F] OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2. 



ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Sec- 
tion 1908.1.1. 

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUC- 
TURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1. 

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE 
WALL. See Section 1908.1.1. 

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2. 

Class I. See Section 307.2. 

Class IL See Section 307.2. 

Class in. See Section 307.2. 

Class IV. See Section 307.2. 

Class V. See Section 307.2. 

Unclassified detonable. See Section 307.2. 

ORGANIZED CAMPS. See Section 440. 

ORTHOGONAL. See Section 1613.2. 

OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a 
legal or equitable interest in the property. 

[F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2. 

Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2. 

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1. 

PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1. 

PARTICLEBOARD. See Section 2302.1. 

PASSAGE DOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PASSENGER ELEVATOR. [DSA-AC] See ''Elevator, passen- 
ger in Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] "Passenger Elevator" is an elevator 
used primarily to carry persons. For additional informa- 
tion, see California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, 
Chapter 4. 

PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR. [HCD 1 & HCD 

2] Uses architectural components, rather than mechanical 
components, to provide heating or cooling for a building inte- 
rior. 

PATH OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN GRADE SEPARATION. [DSA-AC] See 

Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PEDESTRIAN RAMP [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



49 



DEFINITIONS 



PEDESTRIAN WAY. [DSA-AC & HCD UAC] See Chapter 
llA, Section 1107 A, 16-P, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B, 

PENETRATION FIRESTOR See Section 702.1. 

PENTHOUSE. See Section 1 502. 1 . 

PERMANENT [DSA-AC] shall mean facilities which, are 
intended to be used for periods longer than those designated in 
this code under the definition of "Temporary." 

PERMANENT PORTABLE BUILDING. [SFM] A portable 
building that is used to serve or house students and is certified 
as a permanent building on a new public school campus by the 
public school administration shall comply with the require- 
ments of new campus buildings. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of 
a specified activity. 

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or 
assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its 
or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the afore- 
said. 

PERSONS WITH DISABLITIES. [DSA-AC & HCD I-AC] 
See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.16'P. 

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1002.1, 

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL. See Section 415.2. 

, PINRAIL. See Section 410.2. 

PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1. 

PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1. 

^ PLATFORM. See Section 410.2. 

PLATFORM (WHEELCHAIR) LIFT [DSA-AC & HCD 
1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

PORTABLE BUILDING. [SFM] Portable Building is a class- 
room building or structure of modular design and construction 
that houses and or serves student, regardless of occupancy 
classification, from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) 
and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, commencing 
with Section 1 7070. 1 and meets all of the following criteria: 

• The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed to be relocatable and transportable over public 
streets. 

• The portable building or structure is designed and con- 
structed for relocation without detaching the roof or the 
floor from the building or structure. 

• The portable building or structure is sited upon a tempo- 
rary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit 
easy removal. 

• The portable building or structure has a floor area of 
2,000 square feet or less when measured from the extent 
of the exterior walls. 

• The portable building shall be removed within three 
years of installation or the school administration may 



request a three year extension pursuant to Education 
Code Section 17074.54 (a) and (b). 

PORTABLE BUILDING, EXEMPTED. [SFM] A portable 
building as defined in Section 202 as referenced by California 
Education Code Section 17074.54, that is certified by the pub- 
lic school administration as being sited on campus for less than 
three years. 

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1. 

POWDER ROOM. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 1 lA, 
Section 1107A.16-P. 

POWER-ASSISTED DOOR [DSA-AC] is a door used for 
human passage with a mechanism that helps to open the door, 
or relieves the opening resistance of a door, upon the activation 
of a switch or a continued force applied to the door itself. 

PREFABRICATED WOOD I- JOIST. See Section 2302. 1 . 

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

PRIMARY ENTRY. [HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.16-R 

PRIMARY ENTRY LEVEL. [HCD I-AC] See Chapter 11 A, 
Section 1107A.16-R 

PRIMARY FUNCTION. See Section 3402.1. 

PRIMARY STRUCTURAL FRAME. The primary structural 
frame shall include all of the following structural members: 

1. The columns; 

2. Structural members having direct connections to the col- 
umns, including girders, beams, trusses and spandrels; 

3. Members of the floor construction and roof construction 
having direct connections to the columns; and 

4. Bracing members that are essential to the vertical stabil- 
ity of the primary structural frame under gravity loading 
shall be considered part of the primary structural frame 
whether or not the bracing member carries gravity loads. 

PRISM. See Section 2102.1. 

PROFESSIONAL OFFICE OF A HEALTH CARE PRO- 
VIDER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2. 

PROTECTIVE SOCIAL CARE FACILITY. [SFM] A facility 
housing persons, who are referred, placed or caused to be 
placed in the facility, by any governmental agency and for 
whom the services, or a portion thereof, are paid for by any 
governmental agency. These occupancies shall include, but are 
not limited to, those commonly referred to as ''assisted living 
facilities,'' ''social rehabilitation facilities," "certified family 
care homes,'' "out-of-home placement facilities," and "half- 
way houses." 

PUBUC ACCOMMODATION [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] 

includes^ but is not limited to, any public use building or facility 
that may be classified into one or more of the following catego- 
ries: 

1. Places of public lodging. 

2. Establishments serving food or drink open to public use. 

3. Places of exhibition or entertainment open to public use. 



50 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



4. Places of public gathering. 

5. Sales or rental establishments open to public use, 

6. Service establishments open to public use. 

7. Stations used for public transportation. 

8. Places of public display or collection. 

9. Places of public recreation. 

10. Places of public education. 

11. Social service center establishments open to public use. 

12. Places of exercise or recreation open to public use. 

Examples of public accommodations for purposes of this 
code shall include, but not be limited to, the following private 
entities: 

1. An inn, hotel, motel or other place of public lodging, ex- 
cept for a lodging house located within a building that 
contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and 
that is actually occupied by the proprietor of such es- 
tablishment as the residence of such proprietor 

2. A restaurant, bar or other establishment serving food 
or drink. 

3. A motion picture house, theater, concert hall, stadium 
or other place of exhibition or entertainment. 

4. An auditorium, convention center, lecture hall or other 
place of public gathering. 

5. A bakery, grocery store, clothing store, hardware store, 
shopping center, or other sales or rental establishment. 

6. A laundromat, dry cleaner, bank, barber shop, beauty 
shop, travel service, shoe repair service, funeral parlor, 
gas station, office of an accountant or lawyer, phar- 
macy, insurance office, professional office of a health 
care provider, hospital or other service establishment. 

7. A terminal, depot or other station used for specified 
public transportation. 

8. A museum, library, gallery or other place of public dis- 
play or collection. 

9. A park, zoo, amusement park or other place of recre- 
ation. 

10. A nursery, elementary, secondary, undergraduate or 
postgraduate private school, or other place of educa- 
tion. 

11. A day care center, senior citizen center, homeless shel- 
ter, food bank, adoption agency or other social service 
center establishment. 

12. A gymnasium, health spa, bowling alley, golf course or 
other place of exercise. 

13. A church. 

14. An office building. 

15. A public curb or sidewalk. 

PUBLIC ENTRANCE [DSA-AQ HCD 1-AC] An entrance 
that is not a service entrance or a restricted entrance. 

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. [DSA~AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chap- 
ter 11 A, Section 11 07 A. 16-P, and Chapter 1 IB, Sectionll02B. 

> PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002. 1 . 



PUBLICLY FUNDED. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] For the purposes 
of housing, alt buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and 
related facilities constructed in the state and used or intended 
to be used as a public use area, as defined in Section 
11 07 A. 16-P, shall comply with the accessibility standards of 
Chapter IIB of this code when state, county or municipal 
funds, or funds of any political subdivision of the state are used. 

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2. 

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2, < 

QUALIFIED HISTORICAL BUILDING (or PROPERTY), 

[DSA-AC] See C.C.R. Title 24, Part 8. 

RAMP. See Section 1002.1. 

[DSA-AC & HCD I- AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.18-R and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. ^ 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Sec- 
tion 406.3.2. 

REASONABLE PORTION [DSA-AC] shall mean that seg- 
ment of a building, facility, area, space or condition, which 
would normally be necessary if the activity therein is to be 
accessible by persons with disabilities. 

RECOMMEND. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] Does not require 
mandatory acceptance, but identifies a suggested action that 
shall be consideredfor the purpose of providing a greater degree 
of accessibility to persons with disabilities. 

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902 1. 

REFLECTIVE PLASTIC CORE FOIL INSULATION. 

An insulation material packaged in rolls, that is less than 0.5 
inches thick, with at least one exterior low emittance surface 
(0.1 or less) and a core material containing voids or cells. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual 
who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the pro- 
fessional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which 
the project is to be constructed. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPON- 
SIBLE CHARGE. A registered design professional engaged 
by the owner to review and coordinate certain aspects of the 
project, as determined by the building official, for compatibil- 
ity with the design of the building or structure, including 
submittal documents prepared by others, deferred submitted 
documents and phased submittal documents. 

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion 
thereof intended for the performance of religious services. 

REMODELING. [DSA-AC] See "Alteration or Alter.'' 

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an exist- 
ing building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1. 



RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 412.2, 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONI- 
CALLY ILL (RCF/CI). See Section 310.2. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY 
(RCFE). See Section 310.2. 



< 
II 

II 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



51 



DEFINITIONS 



I I RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF). See Section 310.2. 

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602. 1 . 

RESTRAINT [SFM] Restraint shall mean the physical reten- 
tion of a person within a room, cell or cell block by any means, 
or within the exterior walls of a building by means of locked 
doors inoperable by the person restrained. Restraint shall also 
mean the physical binding, strapping or similar restriction of 
any person in a chair, walker, bed or other contrivance for the 
purpose of deliberately restricting the free movement of ambu- 
latory persons. 

Restraint shall not be construed to include nonambulatory 
persons nor shall it include the use of bandage material, strip 
sheeting or other fabrics or materials (soft ties) used to restrain 
persons in hospital-type beds or wheelchairs to prevent injury, 
provided an approved method of quick release is maintained. 
Facilities employing the use of soft ties, however, shall be clas- 
sified as a building used to house nonambulatory persons. 

Restraint shall not be practiced in licensed facilities classi- 
I I fied as Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies unless con- 
structed as a Group 1-3 occupancy. For Group 1-3 Occupancies 
I I see Section 408. 1.1. 

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE [HCD i, HCD 2 & HCD 
1-AC] is an entrance that is made available for common use on 
a controlled basis, but is not public use, and that is not a service 
entrance. 

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2. 

RISER, [DSA'ACy HCD 1-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.18-R, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1. 

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1. 

RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102. L 

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Random rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

RUNNING SLOPE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

I SALLYPORT. See Section 408 . 1 . 1 . 

SANITARY FACILITY, [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] Any sin- 
gle water closet, urinal, lavatory, bathtub or shower, or a com- 
bination thereof, together with the room or space in which they 
are housed. 

SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 



SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1. 

SECONDARY MEMBERS. The following structural mem- 
bers shall be considered secondary members and not part of the 
primary structural frame: 

1 . Structural members not having direct connections to the 
columns; 

2. Members of the floor construction not having direct con- 
nections to the columns; and 

3. Bracing members other than those that are part of the j!7n- 
mary structural frame, 

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.2. 

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 
1613.2. 

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702.1. 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2. 

SERVICE ENTRANCE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] An 

entrance intended primarily for the delivery of goods or ser- 
vices. 

SHAFT. See Section 702.1. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1. 

SHALL [DSA-AC], See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

SHALLOW FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1. 

SHEAR WALL. See Sections 2102.1 and 2302.1. 

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 

2102.1. 

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2 102. 1 . 

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Sec- 
tion 2102.1. 

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Perforated shear wall. See Section 2302.1. 

Perforated shear wall segment. See Section 2302.1. 

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 
2102.1. 

SHELL. See Section 2102.1. 

SHOPPING CENTER (OR SHOPPING MALL). [DSA-AC, 

HCD 2] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

SHOULD, [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See ''Recommend:' [DSA-AC] 
See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

SIDEWALK, [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] A surfaced pedestrian 
way contiguous to a street used by the public, (As differentiated 
from the definition of ''Walk" in Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.23-W, and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B.) 



52 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



SIGNAGE [DSA'AC] is displayed verbal, symbolic, tactile, 
and/or pictorial information. 

SINGLE-ACCOMMODATION SANITARY FACILITY 
I I [DSA-ACy HCD I'AC] A room that has not more than one of 
each type of sanitary fixture^ is intended for use by only one per- 
son at a time, has no partition around the toilet and has a door 
that can be locked on the inside by the room occupant. 

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502.1. 

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 
902.1. 

SITE. [DSA'AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] A parcel of land bounded 
by a property line or a designated portion of a public right- 
of-way. 

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.2. 

SITE DEVELOPMENT [DSA-AC&HCD 1-AC] ''On-site'' 
and ''off- site" work, including^ but not limited to, walks, side- 
walks, ramps, curbs, curb ramps, parking facilities, stairs, 
planting areas, pools, promenades, exterior gathering or 
assembly areas and raised or depressed paved areas. 

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. See Section 
802.1. 

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration 
unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for 
natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while 
preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof. 

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other 
transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a 
slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing 
material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, 
sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this defini- 
tion. 

SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS. [DSA-AC & HCD 
I'AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 1107A.19-S, and Chapter 
IIB, Section 1102B. 

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, 
which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, 
and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such 
rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not 
sleeping units. 

SLOPE. [DSA-AC & HCD I- AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.19-S 

SMALL MANAGEMENT YARD. See Section 408.1.1. 

[F] SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE BARRIER. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702.1. 

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1. 

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1. 

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1. 

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Sec 

tion 1002.1. 



SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2. 

SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC). [HCD I <& HCD 
2] See Chapter 12, Section 1207.2. 

SPACE. [DSA-AC & HCD 2] A definable area, e.g., a room, 
toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, 
alcove, courtyard, or lobby. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. See Section 41 1.2. 

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, CONTINUOUS. See Section 
1702.1. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION, PERIODIC. See Section 1702. 1 . 

SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1. 

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF 
MASONRY if' J. See Section 2102.1. 

SPECIFIED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION. [DSA-AC] See 

Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

SPLICE. See Section 702.1. 

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 
1702.1. 

STACK BOND. See Section 2102.1. 

STAGE. See Section 410.2. 

STAIR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1. 

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1. 

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 
902.1. 

Class I system. See Section 902.1. 

Class II system. See Section 902.1. 

Class III system. See Section 902.1. 
[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1. 

Manual dry. See Section 902.1. 

Manual wet. See Section 902.1. 

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1. 

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2. 

STATE-OWNED/LEASED BUILDING. [SFM] State- 
Owned/Leased Building is a building or portion of a building 
that is owned, leased or rented by the state. State-leased build- 
ings shall include all required exits to a public way serving 
such leased area or space. Portions of state- leased buildings 
that are not leased or rented by the state shall not be included 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



53 



DEFINITIONS 



within the scope of this section unless such portions present an 
exposure hazard to the state-leased area or space. 

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 
2202.1. 

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1. 

STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 
12 units horizontal (17-percent slope). 

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1. 

Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1. 

Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102,1. 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 

415.2. 

STORM SHELTER. See Section 423.2. 

Community storm shelter. See Section 423.2, 

Residential storm shelter. See Section 423.2. 

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper 
surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next 
above (also see "Basement" ''Mezzanine'" and Section 502.1). 
It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two 
successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the 
topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the 
ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the 
roof rafters. 

[DSA'AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its fin- 
ished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the 
finished surface of the floor next above is: 

1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane \ or 

2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground 
level at any point. 

STORZ FIRST, [DSA-ACJSee Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B, 

STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1. 

Design strength. See Section 2102.1. 

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

Required strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1. 

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Section 1602.1. 

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. See Section 
2302.1. 

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). See Section 2302.1. 

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). See Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL FRAME, [DSA-AC] See Chapter I IB, Sec- 
tion 1102B, 

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. See 

Section 2302.1. 

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1. 
STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed. 
SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1. 



SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2. 

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2. 

SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. See Section 
3402.1. 

SUITE. See Section 1002.1. 

SUNROOM. See Section 1202.1. 

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See 

Section 902.1. 

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2. 

T RATING. See Section 702.1. 

TACTILE, [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] Describes an object that 
can be perceived using the sense of touch. 

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402.1. 

[DSA-AC] ''Technically infeasible " means, with respect to an 
alteration of a building or a facility, that it has little likelihood 
of being accomplished because existing structural conditions 
would require removing or altering a load-bearing member 
which is an essential part of the structural frame; or because 
other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification 
or addition of elements, spaces or features which are in full and 
strict compliance with the minimum requirements for new con- 
struction and which are necessary to provide accessibility. 

TEMPORARY [DSA-AC] shall mean buildings and facilities 
intended for use at one location for not more than one year and 
seats intended for use at one location for not more than 90 
days. 

TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without side- 
walls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material sup- 
ported in any manner except by air or the contents it protects. 

TERMINALLY ILL, See Section 310.2. 

TESTING AGENCY, [HCD 1 & HCD 2] An agency approved 
by the department as qualified and equipped for testing of 
products, materials, equipment and installations in accor- 
dance with nationally recognized standards. For additional 
information, see Health and Safety Code Section 1 7920(m). 

TEXT TELEPHONE, [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1I02B. 

THERMAL ISOLATION. See Section 1202.1. 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1. 

THIN-BED MORTAR. See Section 2102.1. 

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See 

Section 702.1. 

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302. 1 . 
TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1. 



54 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



•i 



TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE. See Section 2102.1. 

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OE See Section 902.1. 

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in 
a group of three or more attached units in which each unit 
extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at 
least two sides. 

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2. 

TRANSIENT. See Section 310.2. 

I TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. See Section 412.2. 

I TRANSIENT LODGING. [DSA-AQ HCD I- AC] See Chap- 
I terllA, Section 1107A20-Z and Chapter 1 IB, Section 1102B, 

TRANSIT BOARDING PLATFORM. [DSA-AC] See Chap- 
ter 11 B, Section 1102B. 

TREAD, [DSA-AC & HCD I-AC] See Chapter llA, Section 
1107A.20-T, and Chapter UB, Section 1102B, 

TREAD DEPTH. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

TREAD RUN [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302 1 . 

Fire-retardant-treated wood. See Section 2302.1. 

Preservative-treated wood. See Section 2302.1. 

TRIM. See Section 802.1. 

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1. 

TYPE OF MOTOR FUEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIQ Sec- 
tion IIOICI. 

UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1. 

UNREASONABLE HARDSHIP [DSA-AC] exists when the 
enforcing agency finds that compliance with the building stan- 
dard would make the specific work of the project affected by the 
building standard unfeasible, based on an overall evaluation of 
the following factors: 

1. The cost of providing access. 

2. The cost of all construction contemplated. 

3. The impact of proposed improvements on financial fea- 
sibility of the project, 

4. The nature of the accessibility which would be gained or 
lost. 

5. The nature of the use of the facility under construction 
and its availability to persons with diasbilities. 

The details of any finding of unreasonable hardship shall be 
recorded and entered in the files of the enforcing agency. 

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 

307.2. 



Class 4. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. 

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or cover- 
ing having a permeance rating of 5 perms (52.9 xlO"'^ kg/Pa ■ s • m^) 
or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method 
using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable material 
permits the passage of moisture vapor. 

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of a material or 
assembly's ability to limit the amount of moisture that passes 
through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be 
defined using the desiccant method of ASTM E 96 as follows: 

Class I: 0.1 perm or less. 

Class II: 0.1 < perm < 1.0 perm. 

Class III: 1.0 < perm < 10 perm. 

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. See Section 1602.1. 

VEHICULAR GATE. See Section 31 10.2. 

VEHICULAR OR PEDESTRIAN ARRIVAL POINTS. 
[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A.22-V 

VEHICULAR WAY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 
1102B. 

VENEER. See Section 1402.1. 

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of sup- 
plying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such 
air from, any space. 

VINYL SIDING. See Section 1402.1. 

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. 

See Section 902.1. 

WAITING ROOM. [SFM] Waiting Room is a room or area 
normally provided with seating and used for persons waiting. 

WALK. [DSA-AC &, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11 A, Section 
1107A23-W, and Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as 
a pedestrian trafficway. 

WALL. See Section 2102.1. 

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Composite wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. See Section 2102.1. 

Parapet wall. See Section 2102.1. 



I 
II 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



55 



DEFINITIONS 



WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the 
following classifications: 

1 . Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 1 00 
pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 
200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in 
addition to its own weight. 

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a load- 
bearing wall. 

WALL PIER. See Section 1908.1.1. 

[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2. 

Class 3. See Section 307.2. 

Class 2. See Section 307.2. 

Class 1. See Section 307.2. 
WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. See Section 1402.1. 
WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1. 
WEB. See Section 2102.1. 

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See 

Section 902.1. 

WHEELCHAIR, [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] A chair mounted 
on wheels to be propelled by its occupant manually or with the 
aid of electric power, of a size and configuration conforming to 
the recognized standard models of the trade, 

WHEELCHAIR OCCUPANT (or WHEELCHAIR USER) 
[DSA-AC] is an individual who, due to a physical impairment 
or disability, utilizes a wheelchair for mobility. 

WHEELCHAIR SPACE [HCD UAC] Space for a single 
wheelchair and its occupant 

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. See Section 1609.2. 

WINDER. See Section 1002.1. 

WINERY CAVES. See Section 436. 

WIRE BACKING. See Section 2502.1. 

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 
902.1. 

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. See Section 2302. L 

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1. 

Composite panels. See Section 2302,1. 

Oriented strand board (OSB). See Section 2302.1. 

Plywood. See Section 2302.1. 

[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2. 

[DSA-AC] See Chapter IIB, Section 1102B. 

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1. 

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from 
the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by 
this code, on the lot on which a building is situated. 

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1. 

I ZONE, NOTIFICATION. See Section 902. 1 . 



56 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 3 - USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 




X 
















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 














X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 


















X 




X 






Chapter/Section 








































302.1 




X 


X 


X 




X 




























302.1.3 


































X 






303.1 




X 




































303.2 




X 




































303.3 




X 




































304.1 




X 




































304.1.1 Clinic, Outpatient 




X 




































305.1 




X 




































305.2 w/ Exception 




X 




































306.2 




X 




































306.4 - 306.4.4 






























X 










307.1 




X 




































Table 307.1(1) Footnoted 




X 




































Table 307.1 (2) Footnote e 




X 




































307.1.1 








































308.1 




X 




































308.2 




X 


X 


X 
































308.3 




X 




































308.3.1 Child-care facilities 




X 




































308.3.1 Detoxification facilities 




X 




































308.3.1 Hospitals and Mental 
hospitals 




X 




































308.3.1 Nursing Homes 




X 




































308.3.2 Exception 




X 


















X 


















308.4 




X 




































308.5 




X 


X 


X 
































308.5.1 




X 




































308.5.2 




X 




































308.5.2.1 




X 




































310.1 




X 


X 


X 

































(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



57 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 3 - USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DBA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 




X 
















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 














X 


















Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 


X 
















X 




X 






Chapter/Section 








































310.2 




X 




































Aged Home or Institution 




X 




































Bedridden Person 




X 




































Care and Supervision 




X 




































Catastrophically Injured 




X 




































Child-Care Center 




X 




































Child or Children 




X 




































Chronically III 




X 




































Congregate Living Health 
Facility (CLHF) 




X 




































Congregate Residence 




X 




































Day-Care 




X 




































Day-Care Home, Family 




X 




































Day-Care Home, Large 
Family 




X 




































Day-Care Home, Small Family 




X 




































310.2 Dormitory 












X 




























Full-Time Care 




X 




































Infant 




X 




































Mentally Retarded Persons, 
Profoundly or Severely 




X 




































Nonambulatory Persons 




X 




































Residential Care Facility for 
the Chronically III (RCF/CI) 




X 




































Residential Care Facility for 
the Elderly (RCFE) 




X 




































Residential Facility (RF) 




X 




































Terminally III 




X 




































310.3 




X 




































313 




X 




































313.1 




X 





































The Office of the State Fire MarshaVs adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to 
Section 1.11. 



58 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 3 

USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



m 



SECTION 301 
GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occu- 
pancy. 



SECTION 302 
CLASSIFICATION 

302.1 GeneraL Structures or portions of structures shall be 
classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the 
groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be 
occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply 
with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the 
purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Struc- 
tures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Sec- 
tion 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not 
specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be 
classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resem- 
bles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved. 

1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, 
A-4 and A-5 

2. Business (see Section 304): Group B 

3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E 

4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 
and F-2 

5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, 
H-4 and H-5 

6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-l, 1-2, 1-3 and 

1-4 

7. Laboratory (see Section 202): Group B, unless classi- 
fied as Group L (see Section 443) or Group H (see Sec- 
tion 307). 

8. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M 

9. [SFM] Organized Camps (see Section 440): Group 
CIO, 

10. [SFM] Research Laboratories (see Section 443): 
Group L 

IL Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1, 
R-3,/?-i.7andR-4 

12. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2 

13. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U 

[SFM] Existing buildings housing existing protective social 
care homes or facilities established prior to 1972 (see Section 
3413). 

302.L1 Reserved 

302.1.2 Reserved 



302.1.3 Pharmacies; veterinary facilities; bartering, cos- 
metology or electrolysis establishments; and acupuncture 
offices. See Chapter 12. 



SECTION 303 
ASSEMBLY GROUP A 

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such 
as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink 
consumption or awaiting transportation or motion picture and 
television production studio sound stages, approved produc- 
tion facilities and production locations. 

Exceptions: 

1. A building or tenant space used for assembly pur- 
poses with an occupant load of less than 50 persons 
shall be classified as a Group B occupancy. 

2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an 
occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory 
to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B 
occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is 
less than 750 square feet (70 m^) in area and accessory 
to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B 
occupancy or as part of that occupancy. 

4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occu- 
pancies are not considered separate occupancies 
except when applying the assembly occupancy 
requirements of Chapter IIB. 

5. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious 
auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are 
not considered separate occupancies. 

Assembly occupancies shall include the following: 

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for 
the production and viewing of the performing arts or 
motion pictures including, but not limited to: 

Motion picture and television production studio 
sound stages, approved production facilities and 
production locations, (with live audiences). 

Motion picture theaters 

Symphony and concert halls 

Television and radio studios admitting an audience 

Theaters 

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink con- 
sumption including, but not limited to: 

Banquet halls 
Night clubs 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



59 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Restaurants 
Taverns and bars 

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or 
amusement and other assembly uses not classified else- 
where in Group A including, but not limited to: 

Amusement arcades 
Art galleries 
Bowling alleys 
Community halls 
Courtrooms 

Dance halls (not including food or drink consump- 
tion) 
Exhibition halls 
Funeral parlors 

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating) 
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating) 
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating) 
Lecture halls 
Libraries 
Museums 

Places of religious worship 
Pool and billiard parlors 
Waiting areas in transportation terminals 

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting 
events and activities with spectator seating including, 
but not limited to: 

Arenas 
Skating rinks 
Swimming pools 
Tennis courts 

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing 
outdoor activities including, but not limited to: 

Amusement park structures 

Bleachers 

Grandstands 

Stadiums 

303.2 Fixed guMeway transit systems. [SFM] Fixed guideway 
transit system buildings shall conform to the requirements of 
this code for their occupancy classification in addition to the 
provisions set forth in Section 433. 

303.3 Subterranean spaces for winery facilities in natural or 
manmade caves. [SFM] For fire and life safety requirements, 
see Section 436. 



SECTION 304 
BUSINESS GROUP B 

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transac- 
tions, including storage of records and accounts. Business 
occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Airport traffic control towers 
I I Ambulatory health care facilities serving five or fewer 



patients (see Section 308.3.2 for facilities serving more 

than five patients) 
Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds 
Banks 

Barber and beauty shops 
Car wash 

Civic administration 

Clinic — outpatient [SFM] (not classified as Group 1-2. 1) 
Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations 

and self-service 
Educational occupancies for students above the 1 2th grade 
Electronic data processing 

Laboratories: testing, research and [SFM] instruction 
Motor vehicle showrooms 
Post offices 
Print shops 
Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, 

physicians, engineers, etc.) 
Radio and television stations 
Telephone exchanges 
Training and skill development not within a school or 

academic program 

304.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof 
used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to 
individuals who are not classified as nonambulatory or bed- 
ridden or rendered incapable of self-preservation by the ser- 
vices provided. 



SECTION 305 
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E 

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, by more than six persons at any one time for 
educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educa- 
tional rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to 
places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1 
and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as 
A-3 occupancies. 

Exception: [SFM] A residence used as a home school for 
the children who normally reside at the residence. Such resi- 
dences shall remain classified as Group R-2, or Group R-3 
occupancies. 

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion 
thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services 
for more than six children 2 years of age and older, shall be 
classified as a Group E occupancy. 

Exception: [SFM] A Day-care facility not otherwise classi- 
fied as an R-3 occupancy, where occupants are not capable 
of responding to an emergency situation without physical 
assistance from the staff shall be classified as Group 1-4. 



!<• 



t» 



60 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 306 
FACTORY GROUP F 

306.1 Factory Industrial Group E Factory Industrial Group 
F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, 
fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or pro- 
cessing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazard- 
ous or Group S storage occupancy. 

306.2 Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard Occupancy. 

Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory 
Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate 
Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair) 

Appliances 

Athletic equipment 

Automobiles and other motor vehicles 

Bakeries 

Beverages: over 16-percent alcohol content 

Bicycles 

Boats 

Brooms or brushes 

Business machines 

Cameras and photo equipment 

Canvas or similar fabric 

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning) 

Clothing 

Construction and agricultural machinery 

Disinfectants 

Dry cleaning and dyeing 

Electric generation plants 

Electronics 

Engines (including rebuilding) 

Food processing 

Furniture 

Hemp products 

Jute products 

Laundries 

Leather products 

Machinery 

Metals 

Millwork (sash and door) 

[SFM] Motion picture and television production studio 
Sound Stages, Approved Production Facilities and 
production locations (without live audiences) 

Musical instruments 

Optical goods 

Paper mills or products 

Photographic film 

Plastic products 

Printing or publishing 

Recreational vehicles 

Refuse incineration 

Shoes 

Soaps and detergents 

Textiles 



Tobacco 
Trailers 
Upholstering 
Wood; distillation 
Woodworking (cabinet) 

306.3 Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Fac- 
tory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufactur- 
ing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, 
packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard 
shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Beverages: up to and including 16-percent alcohol content 

Brick and masonry 

Ceramic products 

Foundries 

Glass products 

Gypsum 

Ice 

Metal products (fabrication and assembly) 

306.4 Places of meat and poultry inspection, [AGR] 

306.4.1 Meat and poultry processing plants. [AGR] See 

Section 1240. 

306.4.2 Collection centers and facilities. [AGR] See Sec- 
tion 1241. 

306.4.3 Renderers. [AGR] See Section 1242. 

306.4.4 Horsemeat and pet food establishments. [AGR] 

See Section 1243, 



SECTION 307 
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H 

[F] 307.1 High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H 
occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or 
structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufactur- 
ing, processing, generation or storage of materials that consti- 
tute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those 
allowed in control areas complying with Section 414, based 
on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas 
set forth in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). Hazardous occu- 
pancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 
and shall be in accordance with this section, the requirements 
of Secfion 415 and the California Fire Code. Hazardous mate- 
rials stored, or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classi- 
fied as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with the 
California Fire Code. 

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as Group 
H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that they most 
nearly resemble. 

1. Buildings and structures occupied for the applica- . 
tion of flammable finishes, provided that such build- 
ings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 
416 and the California Fire Code. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



61 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable 
and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies 
conforming to the California Fire Code. 

3. Closed piping system containing flammable or 
combustible liquids or gases utilized for the opera- 
tion of machinery or equipment. 

4. Cleaning establishments that utiUze combustible hq- 
uid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or 
higher in closed systems employing equipment listed 
by an approved testing agency, provided that this 
occupancy is separated from all other areas of the 
building by \-\\o\xrfire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 111, ox 
both. 

5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent 
having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C). 

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage . 

7. Refrigeration systems. 

8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricul- 
tural purposes on the premises. 

9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency 
power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommuni- 
cation facilities, provided that the batteries are pro- 
vided with safety venting caps and ventilation is 



provided in accordance with the California Mechani- 
cal Code. 

10. Corrosives shall not include personal or household 
products in their original packaging used in retail 
display or conunonly used building materials. 

11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol stor- 
age shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that 
such buildings conform to the requirements of the 
California Fire Code. 

12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and 
nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazard- 
ous materials in quantities not exceeding the maxi- 
mum allowable quantity per control area in Group 
M or S occupancies complying with Section 
414.2.5. 

13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant 
and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and 
special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, 
M and S, provided such storage conforms to the 
quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the 
California Fire Code. 

14. [SFM] Group L occupancies as defined in section 
443.1. 

307.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in any 
quantity shall conform to the requirements of this code, 
including Section 414, and the California Fire Code. 



62 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



lO 

o 



[F] TABLE 307.1(1) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^ ' 


m,n,p 




MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 

THE MAXIMUM 

ALLOWABLE 

QUANTITY IS 

EXCEEDED 


STORAGE'* 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS'^ 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS'* 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Combustible liquid'^' ' 


II 

niA 

IIIB 


H-2orH-3 
H-2orH-3 

N/A 


N/A 


120^^'^ 
330d.e 

13,200^' f 


N/A 


N/A 


120^ 

330^ 

13,200*^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30^ 

80^ 

3,300^ 


Combustible fiber 


Loose 
Baled^ 


H-3 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(100) 
(1,000) 


N/A 


N/A 


(20) 
(200) 


N/A 


Consumer fireworks 
(Class C, Common) 


1.4G 


H-3 


125^'^'' 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics, flammable 


N/A 


H-2 


N/A 


45d 


N/A 


N/A 


45d 


N/A 


N/A 


10^ 


Cryogenics, inert 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


NL 


N/A 


N/A 


NL 


N/A 


N/A 


Cryogenics, oxidizing 


N/A 


H-3 


N/A 


45d 


N/A 


N/A 


45^ 


N/A 


N/A 


10^ 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4G 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


H-1 
H-1 
H-1 or H-2 
H-3 
H-3 
H-1 
H-1 


ie,g 
ie,g 

5^'g 
50^' g 

125d,e,l 
ie,g 


(l)e,g 

(5)-'S 

(50)^' g 

N/A 

(l)e,g 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.25^ 
0.252 

IS 

502 

N/A 
0.252 

N/A 


(0.25)2 
(0.25)2 

(1)2 

(50)2 

N/A 

(0.25)2 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.252 
0.252 

12 

N/A 
N/A 
0.252 

N/A 


(0.25)2 
(0.25)2 

(1)2 

•N/A 

N/A 

(0.25)2 

N/A 


Flanmiable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


H-2 


N/A 


N/A 
(150)^'^ 


l,000f'^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 
(150)^-^ 


1,000^'^ 

N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


Flammable liquid*^ 


lA 
IB and IC 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


30d.e 

120^1'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


30^ 
120^ 


N/A 


N/A 


lO'^ 
30^ 


Flammable liquid, 
combination (1 A, IB, IC) 


N/A 


H-2 
or H-3 


N/A 


120^'^'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


120d.h 


N/A 


N/A 


30<i.h 


Flammable solid 


N/A 


H-3 


125^'^ 


N/A 


N/A 


125^ . 


N/A 


N/A 


25^ 


N/A 


Inert gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


NL 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


Organic peroxide 


UD 
I 

II 
III 
IV 
V 


H-1 
H-2 
H-3 
H-3 

N/A 
N/A 


p. 8 
5d,e 

50*'^ 

125^^'^ 

NL 

NL 


(l)-'g 

(5)^'- 

(50)^'^ 

(125)^'^ 

NL 
NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.252 
1^ 
50^ 
125^* 
NL 
NL 


(0.25)2 

(1) 

(50)^ 

(125)d 

NL 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.252 
1^ 
10^ 

25^ 
NL 
NL 


(0.25)2 

(25)^ 
NL 
NL 


Oxidizer 


4 
3k 

2 
1 


H-1 

H-2 or H-3 

H-3 

N/A 


ie.g 
10d,e 

250^'^ 
4,000^' f 


(l)^'g 

(10)^'^ 

(250)^'^ 

(4,000)^' f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.252 

2^ 

250*^ 

4,000^ 


(0.25)2 

(2)^ 

(250)^ 

(4,000)f 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


0.252 
2^ 
50^ 

i,ooof 


(0.25)2 

(50)^1 
(l,000)f 






(continued) 






[F] TABLE 307.1(1)— continued 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARD^ J' ' 



lO 

o 



o 

> 



O 

33 

Z 
> 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


GROUP WHEN 
THE MAXIMUM 
ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY IS 
EXCEEDED 


STORAGE'' 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS'* 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS" 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 
at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Gas 

(cubic feet 

at NTP) 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet) 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds) 


Oxidizing gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


H-3 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
(150)^'^ 


1,500^'^ 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
(150)^'^ 


1,500^'^ 

N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


N/A 
N/A 


Pyrophoric material 


N/A 


H-2 


4e,g 


(4)e.g 


50^' e 


1^ 


(1)^ 


108 








Unstable (reactive) 


4 
3 
2 
1 


H-1 

H-lorH-2 

H-3 

N/A 


ie,g 
5d.e 
50d.e 

NL 


(l)e,g 

(5)^'^ 
(50)^'^ 

NL 


108 

50d.e 

250^'^ 
NL 


0.258 

1^ 

50^ 

NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)V 
(50)d 

NL 


2e,g 
10d,e 

250^*'^ 

NL 


0.258 
1^ 
10^ 

NL 


(0.25)8 
(1)^ 
(lO)d 
NL 


Water reactive 


3 
2 
1 


H-2 
H-3 

N/A 


5d,e 
50d,e 

NL 


(5)^'^ 

(50)^' « 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


5^ 
50^ 
NL 


(5)^ 
(50)^ 

NL 


N/A 
N/A 
N/A 


1^ 
10^ 

NL 


(1)' 
(10)^ 

NL 



c 

C/) 

m 

> 
z 
a 

o 
o 
o 

c 

•V 

> 
z 
o 

< 

a 

r 
> 

CO 
CO 

T] 

o 

> 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 .3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales 
occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water- miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not 
being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

d. [SFM] Inotherthan Group L occupancies, maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 
Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 
2703.9.10 of the California Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1. 

g. Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class lA, IB or IC flammable liquids. 

i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2 of the California Fire Code. 

j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage contain- 
ers and the manner of storage shall be approved. 

1. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, 
shall be used. 

m,For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703. 1.2 of the California Fire Code. 

n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2). 

o. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities; 

1 . Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles. 

2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code. 

3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the California Fuel Gas Code. 

4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the California Mechanical Code. 



O 
O 

o 
a 
m 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



[F] TABLE 307.1(2) 
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARD^ "'=''' ^ 



MATERIAL 


STORAGE'* 


USE-CLOSED SYSTEMS^ 


USE-OPEN SYSTEMS^ 


Solid pounds 
(cubic feet)®'* 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)®'* 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)® 


Solid 
pounds® 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)® 


Gas (cubic feet 
at NTP)® 


Solid 
pounds® 


Liquid gallons 
(pounds)® 


Corrosive 


5,000 


500 


810'^'S 


5,000 


500 


810<^'S 


1,000 


100 


Highly toxic 


10 


(loy 


20^ 


10 


(loy 


20^ 


3 


(3)' 


Toxic 


500 


(500)^ 


810f 


500 


(500)' 


810^ 


125 


(125) 



For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2. 

b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 per- 
cent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are pack- 
aged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. 

c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2). 

d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage. 

e. [SFM] In other than Group L occupancies, maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1.1. Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

f. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the California Fire Code. 
Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

g. A single sylinder containing 150 pounds or less or anhydrous ammonia in a single control area in a nonspriklered building shall be considered a maximum allow- 
able quantity. Two cylinders, each containing 150 pounds or less in a single control area, shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity provided the building 
is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

h. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the California Fire Code. 

i. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column. 

j. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of th& California Fire Code. 



[F] 307.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol con- 
tainer by a propellant. 

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calcula- 
tion of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be desig- 
nated Level 1, 2 or 3. 

Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British ther- 
mal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g). 

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but 
less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat 
combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g). 

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plastic 
bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be lim- 
ited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml). Glass or 
plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid 
ounces (118 ml). 

BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and 
secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of 
burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet 
polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or 
wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) 
and motes (residual materials from the ginning process). 

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into 
banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per 
cubic foot (360 kg/m^), and dimensions complying with the 
following: alengthof 55 inches (1397 ±20 mm), a width of 21 



inches (533.4 ± 20 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 
to 899 mm). 

BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of 
walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid 
release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, par- 
tially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding 
from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier. 

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a 
minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm). 

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as 
hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding 
exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the 
magazine or building containing explosives when the trees 
are bare of leaves. 

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pres- 
sure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14,7 pounds 
per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. 
Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material 
in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boil- 
ing point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent 
evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with 
ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the Hquid. 

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or Hquid hazardous 
material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed 
during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product 
are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product 
is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and 
all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for 
solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping 
system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment. 

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 
420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in 
air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through 
a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burn- 
ing materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, 
cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, 
oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, cer- 
tain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does 
not include densely packed baled cotton. 

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup 
flash point at or above lOO^F (SS'^C). Combustible liquids shall 
be subdivided as follows: 

Class 11. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 
100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C). 

Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 140T (60°C) and below 200°F (93T). 

Class IIEB. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or 
above 200T (93°C). 

The category of combustible liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials, that: 

1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square 
inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and 

2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20X) or less at 14.7 psia 
(101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in 
solution, except those gases which have no other health- 
or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be 
compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 
41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C). 

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows: 

1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than 
those in solution, which are in a packaging under the 
charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a tempera- 
ture of 68°F (20°C). 

2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packag- 
ing under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a 
temperature of 68T (20X). 

3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that 
are dissolved in a solvent. 

4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or 
more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the 
hazard properties of which are represented by the proper- 
ties of the mixture as a whole. 

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allow- 
able quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or 
handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor control area" in 
the California Fire Code. 

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, 
or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at 
the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive 
if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method 
described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such a chemical 
destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the 



point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This 
term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces. 

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower 
than -ISO^'F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmo- 
sphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa). 

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive 
materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for 
a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 33 of 
the California Fire Code. 

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the 
extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, 
in which the reaction progresses through the unbumed material 
at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have 
an explosive effect. 

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the 
presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and 
maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through 
the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The 
principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. 
Detonations have an explosive effect. 

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material 
from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, 
fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere. 

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent 
expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock 
wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or struc- 
tures. An explosion could result from any of the following: 

1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration 
or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway 
polymerization (usually detonations). 

2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures. 

3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion). 

EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the 
primary or common purpose of which is to function by explo- 
sion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black 
powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety 
fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display 
fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special). 

The term "explosive" includes any material determined to be 
within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes 
any material classified as an explosive other than consumer 
fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materi- 
als regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185. 

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, 
which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test 
blasting cap when unconfined. 

Low explosive. Explosive material that will bum or defla- 
grate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction 
that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explo- 
sives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety 
fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G 
(Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C. 

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 
explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various 
types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be 



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expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small 
portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the 
impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable 
discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in 
this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an 
explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to 
adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur imme- 
diately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored 
sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the 
initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so 
that two or more quantities must be considered as one for 
quantity-distance purposes. 

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification 
system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" 
explosives as defined herein. The following terms further 
define explosives under the current system applied by 
DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 
materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert 
with the division to specify further limitations on each divi- 
sion noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyro- 
technic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic 
substance and similar materials). 

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion haz- 
ard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the 
entire load instantaneously. 

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard 
but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and 
either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard 
or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. 

Division 1,4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion 
hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the 
package and no projection of fragments of appreciable 
size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not 
cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the 
entire contents of the package. 

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division 
is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion 
hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little prob- 
ability of initiation or of transition from burning to deto- 
nation under normal conditions of transport. 

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not 
have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised 
of articles that contain only extremely insensitive deto- 
nating substances and which demonstrate a negligible 
probability of accidental initiation or propagation. 

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of 
producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment purposes 
by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the defini- 
tion of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth herein. 

Fireworks, 1.3G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) 
Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, 
intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to pro- 
duce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration 
or detonation. Such 1 .3G fireworks include, but are not lim- 
ited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 
grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing 



more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other 
display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 
L4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as 
fireworks, UN0335 by the DOTn. 

Fireworks, 1.4G. (Formerly Class C, Common Fireworks.) 
Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of 
pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visi- 
ble or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks 
which comply with tiie construction, chemical composition 
and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, UN0336, 
and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) 
as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not 
explosive materials for the purpose of this code. 

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68T (20°C) 
or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 
kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F 
(20''C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which: 

1. Is ignitableat 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 
percent or less by volume with air; or 

2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of 
at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit. 

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) 
of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance 
with ASTME 681. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A Uquefied compressed 
gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a tem- 
perature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable. 

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash 
point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable hquids are further cate- 
gorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I cate- 
gory is subdivided as follows: 

Class lA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C). 

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) 
and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38''C). 

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F 
(23°C) and below lOO^F (38°C). 

The category of flammable liquids does not include com- 
pressed gases or cryogenic fluids. 

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being 
readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature 
of600T(316°C)orless. 

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, otiier than a blasting agent 
or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, 
absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or 
retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has 
an ignition temperature below 212°F (lOO^C) or which bums 
so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a seri- 
ous hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid 
as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 
CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and bums with a self-sustained 
flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along 
its major axis. 

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahren- 
heit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an 



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USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but 
will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be 
determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as spec- 
ified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278. 

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point 
of storage or use. 

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances 
that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classi- 
fied in this section and the California Fire Code, whether the 
materials are in usable or waste condition. 

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which 
there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic 
health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The 
term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic or highly 
toxic, and corrosive. 

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or 
lethal concentration that falls within any of the following catego- 
ries: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 mil- 
Ugrams or less per kilogram of body weight when admin- 
istered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 
milhgrams or less per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if 
death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino 
rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) 
in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or 
vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or 
dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 
hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats 
weighing between 200 and 300 grams each. 

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as 
water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While 
this system is basically simple in apphcation, any hazard evalua- 
tion tiiat is required for the precise categorization of this type of 
material shall be performed by experienced, technically compe- 
tent persons. 

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when 
mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates 
heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or 
property. 

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other mate- 
rials only under abnormal conditions such as high tempera- 
tures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within 
the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physi- 
cal or health properties as defined (other than acting as a simple 
asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a com- 
pressed gas. Some of the more conmion inert gases include 
argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon. 

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous mate- 
rial involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the 
atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are 
liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during 
normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and 



Uquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or con- 
tainers, dip tank and plating tank operations. 

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunc- 
tion with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive 
materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another 
with the use of intraplant or intraline distances. 

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains 
the bivalent -0-0- structure and which may be considered to be 
a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both 
of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radi- 
cal. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detona- 
tion or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can 
also decompose into various unstable compounds over an 
extended period of time. 

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration 
but not detonation. 

Class 11. Those formulations that bum very rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class III. Those formulations that bum rapidly and that 
pose a moderate reactivity hazard. 

Class IV. Those formulations that bum in the same manner 
as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity 
hazard. 

Class V. Those formulations that bum with less intensity 
than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion 
and that pose no reactivity hazard. 

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable 
of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high 
explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition. 

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other 
oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate com- 
bustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contami- 
nated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition. 

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction 
due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock 
and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combus- 
tible materials with which it comes into contact. Additionally, 
the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the burning rate and can 
cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles. 

Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the 
buming rate of combustible materials with which it comes 
in contact. 

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in 
the buming rate of combustible materials with which it 
comes in contact. 

Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the 
buming rate of combustible materials. 

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate 
combustion of other materials. 

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evi- 
dence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, 
flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liq- 
uid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric 



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(solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid 
or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid). 

PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition tempera- 
ture in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C). 

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture that 
produces visible light displays or sounds through a self-propa- 
gating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is initiated by 
ignition. 

TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following cate- 
gories: 

1 . A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 
milligrams per kilogram of body weight when adminis- 
tered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 
grams each. 

2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more 
than 200 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 
1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when 
administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less 
if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of 
albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each. 

3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) 
in air of more than 200 parts per million, but not more 
than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or 
more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 mil- 
ligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when adminis- 
tered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death 
occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 
200 and 300 grams each. 

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other 
than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially 
produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense 
or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical 
changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction 
or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of 
contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. 
Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of 
detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reac- 
tion at normal temperatures and pressures. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or local- 
ized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures. 

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detona- 
tion or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but 
which require a strong initiating source or which must be 
heated under confinement before initiation. This class 
includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechani- 
cal shock at elevated temperatures and pressures. 

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable 
and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not det- 
onate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemi- 
cal change with rapid release of energy at normal 
temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent 
chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures. 



Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but 
which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and 
pressure. 

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that 
explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other 
hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition 
or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or mois- 
ture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows: 

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without 
requiring heat or confinement. 

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the 
ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, 
toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to 
cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon expo- 
sure to water or moisture. 

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of 
energy, but not violently. 

[F] 307.3 High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be 
classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not 
be limited to, the following: 

Detonable pyrophoric materials 

Explosives: 

Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1.3 

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in 
a form where either confinement or configuration will 
not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explo- 
sion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies. 

Division 1.4 

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for 
shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under 
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regula- 
tions, or unpackaged articles used in process opera- 
tions that do not propagate a detonation or 
deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 
occupancies. 

Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable 

Oxidizers, Class 4 

Unstable (reactive) materials. Class 3 detonable and Class 4 

[F] 307.4 High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard 
from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. 
Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the follow- 
ing: 

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which 
are used or stored in normally open containers or sys- 
tems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at 
more than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage. 

Combustible dusts 

Cryogenic fluids, flammable 



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USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Flammable gases 

Organic peroxides, Class I 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open 
containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems 
pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage 

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable 

Water-reactive materials, Class 3 

[F] 307.5 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures 
containing materials that readily support combustion or that 
pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3, Such 
materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Class I, II or III A flammable or combustible liquids that 
are used or stored in normally closed containers or 
systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge 
(103.4 kPa) or less 

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton 

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) 

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing 

Ranmiable solids 

Organic peroxides. Class II and III 

Oxidizers, Class 2 

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally 
closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per 
square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less 

Oxidizing gases 

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2 

Water-reactive materials, Class 2 

[F] 307.6 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures 
which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classi- 
fied as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be lim- 
ited to, the following: 

Corrosives 

Highly toxic materials 

Toxic materials 

[F] 307.7 High-hazard Group H-5 structures. Semiconduc- 
tor fabrication facilities and comparable research and develop- 
ment areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) 
are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of 
those hsted in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be classified 
as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and 
constructed in accordance with Section 415.8. 

[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures containing 
a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in 
one or more of Groups H- 1 , H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the 
code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified. 



SECTION 308 
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I 

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a 
portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a super- 
vised environment, having physical limitations because of 
health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care 



or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or cor- 
rectional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is 
restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as 
Group I- 1 , 1-2, 1-3 or 1-4. Restraint shall not he permitted in any 
building except in Group 1-3 occupancies constructed for such 
use, see Section 408.1.1. II 

Where occupancies house both ambulatory and nonambula- 
tory persons, the more restrictive requirements shall apply. 

308.2 Group I-l.A^^fM5^rf. (SeeGroupR-2J SectionSlO.l) \l 

308.3 Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and 
structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or 
custodial care for persons who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion or classified as nonambulatory or bedridden. This group 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Child care facilities 
Detoxification facilities 
Hospitals 
Mental hospitals 
Nursing homes 

308.3.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide 
care on a 24-hour basis to more than six children under 2 
years of age. 

DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that 
serve patients who are provided treatment for substance 
abuse on a 24-hour basis and who are incapable of 
self-preservation or classified as nonambulatory or bed- 
ridden or who are harmful to themselves or others. 

HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. Build- 
ings or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the 
medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of 
inpatients who are incapable of self-preservation or clas- 
sified as nonambulatory or bedridden . 

NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care 
facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate 
care facilities and skilled nursing facihties, serving more 
than five persons and any of the persons are incapable of 
self-preservation or classified as nonambulatory or bed- 
ridden. 

308.3.2 Group 1-2.1 Ambulatory health care facility. A 

healthcare facility that receives persons for outpatient med- 
ical care that may render the patient incapable of unassisted 
self-preservation and where each tenant space accommo- 
dates more than five such patients. 

[OSHPD 3] Exception: For structural regulations, these 
buildings shall be considered as Business Group B occu- 
pancy. 

308.4 Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings or 
portions or buildings and structures that are inhabited by one or 
more persons who are under restraint. An 1-3 facility is occu- 



f 



70 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



m 



pied by persons who are restrained. This group shall include, 
but not be limited to, the following: 

Correctional centers 

Detention centers 

Jails 

Prisons 

Reformatories 

Juvenile halls 

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the occu- 
pancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4.1 through 
308.4.5 (see Section 408.1). 

308.4.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy 
is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without 
restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be con- 
structed as Group R. 

308.4.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed from 
sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment 
to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the 
exterior is impeded by locked exits. 

308.4.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is allowed within 
individual smoke compartments, such as within a residen- 
tial unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group 
activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-con- 
trolled release of means of egress from such a smoke com- 
partment to another smoke compartment. 

308.4.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to 
permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and 
other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to 
other smoke compartments. 

308.4.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall 
include buildings in which free movement is restricted from 
an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is pro- 
vided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity 
spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compart- 
ment to other smoke compartments. 

308.5 Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include 
buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who 
receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals 
other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or 
adoption, and in a place other than the home of the client cared 
for. A facility such as the above with six or fewer clients shall be 
classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the California 
Residential Code. Places of worship during religious functions 
are not included. 

308.5.1 Adult ^j-care facility. A facility that provides 
accommodations for less than 24 hours for more than five 
unrelated adults and provides supervision Siud personal care 
services shall be classified as Group 1-4. 

308.5.2 Child day-care facility. A faciUty that provides 
supervision and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis 



for more than six children under 2 years of age shall be clas- 
sified as Group 1-4. 

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care 
for more than six but no more than 100 children under 2 
years of age, where the rooms in which the children are 
cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving 
such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an 
exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as 
Group E. 

308,5.2,1 Special provisions. See Section 442.4 for 
daycares located above or below the first story. 



SECTION 309 
MERCANTILE GROUP M 

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy 
includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a 
portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise and 
involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to 
such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occu- 
pancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Department stores 

Drug stores 

Markets 

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 

Retail or wholesale stores 

Sales rooms 

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quan- 
tity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombusti- 
ble liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed in a single 
control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the 
quantities in Table 414.2.5(1). 



SECTION 310 
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R 

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institu- 
tional Group I or when not regulated by the California Residen- 
tial Code. Residential occupancies shall include the following: 

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where 
the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including: 

Boarding houses (transient) 

Hotels (transient) 

Motels (transient) 

[HCD 1] Efficiency dwelling units (transient) 

Congregate living facilities (transient) or congregate resi- 
dences (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants are permitted to 
comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3. 

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more 
than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily per- 
manent in nature, including: 

Apartment houses 

Boarding houses (nontransient) 

Convents 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



71 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Dormitories 

Fraternities and sororities 
Hotels (nontransient) 
I Live/work units 
Monasteries 
Motels (nontransient) 
Vacation timeshare properties 
[HCD 1] Efficiency dwelling units (nontransient) 

I I Congregate living facilities or congrgate residences with 16 
or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construc- 
tion requirements for Group R-3. 

R-2A This occupancy shall include buildingSy structures or 
parts thereof housing clients, on a 24-hour basis, who 
because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a 
supervised residential environment that provides personal 
care services. 

This occupancy may contain more than six nonambula- 
tory and/or bedridden clients. (See Section 425 Special Pro- 
visions for Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group 
R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 Occupancy). This group shall include, 
but not be limited to, the following: 

Assisted living facilities such as: 

Residential care facilities, 

Residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFEs), 

Adult residential facilities, 

Congregate living health facilities, 

Group homes, 

Residential care facilities for the chronically ill, 

Congregate living health facilities for the terminally ill. 

Social rehabilitation facilities such as: 

Halfway houses, 

Community correctional centers. 

Community correction reentry centers. 

Community treatment programs. 

Work furlough programs, 

Alcoholism or drug abuse recovery or treatment facilities. 

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primar- 
ily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, 
I I R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 or I, including: 

> Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units. 

Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for six or 
fewer clients of any age for less than 24 hours. Licensing 
categories that may use this classification include, but are 
not limited to: Adult Day Programs. 

Child care facilities that provide accommodations for six or 
fewer clients of any age for less than 24 hours. Licensing 
categories that may use this classification include, but are 
not limited to: 

Day-Care Center for Mildly III Children, 

Infant Care Center and School Age Child Day-Care Center 

Family Day -Care Homes that provide accommodations for 
14 or fewer children, in the provider's own home for less 
than 24-hours. 

Congregate living facilities or congregate residences with 
16 or fewer persons. 



Adult care and child care facilities that are within a sin- 
gle-family home are permitted to comply with the California 
Residential Code. 

R-3,1 [HCD 1] This occupancy group may include facilities 
licensed by a governmental agency for a residentially based 
24-hour care facility providing accommodations for six or 
fewer clients of any age. Clients may be classified as ambu- 
latory, nonambulatory or bedridden. A Group R-3.1 occu- 
pancy shall meet the requirements for construction as 
defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in 
Section 425 Special Provisions For Licensed 24-Hour Care 
Facilities in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 Occupancy. This \ \ 
group may include: 

Adult residential facilities 

Congregate living health facilities 

Foster family homes 

Group homes 

Intermediate care facilities for the developmentally 

disabled habilitative 
Intermediate care facilities for the developmentally 

disabled nursing 
Nurseries for the full-time care of children under the age 

of six, but not including ''infants'' as defined in 

Section 310 
Residential care facilities for the elderly 
Small family homes and residential care facilities for 

the chronically ill 

Exception: Group Homes licensed by the Department of 
Social Services which provide nonmedical board, room 
and care for six or fewer ambulatory children or children 
two years of age or younger, and which do not have any 
nonambulatory clients shall not be subject to regulations 
found in Section 425. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143 with 
respect to these exempted facilities, no city, county or public 
district shall adopt or enforce any requirement for the pre- 
vention of fire or for the protection of life and property 
against fire and panic unless the requirement would be 
applicable to a structure regardless of the special occu- 
pancy. Nothing shall restrict the application of state or local 
housing standards to such facilities if the standards are 
applicable to residential occupancies and are not based on 
the use of the structure as a facility for ambulatory children. 
For the purpose of this exception, ambulatory children does 
not include relatives of the licensee or the licensee 's spouse. 

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged 
for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities 
including more than six ambulatory clients^ excluding staff. 

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for con- 
struction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise pro- 
vided for in this code or shall comply with the California 
Residential Code provided the building is protected by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 
903.2.8. 

This occupancy classification may include a maximum six 
nonambulatory or bedridden clients (see Section 425 Special 
Provisions for Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group 



72 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



#' 



R-2.1, R-3.1 orR-4 Occupancy), Group R-4 occupancies shall 
include the following: 

Assisted living facilities such as: 

Residential care facilities, 

Residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFEs), 

Adult residential facilities, 

Congregate living health facilities. 

Group homes. 

Social rehabilitation facilities such as: 

Halfway houses, 

Community correctional centers, 

Community correction reentry centers. 

Community treatment programs. 

Work furlough programs, 

Alcoholism or drug abuse recovery or treatment facilities. 

310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION, A facility used for the 
housing of persons 65 years of age or older in need of care and 
supervision. (See definition of "care and supervision'') 

BEDRIDDEN PERSON. A person, requiring assistance in 
turning and repositioning in bed, or being unable to independ- 
ently transfer to and from bed, except in facilities with appro- 
priate and sufficient care staff, mechanical devices if 
necessary, and safety precautions as determined in Title 22 reg- 
ulations, by the Director of Social Services or his or her desig- 
nated representative. 

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated rep- 
resentative shall make the determination of the bedridden sta- 
tus of persons with developmental disabilities, in consultation 
with the Director of Developmental Services or his or her des- 
ignated representative. 

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated rep- 
resentative shall make the determination of the bedridden sta- 
tus of all other persons with disabilities who are not 
developmentally disabled. 

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodg- 
ing for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied 
as a single-family unit. 

CARE AND SUPERVISION Any one or more of the follow- 
ing activities provided by a person or facility to meet the needs 
of the clients: 

Assistance in dressing, grooming, bathing and other 

personal hygiene. 
Assistance with taking medication. 
Central storing and/or distribution of medications. 
Arrangement of and assistance with medical and dental care. 
Maintenance of house rules for the protection of clients. 
Supervision of client schedules and activities. 
Maintenance and/or supervision of client cash resources or 

property. 
Monitoring food intake or special diets. 
Providing basic services required by applicable law and 

regulation to be provided by the licensee in order to 

obtain and maintain a community-care facility license. 



CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED, As termed, means a per- 
son whose origin of disability was acquired through trauma or 
nonde generative neurologic illness, for whom it has been 
determined by the Department of Health Services Certification 
and Licensing that active rehabilitation would be beneficial. 

CHILD-CARE CENTER. Any facility of any capacity other 
than a large or small family day -care home as defined in these 
regulations in which less than 24-hour-per-day nonmedical 
supervision is provided for children in a group setting. 

CHILD OR CHILDREN, A person or persons under the age 
of 18 years. 

CHRONICALLY ILL See 'Terminally ill." 

CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF), As 

termed, is a residential home with a capacity of no more than 
six beds, which provides inpatient care, including the following 
basic services: medical supervision, 24-hour skilled nursing 
and supportive care, pharmacy, dietary, social recreational, 
and at least provides services for persons who are diagnosed 
with a terminal illness or who are catastrophically and severely 
disabled. 

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part 
thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bath- 
room and/or kitchen facilities. 

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE, Any building or portion 
thereof that contains facilities for living, sleeping and sanita- 
tion, as required by this code, and may include facilities for eat- 
ing and cooking, for occupancy by other than a family. A 
congregate residence may be a shelter, convent, monastery, 
dormitory, fraternity or sorority house, but does not include 
jails, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels or lodging houses. 

DAY CARE, For the purposes of these regulations, mean the 
care of persons during any period of a 24-hour day where per- 
manent sleeping accommodations are not provided. 

Note: ''Daycare " shall not be construed to preclude the use 
of cots or mats for napping purposes, provided all employ- 
ees, attendants and stajf personnel are awake and on duty in 
the area where napping occurs. 

DAY-CARE HOME, FAMILY, A home that regularly provides 
care, protection and supervision for 14 or fewer children, in the 
provider's own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day, 
while the parents or guardians are away, and is either a large 
family day -care home or a small family day -care home, 

DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY, A provider's own 
home which is licensed to provide day care for periods less than 
24 hours per day for nine to 14 persons, including children 
under the age of 10 years who reside at the home. 

DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY, A home which pro- 
vides family day-care to eight or fewer children, including chil- 
dren under the age of 10 years who reside at the home, in the 
provider's own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day. 
Small family day -care homes are exempted from state fire and 
life safety regulations other than those state and local stan- 
dards applicable to Group R-3 occupancies. (See Health and 
Safety Code, Section 13143 (b).) 

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping 
accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of 



II 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



73 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same 
family group, under joint occupancy and single management, 
as in college dormitories or fraternity houses. 

FULL-TIME CARE. Shall mean the establishment and rou- 
tine care of persons on an hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly 
or permanent basis, whether for 24'hours per day or less, and 
where sleeping accommodations are provided. 

INFANT. For the purpose of these regulations, shall mean any 
child who because of age only, is unable to walk and requires 
the aid of another person to evacuate the building. In no case 
I shall the term "infant" mean a child 2 years of age or older 

MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY OR 
SEVERELY. Shall mean any retarded person who is unable to 
evacuate a building unassisted during emergency conditions. 

Note: The determination as to such incapacity shall be 
made by the Director of the State Department of Public 
Health or his or her designated representative pursuant to 
Health and Safety Code Section 13131.3. 

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS. Persons unable to leave a 
building unassisted under emergency conditions. It includes, 
but is not limited to, persons who depend on mechanical aids 
such as crutches, walkers and wheelchairs and any person who 
is unable to physically and mentally respond to a sensory sig- 
nal approved by the state fire marshal or an oral instruction 
relating to fire danger. 

The determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of 
persons with developmental disabilities shall be made by the 
Director of Social Services or his or her designated representa- 
tive, in consultation with the director of Developmental Services 
or his or her designated representative. The determination of 
ambulatory or nonambulatory status of all other disabled per- 
sons placed after January 1, 1984, who are not developmentally 
disabled shall be made by the Director of Social Services or his 
or her designated representative. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONI- 
CALLY ILL (RCF/CI). As termed, means a housing arrange- 
ment with a maximum capacity of 25 residents that provides a 
range of services to residents who have chronic, life-threaten- 
ing illnesses. 

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY 
(RCFE). As defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1569.2, 
shall mean a facility with a housing arrangement chosen vol- 
untarily by persons 60 years of age or over, or their authorized 
representative, where varying levels and intensities of care and 
supervision, protective supervision or personal care are pro- 
vided, based on their varying needs, as determined in order to 
be admitted and to remain in the facility. Persons under 60 
years of age with compatible needs, as determined by the 
Department of Social Services in regulations, may be allowed 
to be admitted or retained in a residential- care facility for the 
elderly. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regula- 
tions of the state fire marshal pertaining to Group R, Division 2 
Occupancies classified as residential facilities (RF) and resi- 
dential-care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) shall apply uni- 
formly throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, 
including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection 



district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or 
regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is in consis- 
tent with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, 
including a charter city or charter county may pursuant to 
Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or afire protection 
district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13869. 7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by 
the state fire marshal that are reasonably necessary to accom- 
modate local climate, geological, or topographical conditions 
relating to roof coverings for residential-care facilities for the 
elderly. 

RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF). As defined in Section 1502 
of the Health and Safety Code, shall mean any family home, 
group care facility or similar facility determined by the director 
of Social Services, for 24-hour nonmedical care of persons in 
need of personal services, supervision, or assistance essential 
for sustaining the activities of daily living or for the protection 
of the individual. Such facilities include small family homes 
and social rehabilitation facilities. 

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regula- 
tions of the state fire marshal pertaining to Group R Occupan- 
cies classified as residential facilities (RF) and 
residential-care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) shall apply 
uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and 
county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire pro- 
tection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local 
rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is in 
consistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and 
county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant 
to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection 
district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 
13869. 7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by 
the state fire marshal that are reasonably necessary to accom- 
modate local climate, geological, or topographical conditions 
relating to roof coverings for residential-care facilities for the 
elderly. 

TERMINALLY ILL. As termed for an individual, means the 
individual has a life expectancy of six months or less as stated 
in writing by his or her attending physician and surgeon. 

TRANSIENT, Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit 
for not more than 30 days. 

310.3 Large Family Day-Care Homes. See Section 445. 



SECTION 311 
STORAGE GROUP S 

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, 
among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion 
thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occu- 
pancy. 

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage. Group S-1. Buildings 
occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, 
including, but not limited to, storage of the following: 

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3 

Aircraft hangar (storage and repair) I 

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboos and rattan 



74 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 



Baskets 

Belting: canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone 

Cardboard and cardboard boxes 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 

Cordage 

Dry boat storage (indoor) 

Furniture 

Furs 

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size 

Grains 

Horns and combs, other than celluloid 

Leather 

Linoleum 

Lumber 

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum 

allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in 

Table 307.1(1) (see Section 406.6) 
Photo engravings 
Resilient flooring 
Silks 
Soaps 
Sugar 

Tires, bulk storage of 
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 
Upholstery and mattresses 
Wax candles 

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among oth- 
ers, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials 
such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or 
without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such 
products are permitted to have a negUgible amount of plastic 
trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Group S-2 stor- 
age uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the fol- 
lowing: 

Asbestos 

Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, 

glass or ceramic containers 
Cement in bags 
Chalk and crayons 

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers 
Dry cell batteries 
Electrical coils 
Electrical motors 
Eriipty cans 
Food products 

Foods in noncombustible containers 
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers 
Frozen foods 
Glass 

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible Hquids 
Gypsum board 
Inert pigments 
Ivory 
Meats 

Metal cabinets 

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 
Metal parts 



Metals 

Mirrors 

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers 

Parking garages, open or enclosed 

Porcelain and pottery 

Stoves 

Talc and soapstones 

Washers and dryers 



SECTION 312 
UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U 

312,1 GeneraL Buildings and structures of an accessory char- 
acter and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific 
occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to 
conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with 
the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U 
shall include, but not be limited to, the following: 

Agricultural buildings 

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family 

residence (see Section 412.5) 
Bams 
Carports 

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high 
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy 
Greenhouses 
Livestock shelters 
Private garages 
Retaining walls 
Sheds 
Stables 
Tanks 
Towers 



SECTION 313 
LABORATORIES GROUP L [SFM] 

313,1 Laboratories Group L. [SFM] Group L occupancy 
includes the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, 
containing one or more laboratory suites as defined in Section 

443. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



75 



76 201 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 4 - SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 
















X 










X 




Chapter/Section 










































403 




X 






































403.1 




X 






































403.1.1 




X 






































403.2 




X 






































403.2.1 




X 






































403.2.1.1 




X 






































403.3 




X 






































403.4.6 




X 






































403.4.6.1 




X 






































403.4.8.1 




X 






































403.5.4 




X 






































403.6 




X 






































403.7 




X 






































404.6 




X 






































404.10 




X 






































406.1.5 






X 


X 


































406.2.2 






X 


X 


X 


X 






























406.7 




X 






































406.7.1 




X 






































406.7.2 




X 






































406.7.3 




X 






































406.7.4 




X 






































407.2.2 




X 






































407.10 




X 






































407.10.4 




X 






































408.1.1 




X 






































Cell 




X 






































Cell Complex 




X 






































Cell Tiers 




X 






































Central Control Building 




X 






































Day Room 




X 






































Dormitory 




X 






































Holding Facility 




X 






































Housing Unit 




X 






































Restraint 




X 






































Small Management yard 


..... 


X 







































(continued) 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



77 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 4 - SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS ON USE AND 

OCCUPANCY— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire ciiapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 
















X 










X 




Chapter/Section 










































408.1.2 




X 






































408.1.2.2 




X 






































408.3.6 - 408.3.6.5 




X 






































408.3.8 




X 






































408.3.8.2 




X 






































408.5.1 




X 






































408.8.1 




X 






































408.11 




X 






































408.12 




X 






































408.13 




X 






































408.14-408.14.5 




X 






































410.2 Platform and Stage 












X 






























412.3.6 












X 






























414.5 




X 






































414.5.6 




X 






































415.9-415.10.3 




X 






































419.7 










X 
































420 




X 






































420.1 




X 






































420.4 






X 


X 


X 
































420.4.1 






X 


X 


X 
































420.4.1.1 






X 


X 


X 
































420.4.1.2 






X 


X 


X 
































420.4.2 






X 


X 


X 
































420.4.3 






X 


X 


X 
































420.4.3.1 






X 


X 


X 
































420.4.4 






X 


X 


X 


X 






























420.5 




X 






































420.6 




X 






































424.1 






X 




X 
































425 




X 






































426 




X 






































430 




X 






































431 




X 






































432 




X 






































433 




X 







































(continued) 



78 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 4 - SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS ON USE AND 

OCCUPANCY— continued 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1"AC 


AC 


ss 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 












X 
















X 










X 




Chapter/Section 










































434 




X 






































436 




X 






































439 




X 


































X 




440 




X 
























X 














442 




X 






































443 




X 






































445 




X 
















































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The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to 
Section 1.11. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



79 



80 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 4 

SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED 
ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



SECTION 401 
SCOPE 

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addition 
to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, 
the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and 
occupancies described herein. 



SECTION 402 
COVERED MALL AND OPEN MALL BUILDINGS 

402.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings 
not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three 
stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by 
this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable pro- 
visions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not 
required to comply with this section. 

2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this 
section when they totally comply with other applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

402.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a 
group other than H having direct access to a covered mall build- 
ing but having required means of egress independent of the 
mall. 

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing 
a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, drink- 
ing and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement 
facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices and other 
similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance 
into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor 
buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall 
building. The term '"covered mall building" shall include open 
mall buildings as defined below. 

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a 
covered mall building that serves as access for two or more 
tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each 
other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as defined 
below. 

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a 
number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at 
levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exte- 
rior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade. 

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number 
of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining estab- 



lishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, 
and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a 
main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose 
of Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, anchor 
buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall build- 
ing. 

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that 
serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces. 

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed 
for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant 
occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions 
to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including 
areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross 
leasable area. 

402.3 Lease plan. Each covered mall building owner shall pro- 
vide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan 
showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the 
certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or 
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on 
the lease plan without prior approval of the building official. 

402 A Means of egress. Each tenant space and the covered mall 
building shall be provided with means of egress as required by 
this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the 
requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, 
the requirements of this section shall apply. 

402.4.1 Determination of occupant load. The occupant 
load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered 
mall building shall be determined as required by this code. 
Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces 
shall be based on the occupant load thus determined. 

402.4.1.1 Occupant formula. In determining required 
means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for 
whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based 
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building 
(excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load fac- 
tor as determined by the following equation. 



OLF= (0.00007) (GLA) + 25 
where: 



(Equation 4-1) 



OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per per- 
son). 

GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet). 

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered mall 
building but with a means of egress system that is 
totally independent of the covered mall building shall 
not be considered as gross leasable area for determin- 
ing the required means of egress for the covered mall 
building. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



402.4.1.2 OLF range. The occupant load factor {OLF) 
is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50. 

402.4.1.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of 
anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be 
included in computing the total number of occupants for 
the mall. 

402.4.1.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food 
court shall be determined in accordance with Section 
1004. For the purposes of determining the means of 
egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant 
load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered 
mall building as calculated above. 

402.4.2 Number of means of egress. Wherever the dis- 
tance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant 
space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 
feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load 
of 50 or more, not less than two means of egress shall be 
provided. 

402.4.3 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly 
occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be 
so located in the covered mall building that their entrance 
will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the 
mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required 
means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the cov- 
ered mall building, 

402.4,3.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required 
means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided 
independently from the mall means of egress system. 
The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the 
mall shall not be included in determining means of egress 
requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of 
malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls ter- 
minating at an anchor building where no other means of 
egress has been provided shall be considered as a 
dead-end mall. 

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant 
space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of 
travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall 
not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a 
mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). 

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is 
required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel 
in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. 
The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from 
a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm). 

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to 
twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest 
location within the dead-end portion of the mall. 

402.4.5.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways 
provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, 
doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 
1-hour^r^ door assemblies that are self- or automatic- 
closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 
715.4.8.3. 



402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. 

Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas 
and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit 
passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated 
from such rooms with not less than 1-hour^r^ barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. The xmnimumfire protection rating of openings in the 
fire barriers shall be 1 hour. 

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, 
malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not 
comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code 
where the width of the mall is as specified in this section. 

402.5.1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be suffi- 
cient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall 
be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a 
height of 8 feet (2438 nmi) between any projection of a ten- 
ant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending 
machine, bench, display opening, food court or other 
obstruction to means of egress travel. 

402.5.2 Minimum width open mall. The minimum floor 
and roof opening width above grade shall be 20 feet (9096 
mm) in open malls. 

402.6 Types of construction. The area of any covered mall 
building, including anchor buildings, of Types I, II, III and IV 
construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall 
building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages 
are surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not 
exceed three stories above grade plane. The allowable height 
and area of anchor buildings greater than three stories above 
grade plane shall comply with Section 503, as modified by 
Sections 504 and 506. The construction type of open parking 
garages and enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sec- 
tions 406.3 and 406.4, respectively. 

402.6.1 Reduced open space. The permanent open space of 
60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not 
less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requ- 
irements are met: 

1 . The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more 
than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered mall 
building and anchor buildings. 

2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall 
have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open 
space shall have opening protectives with a minimum 
fire protection rating of 3 hours. 

4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not within the cov- 
ered mall building or anchor stores. 

402.7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resistance- 
rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the 
mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a 
food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall. 

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the storage 
of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine 



82 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a 
separate building where it is separated from the covered mall 
building by not less than 2-hom fire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed 
parking garage is separated from the covered mall build- 
ing or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet 
(3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. 
Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that attach the open 
parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the cov- 
ered mall building or anchor building shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 3104. 

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be 
separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition com- 
plying with Section 709. A tenant separation wall is not 
required between any tenant space and the mall. 

402.7.3 Anchor building separation. An anchor building 
shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire 
walls complying with Section 706. 

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three sto- 
ries above grade plane that have an occupancy classifi- 
cation the same as that permitted for tenants of the 
covered mall building shall be separated by 2-hour 
fire-resistive ^re barriers complying with Section 707. 

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and 
mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1 
sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor 
buildings of Type lA, IB, IIA and IIB construction and 
the mall need not be protected. 

402.8 Interior finish. Interior wall and ceiling finishes within 
the mall and exits shall have a minimumyZam^ spread index and 
smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 
8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 

804. 

[F] 402.9 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall 
building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following: 

1 . The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and 
operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall 
building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. 
Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected 
unless provided with approved alternative protection. 

2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent 
from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where 
tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall 
be independently controlled. 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in spaces or areas of open parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Section 406.3. 

[F] 402.9.1 Standpipe system. The covered mall building 
shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as 
required by Section 905.3.3. 



402.10 Smoke control. Where a covered mall building con- 
tains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 404.5. 

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in cov- 
ered mall buildings when an atrium connects only two sto- 
ries. 

402.11 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or 
permanent) shall meet the following requirements: 

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be 
located within the mall unless constructed of any of the 
following materials: 

1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with 
Section 2303,2. 

1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat-release 
rate not greater than 100 kilowatts (105 Btu/h) 
when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth 
protocol in UL 1975. 

1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a 
flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450 
when tested as an assembly in the maximum 
thickness intended for use in accordance with 
ASTM E 84 or UL 723. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall 
be provided with approved fire suppression detection 
devices. 

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or 
groupings thereof and other structures within the mall 
shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). 

4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall 
have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m^). 

402.12 Children's playground structures. Structures 
intended as children's playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 
mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m^) in area shall comply 
with Sections 402.12,1 through 402.12.4. 

402.12.1 Materials. Children's playground structures shall 
be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combusti- 
ble materials that comply with the following: 

1. Fire-retardant-treated wood. 

2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 
2606. 

3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in 
soft-contained play equipment structures) having a 
maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 
kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975. 

4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the 
requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance 
with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the 
maximum thickness intended for use. 

5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propa- 
gation performance criteria contained in NFPA 70 1 . 

6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components 
of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as 
tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



83 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not 
exceeding 400 kW/m^ when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 
kW/m^ in the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 
6 mm. 

7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment 
structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not 
greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance 
with UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall 
be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an 
average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls 
shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel 
poultry netting wire mesh. 

8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or 
film meeting the flame propagation performance cri- 
teria of NFPA 701. 

9. The floor covering placed under the children's play- 
ground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor 
finish classification, as described in Section 804, 
when tested in accordance with NFPA 253. 

402.12.2 Fire protection. Children's playground structures 
located within the mall shall be provided with the same level 
of approved fire suppression and detection devices required 
for kiosks and similar structures. 

402.12.3 Separation. Children's playground structures 
shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other 
structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm). 

402.12.4 Area limits. Children's playground structures 
shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m^) in area, unless a 
special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire 
safety. 

402.13 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or verti- 
cal security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of 
egress shall conform to the following: 

1. They shall remain in the full open position during the 
period of occupancy by the general public. 

2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed posi- 
tion when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces 
served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying 
spaces served by more than one exit. 

3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within with- 
out the use of any special knowledge or effort where the 
space is occupied. 

4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than 
one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a 
horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door. 

[F] 402.14 Standby power. Covered mall buildings exceeding 
50,000 square feet (4645 m^) shall be provided with standby 
power systems that are capable of operating the emergency 
voice/alarm communication system. 

[F] 402.15 Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet 
(4645 m^) in total floor area shall be provided with an emer- 
gency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency 
voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required 



or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The 
system shall be provided in accordance with Section 
907.5.2.2. 

402.16 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of 
any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in 
Sections 402.16.1 through 402.16.5.2. 

402.16.1 Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of 
the wall area facing the mall. 

402.16.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a 
height of 36 inches (914 mm), except that if the sign is verti- 
cal, the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the 
width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm). 

402.16.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located a mini- 
mum distance of 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants. 

402.16.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other 
than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting 
plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a 
self-ignition temperature of 650'^F (343°C) or greater when 
tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and di flame 
spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed 
index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner 
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 
or meet the acceptance criteria of Secfion 803.1.2.1 when 
tested in accordance with NFPA 286. 

402.16.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic 
signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal. 

402.16.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall 
have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a 
maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in 
accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have 
the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam 
plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 
402.16 shall not be required to comply with the flame 
spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 
2603.3. 

402.16.5.1 Density. The minimum density of foam plas- 
tics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per 
cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m^). 

402.16.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic 
signs shall not be greater than V2 inch (12.7 mm). 

[F] 402.17 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or 
areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression 
or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire depart- 
ment. 



SECTION 403 

HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS AND GROUP 1-2 

OCCUPANCIES HAVING OCCUPIED FLOORS 

LOCATED MORE THAN 75 FEET ABOVE THE 

LOWEST LEVEL OF FIRE DEPARTMENT 

VEHICLE ACCESS 

403.1 Applicability. New high-rise buildings and new Group 
1-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75 



84 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



m 



feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access 
shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6. 

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 
shall not apply to the following buildings and structures: 

1 . Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Sec- 
tion 412.3. 

2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 
406.3. 

3. Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance 
with Section 303.1. 

4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with 
Section 503.1.1. 

5. Buildings such as power plants, lookout towers, stee- 
ples, grain houses and similar structures with non- 
continuous human occupancy, when so determined 
by the enforcing agency. 

For existing high-rise buildings, see Section 3414 and for 
existing Group R occupancies, see Section 3413.13. 

For the purpose of this section, in determining the level from 
which the highest occupied floor is to be measured, the enforc- 
ing agency should exercise reasonable judgment, including 
consideration of overall accessibility to the building by fire 
department personnel and vehicular equipment. When a build- 
ing is located on sloping terrain and there is building access on 
more than one level, the enforcing agency may select the level 
that provides the most logical and adequate fire department 
access. 

403 A, 1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. In other than Group 1-2 occu- 
pancies "high-rise buildings" as used in this code: 

1. *' Existing high-rise structure" means a high-rise 
structure, the construction of which is commenced or 
completed prior to July 1, 1974. 

2. '* High-rise structure" means every building of any 
type of construction or occupancy having floors used 
for human occupancy located more than 75 feet 
above the lowest floor level having building access 
(see Section 403.1.2), except buildings used as hospi- 
tals as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 
1250. 

3. "New high-rise structure" means a high-rise struc- 
ture, the construction of which is commenced on or 
after July 1, 1974, 

HIGH-RISE BUILDING ACCESS, An exterior door 
opening conforming to all of the following : 

1. Suitable and available for fire department use. 

2. Located not more than 2 feet (610 mm) above the 
adjacent ground level. 

3. Leading to a space, room or area having foot traffic 
communication capabilities with the remainder of the 
building. 



4. Designed to permit penetration through the use of fire 
department forcible-entry tools and equipment unless 
other approved arrangements have been made with 
the fire authority having jurisdiction. 

NEW HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A high-rise structure, the 
construction of which is commenced on or after July 1, 
1974. For the purpose of this section, construction shall be 
deemed to have commenced when plans and specifications 
are more than 50 percent complete and have been presented 
to the local jurisdiction prior to July 1, 1974. Unless all pro- 
visions of this section have been met, the construction of 
such buildings shall commence on or before January 1, 
1976. 

403.2 Construction. The construction of high-rise buildings 
shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 
403.2.4. 

403.2.1 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire- 
resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 
and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprin- 
kler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating 
devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor. 

Exception: Buildings, or portions of buildings, classi- 
fied as a Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy. 

403.2.1.1 Type of construction. The following reduc- 
tions in the mmmmm fire-resistance rating of the build- 
ing elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows: 

1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in 
building height, the fire-resistance rating of the 
building elements in Type lA construction shall be 
permitted to be reduced to the minimum//r^-r^^/5- 
tance ratings for the building elements in Type IB . 

Exception: The VQqixirtd fire-resistance rating 
of the Structural Frame shall not be permitted 
to be reduced. 

2. In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, 
\hQ fire-resistance rating of the building elements 
in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be 
reduced to iht fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA. 

Exception: The required fire-resistance rating 
of the structural frame shall not be permitted to 
be reduced. 

3. The building height and building area limitations 
of a building containing building elements with 
x^ducQd fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted 
to be the same as the building without such reduc- 
tions. 

403.2.1.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater 
than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, the required 
fire-resistance rating of iho. fire barriers enclosing verti- 
cal shafts, other than exit enclosures and elevator 
hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour 
where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts 
at the top and at alternate floor levels. 



403.2.2 Seismic considerations. 

ations, see Chapter 16. 



For seismic consider- 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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403.2.3 Structural integrity of exit enclosures and eleva- 
tor hoistway enclosures. For high-rise buildings of occu- 
pancy category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, 
and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in 
building height, exit enclosures and elevator hoistway 
enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 
403.2.3.4. 

403.2.3.1 Wall assembly. The wall assemblies making 
up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures 
shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification 
Level 2 as measured by the test method described in 
ASTMC1629/C1629M. 

403.2.3.2 Wall assembly materials. The face of the wall 
assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator 
hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior 
of the exit enclosure or elevator hoistway enclosure shall 
be constructed in accordance with one of the following 
methods: 

1. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than 
two layers of impact-resistant construction board 
each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact 
Classification Level 2 as measured by the test 
method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

2. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than 
one layer of impact-resistant construction material 
that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classifi- 
cation Level 3 as measured by the test method 
described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M. 

3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of 
any material, tested in tandem, that meet or exceed 
Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as mea- 
sured by the test method described in ASTM C 
1629/C 1629M. 

403.2.3.3 Concrete and masonry walls. Concrete or 
masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the require- 
ments of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2. 

403.2.3.4 Other wall assemblies. Any other wall assem- 
bly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that 
required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard 
Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the 
test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M, shall 
be permitted. 

403.2.4 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). The 

bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the build- 
ing shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4. 

TABLE 403.2.4 
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH 



HEIGHT OF BUILDING^ 


SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH 


Up to 420 feet 


430 psf 


Greater than 420 feet 


1,000 psf 



For Sr. 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.0479 kWAnl 
a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

[F] 403.3 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and struc- 
tures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary 



water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. A sprinkler 
water-flow alarm-initiating device and a control valve with a 
supervisory signal-initiating device shall be provided at the 
lateral connection to the riser for each floor 

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be 
required in open parking garages in accordance with Sec- 
tion 406.3. 

[F] 403.3.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system 
design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are 
more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height shall be sup- 
plied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply 
sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are 
provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not 
be supplied from the same riser. 

[F] 403.3.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be 
placed in exit enclosures that are remotely located in 
accordance with Section 1015.2. 

[F] 403.3.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. 

Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to a 
minimum of two water mains located in different streets. 
Separate supply piping shall be provided between each con- 
nection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection 
and the supply piping between the connection and the 
pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure 
required for the pumps to operate. 

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be 
permitted provided the main is valved such that an inter- 
ruption can be isolated so that the water supply will con- 
tinue without interruption through at least one of the 
connections. 

403.4 Emergency systems. The detection, alarm and emer- 
gency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sec- 
tions 403.4.1 through 403.4.8. 

[F] 403.4.1 Smoke detection. Smoke detection shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1. 

[F] 403.4.2 Fire alarms systems. A fire alarm system shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13. 

[F] 403.4.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication sys- 
tem. An emergency voice/alarm communication system 
shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2. 

[F] 403.4.4 Emergency responder radio coverage. Emer- 
gency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code. 

[F] 403.4.5 Fire command. A fire command center com- 
plying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location 
approved by the fire department. 

403.4,6 Smoke control 

403,4.6 J Smoke control system. High-rise buildings 
shall be provided with a passive or active smoke control 
system or combination thereof in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909. 

[F] 403.4.7 Standby power. A standby power system com- 
plying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for standby power 
loads specified in Section 403.4,7.2. 



<• 



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[F] 403.4.7.1 Special requirements for standby power 
systems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a 
building, the system shall be located in a separate room 
enclosed with 2-hour ^ir^ barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 7 1 2, or both. System 
supervision with manual start and transfer features shall 
be provided at the fire command center. 

[F] 403.4.7.2 Standby power loads. The following are 
classified as standby power loads: 

1. Power and lighting for the fire command center 
required by Section 403.4.5; 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equip- 
ment for smokeproof enclosures; and 

3. Standby power shall be provided for elevators in 
accordance with Sections 1007.4, 3003, 3007 and 
3008. 

[F] 403.4.8 Emergency power systems. An emergency 
power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided 
for emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.1. 

[F] 403.4.8.1 Emergency power loads. The following 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination 
required by Chapter 10; 

2. Elevator car lighting; 

3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems; 

4. Automatic fire detection systems; 

5. Fire alarm systems; and 

6. Electrically powered fire pumps. 

403.5 Means of egress and evacuation. The means of egress 
in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 
through 403.5.6. 

403.5.1 Remoteness of exit stairway enclosures. The 

required exit stairway enclosures shall be separated by a dis- 
tance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than 
one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is 
less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line 
between the nearest points of the exit stairway enclosures. 
In buildings with three or more exit stairway enclosures, at 
least two of the exit stairway enclosures shall comply with 
this section. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted 
as one exit stairway. 

403.5.2 Additional exit stairway. For buildings other than 
Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building 
height, one additional exit stairway meeting the require- 
ments of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be provided in addi- 
tion to the minimum number of exits required by Section 
1021.1. The total width of any combination of remaining 
exit stairways with one exit stairway removed shall not be 
less than the total width required by Section 1005. 1. Scissor 



stairs shall not be considered the additional exit stairway 
required by this section. 

Exception: An additional exit stairway shall not be 
required to be installed in buildings having elevators 
used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with 
Section 3008. 

403.5.3 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other 
than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked 
from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from 
the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simul- 
taneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire 
command center. Upon failure of electrical power to the 
locking mechanism the door shall unlock 

403.5.3.1 Stairway communication system. A tele- 
phone or other two-way communications system con- 
nected to an approved constantly attended station shall 
be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stair- 
way where the doors to the stairway are locked. 

403.5.4 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every exit enclosure 
in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 909.20 
and 1022.9. Every required level exit stairway in Group 1-2 
occupancies serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) 
above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access 
shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1022.9. 

403.5.5 Luminous egress path markings. Luminous 
egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 1024. 

403.5.6 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape 
and rescue openings required by Section 1029 are not 
required. 

403.6 Elevators. Elevator installation and operation in 
high-rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 
403.6.1 and 403.6.2. 

Enclosed elevator lobbies shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 708.14.1. Exceptions 3, 5, 6 and 8 shall only be 
permitted where approved by the Fire Chief in accordance with 
Section 1.11.2.1.1 orin accordance with Section LI 1.2.1.2 for 
all state-owned buildings y state-occupied buildings, and state 
institutions throughout the state. 

403.6.1 Fire service access elevator. In buildings with an 
occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the 
lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a minimum 
of one fire service access elevator shall be provided in accor- 
dance with Section 3007. 

403.6.2 Occupant evacuation elevators. Where installed 
in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for 
general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant 
self-evacuation. 

403.7 Existing high-rise buildings. For existing high-rise 
buildings, see Section 3414. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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SECTION 404 
ATRIUMS 

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and where 
permitted by Exception 5 in Section 708.2, the provisions of 
this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing 
vertical openings defined herein as "Atriums." 

404.1.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for 
the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meaning shown herein. 

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories 
other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escala- 
tors, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equip- 
ment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. 
Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies 
within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with 
Section 505. 

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and dec- 
orations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall 
be used in the atrium space. 

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for 
any approved use where the individual space is provided 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1. 

[F] 404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the 
entire building. 

Exceptions: 

1 . That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium 
need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the 
building is separated from the atrium portion by not 
less than 2-\\o\xy fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet 
(16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at 
the ceiling of the atrium is not required. 

[F] 404.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.14. 

404.5 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 909. 

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that 
connect only two stories. 

404.6 Enclosure of atriums. Atrium spaces shall be separated 
from adjacent spaces by a 1-]\o\xt fire barrier constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A glass wall forming a smoke partition where auto- 
matic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less 
along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room 
side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, 
and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 
mm) away from the glass and designed so that the 



entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the 
sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall 
be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing 
system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass 
before the sprinkler system operates. 

2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Sec- 
tion 2110 and having a ^/^-honr fire protection rating. 

3. In other than Group I and R-2.I occupancies, /he 
adjacent spaces of any thvoQ floors of the atrium shall 
not be required to be separated from the atrium where 
such spaces are accounted for in the design of the 
smoke control system. 

[F] 404.7 Standby power. Equipment required to provide 
smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in 
accordance with Section 909.11. 

404.8 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings 
of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in 
class for sprinkler protection. 

404.9 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the 
atrium, where the required means of egress is through the 
atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within 
the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The 
travel distance requirements for areas of buildings open to the 
atrium and where access to the exits is not through the atrium, 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 1016. 

404.10 Group I and R'2,1 occupancy means of egress. 

Required means of egress from sleeping rooms in Group I and 
R-2. 1 occupancies shall not pass through the atrium. 



p 



\p 



SECTION 405 
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS 

405.1 General. The provisions of this section apply to building 
spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest 
level of exit discharge. 

Exceptions: 

1 . One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.3. 

2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in 
compliance with Section 405.3. 

3. Fixed guide way transit systems. 

4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar 
facilities. 

5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would 
qualify the building as an underground building and 
has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m^) 
and has an occupant load less than 10. 

6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical 
spaces intended only for limited periodic use by ser- 
vice or maintenance personnel. 

7. [SFM] Winery Caves having a floor level used for I I 
human occupancy 30 feet (9144 mm) or less below the 
lowest level of exit discharge. 



88 



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405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion 
of the building shall be of Type I construction. 

[F] 405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of 
exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building 
and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprin- 
kler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in 
accordance with Section 903.4. 

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3. 

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a 
floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished 
floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided 
into a minimum of two compartments of approximately 
equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the 
highest level of exit discharge serving the underground por- 
tions of the building and all levels below. 

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented 
where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 
m^) and has an occupant load of less than 10. 

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments 
shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in 
accordance with Section 710. Penetrations between the two 
compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical 
piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with 
Section 713. Doorways shall be protected by fire door 
assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in 
accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 and are installed in 
accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where 
provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an 
exhaust system independent of the other compartments. 

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each com- 
partment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an ele- 
vator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby 
shall be provided and shall be separated from each compart- 
ment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 710. 
Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be auto- 
matic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 
715.4.8.3. 

[F] 405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system 
shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 
405.5.2. 

[F] 405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is 
required to control the migration of products of combustion 
in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this 
section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to 
the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress 
in a usable condition. 

[F] 405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where 
compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have 
an independent smoke control system. The system shall be 
automatically activated and capable of manual operation in 
accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19. 

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19. 



405.7 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be in accordance 
with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2. 

405.7.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be provided 
with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is 
required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a 
minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access door- 
way into the adjoining compartment. 

405.7.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway 
serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the 
finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with 
the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in 
Section 1022.9. 

[F] 405.8 Standby power. A standby power system complying 
with Chapter 27 shall be provided standby power loads speci- 
fied in Section 405.8.1. 

[F] 405.8.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are 
classified as standby power loads: 

1 . Smoke control system. 

2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment 
for smokeproof enclosures. 

3. Fire pumps. 

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accor- 
dance with Section 3003. 

[F] 405.8.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall 
pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of 
the normal power supply. 

[F] 405.9 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency 
power loads specified in Section 405.9.1. 

[F] 405.9.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads 
are classified as emergency power loads: 

1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems. 

3. Automatic fire detection systems. 

4. Elevator car lighting. 

5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required 
by Chapter 10. 

[F] 405.10 Standpipe system. The underground building shall 
be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance 
with Section 905. 



SECTION 406 
MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

406.1 Private garages and carports. 

406.1.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings clas- 
sified as Group U occupancies because of the use or charac- 
ter of the occupancy shall not exceed 1 ,000 square feet (93 
m^) in area or one story in height except as provided in Sec- 
tion 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds 
the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in 
the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly 
resembles. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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406.1.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the 
storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no 
repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted 
to be 3,000 square feet (279 m^) when the following provi- 
sions are met: 

1 . For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and 
opening protection for the Group U portion of the 
building shall be as required for the major occupancy 
of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, 
the allowable floor area of the building shall be as per- 
mitted for the major occupancy contained therein. 

2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, 
the exterior wall shall not be required to have a 
fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall 
not be limited when the//r^ separation distance is 5 
feet (1524 mm) or more. 

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) Group U 
occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, 
provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m^) area is separated 
by^r^ walls complying with Section 706. 

406.1.3 Garages and carports. Carports shall be open on at 
least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved 
noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two 
sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the 
provisions of this section for garages. 

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level in carports. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

406.1.4 Separation. Separations shall comply with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwell- 
ing unit and its attic area by means of a minimum 
V2-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the 
garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be 
separated from all habitable rooms above by not less 
than a Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or 
equivalent. Door openings between a private garage 
and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either 
solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel 
doors not less than IVg inches (34.9 rrnn) thick, or 
doors in compliance with Section 715.4.3. Openings 
from a private garage directly into a room used for 
sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall 
be self-closing and self-latching. 

2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the 
walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the 
garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch 
(0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into 
the garage. 

3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and 
U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two 
or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above. 

406.1.5 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic 
garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accor- 



dance with UL 325. See Health and Safety Code Sections 
19890 and 19891 for additional provisions for residential 
garage door openers. 

406.2 Parking garages. 

406.2.1 Classification. Parking garages shall be classified 
as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and 
shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see 
Section 509 for special provisions for parking garages. 

406.2.2 Clear heiglit. The clear height of each floor level in 
vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 
feet (2134 mm). [HCD l-AQ DSA-AC] The clear height of 
vehicle and pedestrian areas required to he accessible shall 
comply with Chapter llAor Chapter 11 By as applicable. 

406.2.3 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barrier sys- 
tems shall comply with Sections 406.2.4 and 1013. 

406.2.4 Vehicle barrier systems. Vehicle barrier systems 
not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) high shall be placed at 
the end of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces 
where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly 
below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barrier sys- 
tems shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 
1607.7.3. 

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechani- 
cal access parking garage. 

406.2.5 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as 
required exits unless pedestrian facihties are provided. 
Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as 
well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 
percent). 

406.2.6 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete 
or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials. 

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other 
vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids 
to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway. 

Exceptions: 

1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at 
ground level. 

2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be 
required to have a sloped surface. 

406.2.7 Mixed occupancy separation. Parking garages 
shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance 
with Section 508.1. 

406.2.8 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage 
with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall 
be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separa- 
tion. 

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the 
sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches 
(457 mm) above the floor. 

406.2.9 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking 
garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall 
not be permitted. 



» 



F 



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406.3 Open parking garages. 

406.3.1 Scope. Except where specific provisions are made 
in Sections 406.3.2 through 406.3.13, other requirements of 
this code shall apply. 

406.3.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. 

Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, 
elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving 
from and to street level and in which public occupancy is 
prohibited above the street level. 

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a 
structure with the openings as described in Section 
406.3.3.1 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or 
storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 
406.3.4. 

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open 
parking garages employing a series of continuously rising 
floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors 
permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power 
from and to the street level. 

406.3.3 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of 
Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall 
meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle 
barrier systems, see Section 406.2.4. 

406.3.3.1 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, 
the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly dis- 
tributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such 
openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 
percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The 
aggregate length of the openings considered to be pro- 
viding natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 
40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall 
be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed 
openings. 

Exception: Openings are not required to be distrib- 
uted over 40 percent of the building perimeter where 
the required openings are uniformly distributed over 
two opposing sides of the building. 



406.3.4 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same 
building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions 
of Sections 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 508.1, 509.3, 509.4 and 
509.7. 

406.3.5 Area and height. Area and height of open parking 
garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group 
S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 
508.1. 

406.3.5.1 Single use. When the open parking garage is 
used exclusively for the parking or storage of private 
motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the 
area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 
406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 
406.3.6. 

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to con- 
tain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total 
combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 
m^). Such area need not be separated from the open 
parking garage. 

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping 
floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any 
cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per 
parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage hav- 
ing a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 
mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a 
tier. 

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 
7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is per- 
mitted in mechanical-access open parking garages 
where approved by the building official. 

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and 
height of open parking garages shall be increased in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides 
open on three-fourths of the building's perimeter are permit- 
ted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in 
height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's 
perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area 
and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under 
the above provisions, the total area of openings along the 
side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of 
the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally dis- 
tributed along the length of the tier. 



TABLE 406.3.5 
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT 



TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


AREA PER TIER 
(square feet) 


HEIGHT (in tiers) 


Ramp access 


Mechanical access 


Automatic sprinkler system 


No 


Yes 


lA 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


IB 


Unlimited 


12 tiers 


12 tiers 


18 tiers 


IIA 


50,000 


10 tiers 


10 tiers 


15 tiers 


IIB 


50,000 


8 tiers 


8 tiers 


12 tiers 


rv 


50,000 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 


4 tiers 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased 
for open parking garages constructed to heights less than 
the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall 
not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least 
three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous 
horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in 
clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of 
the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 
200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In 
addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard acces- 
sible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet (9 144 mm) for 
the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be pro- 
vided in each such tier. 

Open parking garages of Type 11 construction, with all 
sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the 
building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a 
side to be considered open, the total area of openings along 
the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area 
of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally 
distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers 
shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such 
openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in 
Section 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be 
provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet 
(6096 mm) for the full width of the openings. 

406.3.7 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and open- 
ings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602, 
The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 602 and Section 705. 

406.3.8 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking 
attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet 
the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no 
persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there 
shall not be less than two 3 6-inch- wide (914 mm) exit stair- 
ways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of 
employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by 
noncombustible materials. 

406.3.9 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed where 
required by the provisions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.10 Sprinkler systems. Where required by other pro- 
visions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and 
standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provi- 
sions of Chapter 9. 

406.3.11 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall 
not be required for vertical openings except as specified in 
Section 406.3.8. 

406.3.12 Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage 
of openings specified in Section 406.3.3,1, shall not be 
required. 

406.3.13 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations 
are not permitted: 

1 . Vehicle repair work. 

2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles. 

3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in 
exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means. 

4. Dispensing of fuel. 



406.4 Enclosed parking garages. 

406.4.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking 
garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition 
of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable 
heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sec- 
tions 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted. 

406.4.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall 
be provided in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code. 

406.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities. 

406.5.1 Construction. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities 
shall be constructed in accordance with the California Fire 
Code and Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.3. 

406.5.2 Vehicle fueling pad. The vehicle shall be fueled on 
noncoated concrete or other approved paving material hav- 
ing a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by 
the methodology in EN 1081. 

406.5.3 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dis- 
pensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less 
than 1 3 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest proj ecting ele- 
ment in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their 
supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, 
fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, 
wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour 
fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a can- 
opy shall comply with one of the following: 

1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible ele- 
ment of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes; 

2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a mini- 
mum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corro- 
sion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal 
thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall 
have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a 
smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in 
the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 
84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F 
(343 °C) or greater when tested in accordance with 
ASTM D 1929; or 

3. Panels constructed of light- transmitting plastic mate- 
rials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies 
erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station 
fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at 
least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the 
same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet 
(12 192 nmi) in width on the other sides. The aggre- 
gate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^). The maximum area of any individual 
panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^). 

406.5.3.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen 
systems. Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing 
operations where flammable compressed gases are 
located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance 
with the following: 

1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construc- 
tion requirements. 



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2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited 
to refueling only, 

3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that 
prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas. 

406.6 Repair garages. 

406.6.1 General. Repair garages shall be constructed in 
accordance with the California Fire Code and Sections 

406.6.1 through 406.6.6. This occupancy shall not include 
motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 
406.5. 

406.6.2 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the 
same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of 
Section 508.1. 

406.6.3 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically 
ventilated in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the 
entrance to the garage. 

406.6.4 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of con- 
crete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materi- 
als. 

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior 
floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more 
than 0.45 W/cm^, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be 
permitted. 

406.6.5 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code. 

[F] 406.6.6 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for 
repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as 
hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an 
approved flammable gas detection system. 

[F] 406.6.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detec- 
tion system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or 
gases used by vehicles to be repaired. Tlie gas detection 
system shall be designed to activate when the level of 
flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive 
limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication 
or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing 
nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles. 

[F] 406.6.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection 
system shall result in all of the following: 

1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm sig- 
nals in the repair garage. 

2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the 
repair garage. 

3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, 
where the system is interlocked with gas detec- 
tion. 

[F] 406.6.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Fail- 
ure of the gas detection system shall result in the deacti- 
vation of the heating system, activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system when the system is inter- 
locked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble 
signal to sound in an approved location. 



406 J Electric Vehicle, [SFM] 

406.7 J Electric Vehicle, An automotive-type vehicle for 
highway use, such as passenger automobiles, buses, trucks, 
vans and the like, primarily powered by an electric motor 
that draws current from a rechargeable storage battery, fuel 
cell, photovoltaic array or other source of electric current. 
For the purpose of this chapter, electric motorcycles and 
similar type vehicles and off- road self-propelled electric 
vehicles such as industrial trucks, hoists, lifts, transports, 
golf carts, airline ground support equipment, tractors, 
boats and the like, are not included. 

406.7.2 Charging, In any building or interior area used for 
charging electric vehicles, electrical equipment shall be 
installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code, 

406.7.3 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation, when 
required by the California Electrical Code shall be provided 
at a rate as required by Article 625 or as required by Section 
1203 of the California Building Code whichever is greater. 
The ventilation system shall include both the supply and 
exhaust equipment and shall be permanently installed and 
located to intake supply air from the outdoors, and vent the 
exhaust directly to, the outdoors without conducting the 
exhaust air through other spaces within the building. 

Exception: Positive pressure ventilation systems shall 
only be allowed in buildings or areas that have been 
designed and approved for that application, 

406. 7.4 Electrical Interface. The electrical supply circuit to 
electrically powered mechanical ventilation equipment 
shall be interlocked with the recharging equipment used to 
supply the vehicle(s) being charged, and shall remain ener- 
gized during the entire charging cycle. Electric vehicle 
recharging equipment shall be marked or labeled in accor- 
dance with the California Electrical Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exhaust ventilation shall not be required in areas 
with an approved engineered ventilation system, 
which maintains a hydrogen gas concentration at 
less than 25 percent of the lower flammability 
limit, 

2. Mechanical exhaust ventilation for hydrogen shall 
not be required where the charging equipment uti- 
lized is installed and listed for indoor charging of 
electric vehicles without ventilation. 



SECTION 407 
GROUP 1-2 

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-2 and 1-2.1 shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.9 and 
other applicable provisions of this code. 

407.2 Corridors. Corridors in occupancies in Group 1-2 and 
1-2. 1 shall be continuous to the exits and separated from other 
areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conform- 
ing to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4. 

407.2.1 Waiting and similar areas. Waiting areas and sim- 
ilar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be 



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permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the fol- 
lowing criteria are met: 

1 . The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, 
treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental use areas 
listed in Table 508.2.5. 

2. The open space is protected by an automatic smoke 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 

907.2.6.2. 

3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the 
same smoke compartment, are protected by an auto- 
matic smoke detection system installed in accordance 
with Section 907.2.6.2, and the smoke compartment 
in which the spaces are located is equipped through- 
out with quick-response sprinklers in accordance 
with Section 903.3.2. 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to 
the required exits. 

5. Each space is located to permit direct visual supervi- 
sion by the facility staff. 

407.2.2 Nurses' stations. Spaces for doctors' and nurses' 
charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be 
permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are 
constructed as required for corridors. [SFM] Nurses' sta- 
tions in new and existing facilities, see the California Code 
of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 
1, Article 3, Section 3.11(d) for storage and equipment 
requirements. 

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein 
mental health patients who are not capable of self-preserva- 
tion are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeu- 
tic spaces other than incidental accessory occupancies in 
accordance with Section 508.2.5, under continuous super- 
vision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the 
corridor, where the following criteria are met: 

1 . Each area does not exceed 1 ,500 square feet (140 m^). 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facil- 
ity staff. 

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to 
the required exits. 

4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection 
system installed in accordance with Section 907.2. 

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one 
smoke compartment. 

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as 
required for corridors. 

407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet 
(46.5 m^) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corri- 
dor provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully 
sprinklered and storage areas are protected in accordance 
with Section 508.2.5. 

407.3 Corridor walls. Corridor walls shall be constructed as 
fire partitions in accordance with Section 709. 

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors in fully 
sprinklered buildings, other than those in a wall required to 



be rated by Section 508.2.5 or for the enclosure of a vertical 
opening or an exit, shall not have a r&quircd fire protection 
rating, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the 
transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latch- 
ing. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall con- 
form to Section 715.4, In Group 1-2 Occupancies, 
self-closing or automatic-closing devices are not required 
on corridor doors to patient sleeping rooms, treatment 
rooms, and offices located in areas specified in Sections 
1224 and 1225, excluding offices specified in Sections 
1224.21 and 1225.8. 

407,3,1.1 Swing of corridor doors. Corridor doors, 
other than those equipped with self-closing or auto- 
matic-closing devices shall not swing into the required 
width of corridors. 

407.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict 
access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are 
operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not 
restrict the means of egress from the patient room except for 
patient rooms in mental health facilities. 

407.3.3 Glazing. In fully sprinklered buildings, fixed fully 
tempered or laminated glass in wood or metal frames may 
be used in corridor walls, provided the glazed area does not 
exceed 25 percent of the areas of the corridor wall of the 
room. The total area of glass in corridor walls is not limited 
when the glazing is fixed ^/4-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wired glass 
in steel frames and the size of individual glazed panel does 
not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.836 m^). 

407 A Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment 
and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more 
persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories 
shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not 
more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m^) and the travel distance 
from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier 
door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier 
shall be in accordance with Sections 710 and 909.5. 

Exceptions: 

1, This requirement shall not apply to Group 1-2.1 less 
than 10,000 ft^ (929 m^). 

2. An area in an adjoining occupancy shall be permitted 
to serve as a smoke compartment for a Group 1-2.1 
facility if the following criteria are met: 

2.1. The separating wall and both compartments 
meet the requirements of 407,4. 

2.2. The Group 1-2.1 is less than 22,500 ft^ (2100 
m^). 

2.3. Access from the Group 1-2.1 to the other occu- 
pancy is unrestricted. 

407.4.1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) per 
patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corri- 
dors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining 
areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke 
barrier On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or 
litter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per occupant shall 



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be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total 
number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. 

4^1 A2 Independent egress. At least two means of egress 
shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by 
smoke barriers. Means of egress may pass through adja- 
cent compartments provided it does not return through the 
smoke compartment from which means of egress origi- 
nated. 

407.4.3 Horizontal assemblies. Horizontal assemblies 
supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be 
designed to resist the movement of smoke and shall comply 
with Section 712.9. 

[F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Every facility as spec- 
ified herein wherein more than six clients or patients are 
housed or cared for on the premises on a 24-hour- 
per-day-basis shall have installed and maintained in an opera- 
ble condition in every building or portion thereof where clients 
or patients are housed, an automatic sprinkler system of a type 
approved by the state fire marshal. The provisions of this sub- 
section shall apply to every person^ firm or corporation estab- 
lishing, maintaining or operating a hospital, children's home, 
children 's nursery or institution, or a home or institution for 
the care of aged or persons with dementia or other cognitive 
impairments, or any institution for persons with mental illness 
or persons with developmental disabilities and any nursing or 
convalescent home, and to any state-owned or state-occupied 
building used for any of the types of facilities specified herein. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to homes or institutions 
for the 24-hour-per-day care of ambulatory children 
if all of the following conditions are satisfied: 

1.1. The buildings or portions thereof in which 
children are housed are not more than two 
stories in height and are constructed and 
maintained in accordance with regulations 
adopted by the state fire marshal. 

1.2. The buildings or portions thereof housing 
more than six such children shall have in- 
stalled and maintained in an operable condi- 
tion therein, a fire alarm system of a type 
approved by the state fire marshal Such sys- 
tem shall be activated by detectors respond- 
ing to invisible particles of combustion other 
than heat, except that detectors used in clos- 
ets, usable under-fioor areas, storage rooms, 
bathrooms, attached garages, attics, ple- 
nums, laundry rooms and rooms of similar 
use, may be heat-responsive devices. 

1.3. The building or portions thereof do not house 
persons with mental illness or children with 
developmental disabilities. 

2. This section shall not apply to any one-story building 
or structure of an institution or home for the care of 
the aged providing 24-hour-per-day care if such 
building or structure is used or intended to be used for 
the housing of no more than six ambulatory aged per- 
sons. Such buildings or institutions shall have 



installed and maintained in an operable condition 
herein afire alarm system of a type approved by the 
state fire marshal Such system shall be activated by 
detectors responding to either visible or invisible par- 
ticles of combustion other than heat, except that 
detectors used in closets, usable under-fioor areas, 
storage rooms, bathrooms, attached garages, attics, 
plenums, laundry rooms and rooms of similar use, 
may be heat-responsive devices. 

3. This section shall not apply to occupancies or any 
alterations thereto conforming to the construction 
provisions of this exception which were under con- 
struction or in existence on March 4, 1972. "Under 
construction" as used in this exception shall mean 
that actual work had been performed on the construc- 
tion site and shall not be construed to mean that the 
hospital, home, nursery, institution, sanitarium or 
any portion thereof, was or is in the planning stage. 
The provisions of this exception shall apply to those 
buildings or structures having bearing walls and 
structural fiame protected in accordance with the 
provisions of Column Type lA of Table 601. 

4. In detention facilities where inmates are not 
restrained. 

The provisions of this section shall not apply to any facility 
used to house six or less persons on the premises. 

407, 5 A When a new addition is to be made to an 
unsprinklered building or structure as permitted by this sub- 
section, such new addition shall be sprinklered as required 
by this section and shall be separated from the existing 
building or structures by not less than a two-hour fire-resis- 
tive fire barrier 

When a sprinkler system is added to an existing 
unsprinklered building or structure, the sprinklered area(s) 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not 
less than a one-hour fire-resistive fire barrier 

The provisions of this section do not apply to any facility 
used to house six or less persons on the premises. 

[F] 407.6 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.6. 

[F] 407.7 Automatic fire detection. See Section 907.2.6.2. 

407.8 Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced and 
gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided 
that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) for 
bed and Utter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) for ambu- 
latory patients and other occupants are located between the 
building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall 
not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building 
they serve. Each safe dispersal area shall have a minimum of 
two exits. The aggregate clear width of exits from a safe dis- 
persal area shall be determined on the basis of not less than one 
exit unit of 22 inches (559 mm) for each 500 persons to be 
accommodated, and no exit shall be less than 44 inches (1118 
mm) in width. Gates shall not be installed across corridors or 
passageways leading to such dispersal areas unless they com- 
ply with egress requirements. Keys to gate locks shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with the California Fire Code. 



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407.9 Hyperbaric facilities. Hyperbaric facilities in Group 1-2 
occupancies shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 
20ofNFPA99. 

407.10 Special Hazards, 

407.10 J Storage and handling of flammable, combustible 
liquids and hazardous materials shall be in accordance with 
the California Fire Code. 

407.10.2 All exterior openings in a boiler room or room 
containing central heating equipment, if located below 
openings in another story, or if less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
from other doors or windows of the same building, shall be 
protected by afire assembly having a three-fourths -hour fire 
protection rating. 

407.10.3 Safety padding. See Sections 308,1 and 408 J 4. 

407.10.4 Floor Surfaces. Rooms occupied by patients 
whose personal liberties are restrained shall have non- 
combustible floor surfaces see Sections 308.1 and 804.4.2. 



SECTION 408 
GROUP 1-3 

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.10 and other 
apphcable provisions of this code (see Section 308.4). 

408.1.1 Definition. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

CELL. A housing unit in a detention or correctional facility 
for the confinement of not more than two inmates or prison- 
ers. 

CELL COMPLEX. A cluster or group of cells or dormito- 
ries in a jail, prison or other detention facility, together with 
rooms used for accessory purposes, all of which open into 
the cell complex, and are used for functions such as dining, 
counseling, exercise, classrooms, sick call, visiting, storage, 
staff offices, control rooms or similar functions, and inter- 
connecting corridors all within the cell complex. 

CELL TIERS. Cells, dormitories and accessory spaces. 
Cell tiers are located one level above the other, and do not 
exceed two levels per floor. A cell tier shall not be consid- 
ered a story or mezzanine. 

CENTRAL CONTROL BUILDING. A secure building 
within a prison where the fire and life safety systems, com- 
munication systems, security systems and exterior lighting 
systems are monitored and where security operations neces- 
sitate the remote locking of required means of egress or at 
the door with a key to maintain a high security area. 

DAY ROOM. A room which is adjacent to a cell, or cell tier, 
or dormitory and which is used as a dining, exercise or other 
activity room for inmates. 

DORMITORY. An area occupied by no less than three 
inmates. 

HOLDING FACILITY. A detention or correctional facility 
or area where inmates, staff and public are not housed but 
are restrained. 



HOUSING UNIT. An area intended to lodge inmates on a 
24-hour basis where accommodations are provided for 
sleeping. 

RESTRAINT. The physical retention of a person within a 
room, cell or holding facility by any means, or within a 
building by means of locked doors. 

SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors 
or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous 
and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only 
one door or gate at a time. 

SMALL MANAGEMENT YARD. An exterior exercise 
yard within a Group 1-3 prison used for inmate exercise for a 
maximum of 2 hours per day, constructed in accordance 
with Section 408.1.2.3. 

408.1.2 Construction. Group 1-3 Occupancies shall be 
housed in buildings of Type I A or Type IB. 

Exception: Such occupancies may be housed in 
one -story buildings of Type 11 A, Type HI A or Type VA 
construction provided the floor area does not exceed 
5,200 square feet (483 m^) between fire walls of two-hour 
fire-resistive construction with openings protected by 
fire assemblies having 1- and V /2-hour fire -protection 
rating. 

408.1.2.1 Nonbearing walls and partitions interior. 

Nonbearing cell or dormitory walls within cell com- 
plexes shall be of noncombustible construction. 

408.L2.2 Cells with open bars. In buildings protected 
throughout by an automatic sprinkler system and auto- 
matic fire detection system, corridor doors or walls of 
cells and dormitories, may be of open bars, perforated 
metal, grilles, or other similar construction. 

408.2 Other occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings 
in Group 1-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate 
the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be 
classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as 
other than Group 1-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of 
this code for that occupancy provided provisions are made for 
the release of occupants at all times. 

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupan- 
cies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform 
to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into 
other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to 
detention and correctional occupancy egress provi- 
sions but that do comply with requirements set forth 
in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occu- 
pancy is not a Group H use. 

2. Regardless of the provisions of Section 508, laundry 
areas and kitchens including associated dining areas, 
where commercial/institutional equipment is used 
shall be separated from the remainder of the building 
by construction capable of resisting the passage of 
smoke. 



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5. For the purpose of occupancy separation only pris- 
oner docks directly accessory to courtrooms need not 
he separated from a courtroom, 

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for 
in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply. 

408.3.1 Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall 
have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm). 

4083, U Cell doors shall open outwardly or slide later- 
ally. 

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are 
of the horizontal-shding type, the force to slide the door to its 
fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a 
perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N). 

408.3.3 Guard tower doors. A hatch or trap door not less 
than 16 square feet (610 m^) in area through the floor and 
having minimum dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 
mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a por- 
tion of the means of egress from guard towers. 

408.3.4 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to 
the requirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access 
to and between staff locations. 

408.3.5 Ship ladders. Ship ladders shall be permitted for 
egress from control rooms or elevated faciHty observation 
rooms in accordance with Section 1009.11. 

408.3.6 Exit discharge. 

408.3,6,1 Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced 
or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of 
a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum of 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 3 
square feet (1.4 m^) per person. A gate shall be provided 
from the safe dispersal area to allow for the necessary 
relocation of occupants. 

4083.6,2 Exterior fenced enclosures and fenced enclo- 
sures utilized for recreational or activity purposes, used 
for exit termination for more than 20 persons, and which 
do not provide a safe dispersal area, shall have not less 
than two exits. 

408.3.6.3 Fenced enclosure utilized for recreational or 
activity purposes only, for more than 49 people, and 
which do not provide a safe dispersal area, shall be pro- 
vided with not less than two exits. 

408.3.6.4 Fenced enclosures located on roofs of build- 
ings one or more stories in height shall be provided with 
not less than two exits regardless of occupant load. 

408.3.6.5 Fenced enclosures utilized for Central Control 
Buildings not normally occupied and not accessed by 
inmates or the general public are permitted to have only 
one exit from the fenced enclosure. These fenced enclo- 
sures shall only be occupied during emergency response 
conditions by not more than 29 prison staff occupants. 
Access to the fenced area shall be controlled remotely or 
at the gate with a key. 

408.3.7 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a 
means of egress where there are provisions for continuous 



and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an 
emergency egress condition. 

408.3.8 Exit enclosures. 

408.3.8.1. One of the required exit enclosures in each 
building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in 
doors and interior walls at each landing level providing 
access to the enclosure, provided that the following con- 
ditions are met: 

1. The exit enclosure shall not serve more than four 
floor levels. 

2. Exit doors shall not be less than '^l^-hoxxifire door 
assemblies complying with Section 715.4 

3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall 
not exceed 5,000 square inches (3 m^) and individ- 
ual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square 
inches (0.84 m^). 

4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an 
automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system 
shall be designed to wet completely the entire sur- 
face of any glazing affected by fire when actuated. 

5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and 
installed in such a manner that the framing system 
will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass 
before the sprinkler system operates. 

6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery tra- 
verse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials 
shall not be installed between the automatic sprin- 
klers and the glazing. 

408.3.8.2 Where the number and arrangement of exits 
complies with the requirements of Chapter 10, other 
stairways which occur within the secure area of the 
detention facility and are not used for required exiting 
hut are used primarily for the movement of inmates and 
security staff need not extend to the exterior. 

408.3.9 Dead-end balconies. Exit balconies serving cell 
tiers shall not extend more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) beyond 
an exit stairway. 

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accor- 
dance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge 
area to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu 
of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to 
unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the 
locks shall be operable from both sides of the door. Security 
hardware may be used on any fire-rated door. 

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors 
in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of 
operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release 
locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, 
the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release 
mechanism(s) requked for egress shall be such that with the 
minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms 
are capable of being released within 2 minutes. 

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking 
of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not 
required provided that not more than 10 locks are neces- 



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ii 



sary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one 
smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. 
The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished 
with not more than two separate keys. 

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power-operated 
sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors 
shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the 
door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical 
operating release shall be provided. 

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities 
with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to 
Section 408.4.1. 

408.4.3 Redundant operation. Mechanically operated 
sliding doors or mechanically operated locks shall be pro- 
vided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at 
each door and shall be provided with a remote release con- 
trol. 

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under 
emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when 
closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location 
to enable doors to relock. 

408.5 Protection of vertical openings. Any vertical opening 
shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Sec- 
tion 708, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1. 

408.5.1 Floor openings. The open space in front of a cell 
tier and connected chases, not exceeding two tiers in height, 
shall not be considered a vertical shaft and need not meet 
the fire-resistive shaft enclosure requirements of Section 
708. 

408.5.2 Shaft openings in communicating floor levels. 

Where a floor opening is permitted between communicat- 
ing floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 
408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individ- 
ual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted 
without a shaft enclosure. 

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have 
smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.8 and 710 to 
divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any 
other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into 
at least two smoke compartments. 

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the follow- 
ing, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors 
involved complies with the requirements for doors at the 
smoke barrier for the use condition involved: 

1. K public way, 

2. A building separated from the resident housing area 
by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet 
(15 240 mm) of open space, 

3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 
feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 
6 square feet (0.56 m^) or more of refuge area per 
occupant, including residents, staff and visitors. 

4. Holding facility. 

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of 
residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The 



travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room 
door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 
720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier 
from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 
mm). 

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m^) per 
occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke bar- 
rier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke 
compartments. This space shall be readily available wher- 
ever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a 
fire emergency. 

408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be 
provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke 
barriers without having to return through the smoke com- 
partment from which means of egress originates. 

408.7 Security glazing. In occupancies in Group 1-3, windows 
and doors in 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with 
Section 709 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 710 shall be permitted to have security glazing 
installed provided that the following conditions are met. 

1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 
square inches (0.84 m^). 

2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an auto- 
matic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be 
designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire 
surface of any glazing affected by fire. 

3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in 
such a manner that the framing system will deflect with- 
out breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler sys- 
tem operates. 

4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, 
curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed 
between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing. 

408.8 Subdivision areas. Each cell complex shall be separated 
from other cell complexes or other spaces by a smoke-tight par- 
tition. 

408.8. 1 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions I 
required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be sub- 
stantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of 
smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell 
doors. 

408.9 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this section, 
a windowless building or portion of a building is one with 
nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or with- 
out windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an 
engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environ- 
ment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire 
origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless 
smoke compartment. 

[F] 408.10 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3. 

408,11 Emergency and standby power systems. Special electri- 
cal systems, exit illumination, power installations and alternate 
on-site electrical supplies shall be provided for every building or 
portion of a building housing 10 or more inmates in a detention 



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or correctional facility in accordance with the provisions of the 
California Electrical Code, There shall be a source of emer- 
gency power in all detention facilities capable of providing mini- 
mal lighting in all housing units, activity areas, corridors, stairs 
and central control points, and to maintain fire and life safety, 
security, communications and alarm systems. 

408.12 Windows, In security areas within cell complexes 
sprinklered throughout, the area of glazing in one-hour corridor 
walls and smoke barrier walls shall not be restricted, provided: 

1. All openings are protected by fixed glazing listed and 
labeled for afire-protection of at least % hour; or 

2. Fixed security glazing set in noncombustible frames. 
Shall comply with the minimum requirements of one of 
the following test standards: ASTM F 1233-98, Class III 
glass, or; California Department of Corrections, CDC 
860-94d, or KP, White Laboratory, Inc., HPW-TP- 
0500.02, Forced Entry Level IlL 

3. In lieu of the sizes set forth in CBC, the size and area of 
glazed assemblies shall conform to the following: 

Windows required to have a three-fourths -hour fire-resistive 
rating or windows protected by fixed security glazing, as delin- 
eated in Items 1 and 2 above, may have an area not greater than 
84 square feet (7.8 m^) with neither width nor height exceeding 
12 feet (3658 mm). 

408.13 Safety padding. Padding material used on walls, floors 
I and ceilings in Group I and R-2.1 occupancies shall be of an 

approved type tested in accordance with the procedures estab- 
lished by State Fire Marshal Standard 12-8- 1 00, Room Fire 
Test for Wall and Ceiling Materials, California Code of Regu- 
lations, Title 24, Part 12. 

408.14 Small management yards. 

408.14.1 General The provisions of Sections 408.14.1 
through 408.14.4 shall apply to small management yards. 
Small management yards may be used by a maximum of two 
occupants at any one time for a maximum of 2 hours per day. 

408.14.2 Construction. Small management yards shall be 
constructed in accordance with all of the following: 

1. Constructed of Type IB noncombustible materials. 

2. Fence material shall be noncombustible. 

3. Have a maximum area of 150 square feet (14 m^). 

4. Yard area covering shall not exceed 75 square feet (7 
m^) or a maximum of 50 percent of the fenced enclosure. 

5. Electrical lighting or devices of any type shall not be 
permitted within the yard. 

Exception: Low voltage devices dedicated for the 
operation of toilets. 

408.14.3 Fire protection system provisions. 



408.14.3.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. An automatic 
sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 903.1.1 

Exception: Small management yards where a dis- 
tance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained from all 
buildings or structures and 4 feet (1220 mm) is main- 
tained from containment fencing. 

408.14.3.2 Fire alarm systems. An approved fire alarm 
system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907. 

Exception: Small management yards where a dis- 
tance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained from all 
buildings or structures and 4 feet (1220 mm) is main- 
tained from containment fencing. 

408.14.4 Means of egress. Except as modified or as pro- 
vided for in this section, the provisions of Section 408.3 and 
Chapter 10 shall apply. Small management yards shall com- 
ply with all of the following: 

1. Staff-controlled manual released locks shall be pro- 
vided. 

2. Staff escorting inmates to and from small manage- 
ment yards shall be equipped with radios and per- 
sonal alarms to notify central control in case of a fire. 

3. The safe dispersal area as defined by Section 1027.6 
shall not be reduced due to placement of these yards. 

4. An exit, remote from the main entrance is required in 
the containment fencing. 

408.14.5 Special provisions. Inmate exercise clothing and 
toilet paper tissue shall be the only combustibles materials 
permitted in small management yards. 



SECTION 409 
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS 

409.1 General. The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 
409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose ace- 
tate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric 
arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that 
develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose 
nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with 
NFPA 40. 

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture 
machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of 
this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurte- 
nant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers 
and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an 
adjacent room of equivalent construction. 

409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection 
room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the 
construction requirements for the type of building in which the 
projection room is located. Openings are not required to be pro- 
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The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square 
feet (7.44 m^) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet 
(3.7 m^) for each additional machine. Each motion picture pro- 
jector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall 
have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 
inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear 
thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two 
adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appur- 
tenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 
inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection 
equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall 
between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings 
shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to 
close completely the opening. 

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventila- 
tion shall be provided in accordance with the California 
Mechanical Code. 

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided 
with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide 
well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts 
shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of 
air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permit- 
ted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces 
within the building, provided the volume and infiltration 
rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning sys- 
tem, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air 
when other systems are not in operation. 

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be 
exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp 
exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the 
lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the 
required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the 
exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air 
cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. 
The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also 
serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind 
rooms. 

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine 
shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air 
from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the 
building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust 
air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. 
Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible 
connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or 
projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be 
combined but shall not be interconnected with any other 
exhaust or return system, or both, within the building. 

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control 
of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting sys- 
tems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at 
least one other convenient point in the building. 

409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall 
be provided with rewind and film storage facilities. 



SECTION 410 
STAGES AND PLATFORMS 

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of Sections 4 10.1 through 
410.7 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that 
contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein 
defined. 

410.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which 
the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects 
are controlled. 

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting 
equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage 
effects. 

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying 
pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened. 

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for wor- 
ship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; 
the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers 
and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round 
stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead 
hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than 
lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for 
not more than 30 days. 

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage 
from the auditorium or assembly seating area. 

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment 
or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, 
drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. 

410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 
410.3.1 through 410.3.7. 

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of 
materials as required for floors for the type of construction 
of the building in which such stages are located. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nomi- 
nal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the 
stage is separated from other areas in accordance 
with Section 410.3.4. 

2. In buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construc- 
tion, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, 
provided the space below the stage is equipped 
with an automatic flre-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Section 903 or 904, 

3 . In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be 
constructed of wood or approved noncombustible 
materials. Openings through stage floors shall be 
equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors 
with approved safety locks. 

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be 
measured to include the entire performance area and 
adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from 
the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construc- 



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tion. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest 
point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or 
floor deck above the stage. 

410.3.2 Galleries^ gridirons, catwall^s and pinrails. 

Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed 
theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of approved materials consistent with the 
requirements for the type of construction of the building; 
and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These 
areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezza- 
nines or levels in applying this code. 

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be 
constructed of any approved material. 

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of open- 
ings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with 
fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715. Exterior 
openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or 
loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be 
open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed 
with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium. 

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is greater 
than 50 feet (15 240 nam), all portions of the stage shall be 
completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium 
wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating 
extending continuously from the foundation to the roof. 

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is 
required to have di fire-resistance rating, the stage opening 
shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFFA 
80 or an approved water curtain complying with Section 
903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of 
smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Sec- 
tion 1028.6.2, a smoke control system con^lying with Sec- 
tion 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the 
smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the 
means of egress, 

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and 
scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria 
of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the Cali- 
fornia Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing 
foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the Cali- 
fornia Fire Code. 

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be 
provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) in 
floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 
mm). Such ventilafion shall comply with Secdon 410.3.7.1 

or 410.3.7.2. 

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to 
open automatically by approved heat-activated devices 
and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 
5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the 
center and above the highest part of the stage area. Sup- 
plemental means shall be provided for manual operation 
of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for 
skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled. 



[F] 410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accor- 
dance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the 
smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) 
above the highest level of the assembly seating or above 
the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium 
wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4. 

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be 
constructed of materials as required for the type of construction 
of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Per- 
manent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retar- 
dant-treated wood for Types I, II and IV construction where the 
platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the 
main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area 
and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^) in area. Where the 
space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any 
purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor 
assembly shall not be less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform 
is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside 
of the permanent platform need not be protected. 

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a 
period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be con- 
structed of any materials permitted by the code. The space 
between the floor and the platform above shall only be used 
for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment. 

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appur- 
tenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 
410.5.3. 

410.5.1 Separation from stage. The stage shall be sepa- 
rated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to 
the stage and other parts of the building hy fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. The mimmxxm fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours 
for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and 1 
hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less. 

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, 
scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and 
compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated 
from each other by not less than l-\io\XY fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. 

410.5.3 Stage exits. At least one approved means of egress 
shall be provided from each side of the stage and from each 
side of the space under the stage. At least one means of 
escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the 
gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread device or spiral 
stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a 
scuttle in the stage roof. 

[F] 410.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be 
equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under 
the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over 



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the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, per- 
former lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such 
stages. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 
4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized 
exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided 
the concealed space is separated from the adjacent 
spaces by not less than Vg-inch (15.9 mm) Type X 
gypsum board. 

2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square 
feet (93 m^) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or 
less in height where curtains, scenery or other com- 
bustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Com- 
bustible hangings shall be limited to a single main 
curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop. 

3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra 
enclosures on stages. 

[F] 410.7 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided in 
accordance with Section 905. 



SECTION 411 
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS 

411.1 GeneraL Special amusement buildings having an occu- 
pant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for 
the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 
through 41 1 .8. Amusement buildings having an occupant load 
of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group 
B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. 

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that 
are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the 
accumulation of smoke. 

For flammable decorative materials, see the California Fire 
Code. 

411.2 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the 
purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have 
the meaning shown herein. 

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amuse- 
ment building is any temporary or permanent building or por- 
tion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or 
educational purposes and that contains a device or system that 
conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or 
over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of 
egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio dis- 
tractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily avail- 
able because of the nature of the attraction or mode of 
conveyance through the building or structure. 

[F] 411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement build- 
ings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system 
in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement 
buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where 
the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler 
water supply shall be of an approved temporary means. 



Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where 
the total floor area of a temporary special amusement 
building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) and the 
travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet 
(15 240 mm). 

[F] 411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the 
automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection 
device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a 
constantly attended location from which emergency action can 
be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of 
requirements in Section 907.2.12.2. 

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system. 

An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be 
provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, 
which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and 
shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement 
building. 

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the 
required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings 
in accordance with this section and Section 1011. Approved 
directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mir- 
rors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path 
of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and 
listed low-level exit signs that comply with Section 101 1 .4, and 
directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, 
shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) 
above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress 
travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. 
The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic 
fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 907.2.12.2. 

411.7.1 Photo luminescent exit signs. Where photo lumi- 
nescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and 
viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and 
markings of the signs. 

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in 
accordance with Section 803.1. 



SECTION 412 
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES 

412.1 General. Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply 
with Sections 412.1 through 412.7 and the California Fire 
Code. 

412.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business 
granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport 
and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, 
tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and 
flight instruction. 

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface 
that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking 
off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or 
intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facili- 
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HELISTOR The same as "heliport," except that no fueling, 
defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is 
permitted, 

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory 

building less than 2,000 square feet ( 1 86 m^) and 20 feet (6096 
mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two-family 
property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be considered 
as a residential accessory use incidental to the dwelling. 

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another loca- 
tion and at the transient location for not more than 90 days. 

412.3 Airport traffic control towers. 

412.3.1 General. The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 
through 412.3.6 shall apply to airport traffic control towers 
not exceeding 1 ,500 square feet (140 m^) per floor occupied 
only for the following uses: 

1. Airport traffic control cab. 

2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms. 

3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms. 

4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation. 

5 . Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities. 

412.3.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control tow- 
ers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area 
Hmitations of Table 412.3.2. 

TABLE 412.3.2 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT 

TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS 



TYPE OF 
CONSTRUCTION 


HEIGHT^ 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM AREA 
(square feet) 


lA 


Unlimited 


1,500 


IB 


240 


1,500 


IIA 


100 


1,500 


IIB 


85 


1,500 


niA 


65 


1,500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor 

412.3.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be 
permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height pro- 
vided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. 
The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 
1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a 
minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area 
served measured in a straight Hne. The exit stairway and ele- 
vator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft 
enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 
4-hour ^r^ barrier having no openings. Such stairway shall 
be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column 
(43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 
Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors 
closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in 
Section 1 009. 1 1 . The provisions of Section 403 do not apply. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Sec- 
tion 1022.9 are not required where required stairways 
are pressurized. 



[F] 412.3.4 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traf- 
fic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire 
detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2. 

[F] 412.3.5 Standby power. A standby power system that 
conforms to Chapter 27 shall be provided in airport traffic 
control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. 
Power shall be provided to the following equipment: 

1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment 
and hghting. 

2. Elevator operating equipment. 

3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems. 

412.3.6 Accessibility. [DSA-AC] In air traffic control tow- 
ers, an accessible route shall not be required to serve the cab 
and the equipment areas on the floor immediately below the 
cab. 

412 A Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6. 

412.4.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 
feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or sl public way shall have a 
fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours. 

412.4.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, floors 
over basements shall be of Type lA construction and shall be 
made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There 
shall be no opening or communication between basements 
and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside 
only. 

412.4.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained 
to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor 
drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer 
or to an outside vented sump. 

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease 
spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m^) each in 
which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted 
and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded 
toward the door, but shall not require a separator. 

412.4.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be 
placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or 
both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a 
vestibule providing a two-doorway separation. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating 
equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) 
above the upper surface of wings or engine enclo- 
sures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be 
housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) 
above the floor in shops, offices and other sections 
of the hangar communicating with storage or ser- 
vice areas. 

2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided 
the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 
18 inches (457 mm) above the floor. 



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412.4.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use 
of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be car- 
ried on in a separate detached building equipped with auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with 
Section 903. 

412.4.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be pro- 
vided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance 
with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar 
given in Table 412.4.6. 

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate 
repair facilities on site. Group II hangars operated by a 
fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft 
only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system 
is exempt from foam requirements. 

412.4.6.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III air- 
craft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains 
hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the 
following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire sup- 
pression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as appli- 
cable: 

1. Doping. 

2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, 
torch cutting and torch soldering. 

3. Fuel transfer. 

4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including 
defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, 
inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled. 

5. Spray finishing operations. 

6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the 
unsprinklered single /ire area in excess of 1,600 
gallons (6057 L). 

7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maxi- 
mum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 



390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

412.4.6.2 Separation of maximum single fire areas. Max- 
imum single fire areas established in accordance with han- 
gar classification and construction type in Table All A. 6 
shall be separated by 2-hour^r^ walls constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 706. 

412.5 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft han- 
gars as defined in Section 412.2 shall comply with Sections 
412.5.1 through 412.5.2. 

412.5.1 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to a 
dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separa- 
tion shall be continuous from the foundation to the under- 
side of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the 
dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be 
equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the 
requirements of Section 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) 
noncombustible raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly 
into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permit- 
ted. 

412.5.2 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means of egress. 
One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as 
meeting only one of the two means of egress. 

[F] 412.5.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be pro- 
vided within the hangar in accordance with Section 
907.2.21. 

412.5.4 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and 
plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed 
within the hangar shall be independent of the systems 
installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be 
permitted to be connected outside the structures. 

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electri- 
cal subpanels in the hangar. 



[F] TABLE 412.4.6 
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTS^ '^ '^ 



MAXIMUM SINGLE 
FIRE AREA, SQ. FT. 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


lA 


IB 


IIA 


IIB 


IIIA 


NIB 


IV 


VA 


VB 


^40,001 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


Group I 


40,000 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


30,000 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group n 


Group II 


Group II 


20,000 


Group III 


Group m 


Group n 


Group n 


Group n 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


Group II 


15,000 


Group m 


Group m 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group III 


Group II 


Group II 


12,000 


Group m 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group n 


Group II 


8,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group III 


Group ni 


Group III 


Group II 


5,000 


Group III 


Group III 


Group m 


Group III 


Group III 


Group m 


Group in 


Group III 


Group III 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^ 

a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area. 

b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409. 

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar. 



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412.5.5 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft han- 
gars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m^) in area and 
20 feet (6096 mm) in building height. 

[F] 412.6 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting opera- 
tions where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 
307.1(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that 
complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 
412.6.6. 

[F] 412.6.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
comply with the applicable requirements of this code and 
the California Fire Code for such occupancy. 

412.6.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of 
Type I or II construction. 

[F] 412.6.3 Operations. Only those flammable hquids nec- 
essary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities 
less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall 
be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room. 

[F] 412.6.4 Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall be 
in a liquid storage room. 

[F] 412.6.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall 
be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409, 

412.6.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be pro- 
vided with ventilation as required in the California Mechan- 
ical Code, 

412.7 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops shall 
be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where 
they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.7.1 
through 412.7.4. 

412.7.1 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 
3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 20 feet (6096 
mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be sur- 
rounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum aver- 
age width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no 
width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). 

412.7.2 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the supports 
thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible 
construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any 
flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and pro- 
visions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any 
exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a 
structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design 
requirements, see Section 1605.4. 

A\2.13 Means of egress. The means of egress from heli- 
ports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures 
shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas 
less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 
square feet (186 m^) in area, the second means of egress is 
permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or lad- 
der leading to the floor below. 

412.7.4 Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop heli- 
ports and hehstops shall comply with NFPA 418. 



SECTION 413 
COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occu- 
pancy group shall comply with the California Fire Code, 

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, 
under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combusti- 
ble materials shall be protected on the storage side as required 
for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall 
be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of 
noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 
IV4 inch (45 mm) in thickness. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems, 

2. Group R-3 and U occupancies. 

SECTION 414 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS 

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 
414.7 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the 
manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of haz- 
ardous materials. 

[F] 414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures 
with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 415 and the California Fire 
Code, For Group L occupancies see Section 443. 

[F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous mate- 
rial occupancies is material dependent. Individual material 
requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in 
the California Mechanical Code and the California Fire 
Code, 

[F] 414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products 
shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the Cal- 
ifornia Fire Code. See Section 31 1.2 and the California 
Fire Code for occupancy group requirements. 

[F] 414.1.3 Information required. A report shall be submit- 
ted to the building official identifying the maximum expected 
quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a 
closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to 
separately address hazardous material classification catego- 
ries based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of 
protection from such hazards, including but not limited to 
control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupan- 
cies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction 
documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a 
qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the build- 
ing official and provided without charge to the enforcing 
agency. 

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group 
H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the 
locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to 
reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building 
and structure. 

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with Sec- 
tions 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the California Fire Code. 



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414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall 
be separated from each other by ^re barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quantities. 

The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazard- 
ous materials per control area permitted at each floor level 
within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. 

[F] 414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control areas 
within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. 

4\4J1A Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The re- 

quiredfire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accor- 
dance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control 
area and the construction supporting the floor of the control 
area shall have a minimum 2-houT fire- resistance rating. 

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and 
the construction supporting the floor of the control area 
are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings 
of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that 
both of the following conditions exist: 

1 . The building is equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1; and 

2. The building is three stories or less above grade 
plane. 

[F] 414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display and 
storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggre- 
gate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or 
noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted 
within a single control area of a Group M display and stor- 
age area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area 
is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) 
without classifying the building or use as a Group H occu- 
pancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored 
in accordance with the California Fire Code and quantities 



do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 
414.2.5(1). 

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, 
indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall 
not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control 
area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the 
materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the 
California Fire Code, 

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M 
occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to 
retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accor- 
dance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in 
which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or 
highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be 
emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of 
materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the 
California Fire Code and the California Mechanical Code. 

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or 
dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building with- 
out entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or 
through ducts and plenums. 

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flamma- 
ble constituents less than 25 percent of their lower flammable 
Hmit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other spaces. 

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the 
area in which they are generated as specified in the California 
Fire Code and the California Mechanical Code. 

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in 
accordance with the California Mechanical Code. Exhaust air 
contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accor- 
dance with the California Fire Code. 

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required 
by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to 
the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the 
break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYS- 
TEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF. 



[F] TABLE 414.2.2 
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS 



■ ■■■■ 

FLOOR LEVEL 


PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA° 


NUMBER OF CONTROL 
AREAS PER FLOOR 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING 
FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURS'^ 


Above grade 
plane 


Higher than 9 

7-9 

6 

5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


5 

5 

12.5 
12.5 
12.5 
50 
75 
100 


1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
4 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


Below grade 
plane 


1 

2 

Lower than 2 


75 

50 

Not Allowed 


3 

2 

Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 



a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307. 1(1 ) and 307. 1 (2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those 
tables. 

b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building. 



106 



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[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES 

NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS'' ^'^ 



CONDITION 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA 


Material^ 


Class 


Solids 
pounds 


Liquids 
gallons 


A. Health-hazard materials — nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids 


1 . Corrosives^' ^ 


Not Applicable 


9,750 


975 


2. Highly toxics 


Not Applicable 


20b>c 


2b, c 


3. Toxics^' '^ 


Not Applicable 


1,000 


100 


B. Physical-hazard materials — nonflammable and noncombustible soUds and liquids 


1. Oxidizers''''^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


l,150s 


115 


2 


2,250^^ 


225 


1 


18,000^'j 


1,800*'J 


2. Unstable (reactives)''' '^ 


4 


Not Allowed 


Not Allowed 


3 


550 


55 


2 


1,150 


115 


I 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


3. Water (reactives) 


3b, c 


550 


55 


2b, c 


1,150 


115 


1 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. Hazard categories are as specified in the California Fire Code, 

b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 1 00 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903 .3 . 1.1. When Note c also applies, the 
increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the California Fire Code. When Note 
b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively. 

d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas. 

e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material cat^ories shall be in accordance with Section 307. 

f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas. 

g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 
packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each. 

h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or 

packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each, 
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area. 

TABLE [F] 414.2.5(2) 

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREA^ 



TYPE OF LIQUID 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons) 


Sprinklered in accordance with note b 
densities and arrangements 


Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 

3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 

3404.3.7.5.1 of the California Fire Code 


Nonsprinklered 


Class lA 


60 


60 


30 


Class IB, IC, II and IIIA 


7,500^ 


15,000^= 


1,600 


Class niB 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


13,200 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/ml 

a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier wall. 

b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities 
as follows: 

1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 1 8 feet, quantities are those permitted with a mini- 
mum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2. 

2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 1 8 feet, quanti- 
ties are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 ^llon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area. 

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for 
each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The 
cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons. 



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[F] 414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving 
hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended applica- 
tion. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from 
entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the 
intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where pro- 
vided, shall be designed to be fail safe. 

I I [F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing, handling and use. The 

inside storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in 
excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area of 
Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions 414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the California 
Fire Code. 

[F] 414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be 
provided in accordance with the California Fire Code as 
required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous 
materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allow- 
able quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room 
or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion haz- 
ards as required by Section 4 15 or the California Fire Code, 

[F] 414.5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control 
equipment shall be provided where required by the Califor- 
nia Fire Code. 

[F] 414.5.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H 
occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detec- 
tion system in accordance with Section 907.2. 

[F] 414.5.4 Standby or emergency power. Where mechan- 
ical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, 
alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are 
required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency 
or standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Mechanical ventilation for storage of Class IB and 
Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in 
closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) 
capacity. 

2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers. 

3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic 
peroxides. 

4. Storage, use and handling areas for asphyxiant, 
irritant and radioactive gases. 

5. For storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic 
or toxic materials, see Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 
3704.3.4.2 of the California Fire Code. 

6. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treat- 
ment systems and temperature control systems 
shall not be required where an approved fail-safe 
engineered system is installed. 

[F] 414.5.5 Spill control, drainage and containment. 

Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid 
and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a 
means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage 
and fire protection water discharged in the storage area 
where required in the California Fire Code. The methods of 
spill control shall be in accordance with the California Fire 
Code. 



414,5.6 Hazardous material handling. The handling of 
hazardous materials shall be in accordance with California 
Fire Code Section 2703.10. 

[F] 414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The outdoor 
storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in 
accordance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 414.6.1 Weather protection. Where weather protection 
is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material stor- 
age or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor 
storage or use when the weather protection structure com- 
plies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3. 

[F] 414.6.1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than 
one side of the structure. 

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct por- 
tions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that 
the obstructed area does not exceed 25 percent of the 
structure's perimeter. 

[F] 414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from 
the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means 
of egress to a public way shall not be less than the dis- 
tance required for an outside hazardous material storage 
or use area without weather protection. 

[F] 414.6.13 Noncombustible construction. The overhead 
structure shall be of approved noncombustible constmction 
with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m^). 

Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 
apply. 

[F] 414.7 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the 
detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group 
H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein. 

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas 
used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency 
alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each 
interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms 
or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency 
situation involving hazardous materials. 

[F] 414.7.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where hazard- 
ous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accor- 
dance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or 
exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone sys- 
tem, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-ini- 
tiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) 
intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway through- 
out the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an 
approved central, proprietary or remote station service or 
constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a 
local audible alarm. 

[F] 414.7.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall 
be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote 
station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at 
a constantly attended on-site location. 



^ 



108 



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SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 414.5.1 
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS^ 



MATERIAL 


CLASS 


EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS 


Barricade construction 


Explosion (deflagration) venting 

or explosion (deflagration) 

prevention systems'^ 


HAZARD CATEGORY 


Combustible dusts^ 





Not Required 


Required 


Cryogenic flammables 




Not Required 


Required 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1 .3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 


Not Required 
Not Required 
Required 
Required 
Not Required 
Not Required 


Flammable gas 


Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Flammable liquid 


lA^ 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


Organic peroxides 


U 
I 


Required 
Required 


Not Permitted 
Not Permitted 


Oxidizer liquids and solids 


4 


Required 


Not Permitted 


Pyrophoric gas 





Not Required 


Required 


Unstable (reactive) 


4 

3 Detonable 
3 Nondetonable 


Required 

Required 

Not Required 


Not Permitted 

Not Permitted 

Required 


Water-reactive liquids and solids 


3 
2g 


Not Required 
Not Required 


Required 
Required 


SPECIAL USES 


Acetylene generator rooms 





Not Required 


Required 


Grain processing 





Not Required 


Required 


Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities 





Not Required 


Required 


Where explosion hazards exist^ 


Detonation 
Deflagration 


Required 
Not Required 


Not Permitted 
Required 



a. See Section 414.1.3. 

b. See the California Fire Code. 

c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3. 

d. Storage or use. 

e. In open use or dispensing. 

f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous 
materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process. 

g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures. 



SECTION 415 
GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5 

[F] 415.1 Scope. The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 
415.8 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials 
in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area 
listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occu- 
pancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provi- 
sions of Section 414 and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas 

detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained 



in continuous operation and sampling is performed without 
interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical 
basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes. 

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story build- 
ing, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or 
use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance 
from all structures. 

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved 
location on the premises where signals from emergency equip- 
ment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel. 

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of 
equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing 
a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



109 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume 
hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally 
retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could 
be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, 
in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures. 

[F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor 
fabrication faciUty and related research and development areas 
in which there are processes using hazardous production mate- 
rials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas 
such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to 
the fabrication area processes. 

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentra- 
tion of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of 
their lower flammable limit (LFL). 

[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclo- 
sure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed 
gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for 
exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating con- 
trols are allowed to be included. 

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room 
in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and 
supplies are stored or used. 

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). 

A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufac- 
turing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, 
flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 
704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or pro- 
duction processes which have as their end product materials 
that are not hazardous. 

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is 
defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or 
Class IIIA combustible liquid. 

[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving 
a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and 
which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy. 

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND 
HEALTH (BDLH). The concentration of air-borne contami- 
nants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed per- 
manent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent 
escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentra- 
tion level is established by the National Institute of Occupational 
Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and 
flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by 
volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m^). If ade- 
quate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH con- 
centrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, 
industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other 
source approved by the building official shall make such deter- 
mination. 

[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to 
or less than 68 °F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 
68T (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) 
(101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" 
includes both flammable and combustible liquids. 



[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a 
Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or 
combustible liquids in a closed condition. 

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. 

A room in which Class I, II and IIIA flammable or combustible 
liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers. 

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum 
concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will 
occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is some- 
times referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit." 

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE 

(NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21° C) and a pressure of 1 atmo- 
sphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)]. 

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD 
LEVEL, A concentration of air-bome contaminants, normally 
expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter 
(mg/m^), that represents the concentration at which persons can 
sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or 
other quick-acting physiological response. When used in 
conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physio- 
logical warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classi- 
fication system used to estabUsh the PEL. See the definition of 
"Permissible exposure limit (PEL)" in the California Fire Code, 

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used 
for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means 
of egress. 

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or 
sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C). 

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. 

1 . The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials 
in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, or 

2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connec- 
tions to the vessel. 

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, includ- 
ing sohds, liquids and gases. 

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent prin- 
cipal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area 
where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research 
activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage 
cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serv- 
ing a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A 
workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire 
protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and 
other processing and scientific equipment. 

[F] 415.3 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies 
shall be located on property in accordance with the other provi- 
sions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 
percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exte- 
rior wall. 

Exceptions: 

1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a 
floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m^) 
need not be located on the outer perimeter of the 
building where they are in accordance with the Cali- 
fornia Fire Code and NFPA 30. 



110 



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2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more 
than 1,000 square feet (93 m^) need not be located on 
the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with 
the California Fire Code and NFPA 30. 

3. Spray paint booths that comply with the California 
Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter. 

[F] 4153.1 Group H occupancy minimum fire separa- 
tion distance. Regardless of any other provisions, buildings 
containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the 
minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Items 1 
through 4 below. Distances shall be measured from the 
walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those 
on 2i public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established 
for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening 
protection are not to be used to establish the minimum ^re 
separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives 
are manufactured or used when separation is provided in 
accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for 
explosive materials in the California Fire Code. 

1 . Group H- 1 . Not less than 75 feet (22 860 nun) and not 
less than required by the California Fire Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings sepa- 
rated in accordance with NFPA 1 124. 

2. Buildings containing the following materi- 
als when separated in accordance with Table 
415.3.1: 

2.1. Organic peroxides, unclassified 
detonable. 

2.2. Unstable reactive materials, Class 4. 

2.3. Unstable reactive materials. Class 3 
detonable. 

2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials. 

2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where 
the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet 
(93 m^) and it is not required to be located in a 
detached building. 

3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 
mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 
415.3.2). 

4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materi- 
als with explosive characteristics shall be separated as 
required by the California Fire Code. Where separa- 
tions are not specified, the distances required shall not 
be less than the distances required by Table 415.3.1. 



[F] 415.3,2 Detached buildings for Group H-1, H-2 or 
H-3 occupancy. The storage of hazardous materials in 
excess of those amounts Usted in Table 415.3.2 shall be in 
accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 415.4 
and 415.5. Where a detached building is required by Table 
415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening pro- 
tection based on fire separation distance. 

[F] 415.4 Special provisions for Group H-1 occupancies. 

Group H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other 
purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without 
basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs 
shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insu- 
lation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decompo- 
sition temperature. Group H-1 occupancies containing 
materials that are in themselves both physical and health haz- 
ards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area in Table 307.1.(2) shall comply with require- 
ments for both Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies. 

[F] 415.4.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unsta- 
ble (reactive) materials shall be of liquid- tight, noncombust- 
ible construction. 

[F] 415.5 Special provisions for Groups H-2 and H-3 occu- 
pancies. Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quanti- 
ties of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 
415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall 
not exceed one story in height and shall be without basements, 
crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. 

Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive 
materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for con- 
veying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing 
water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight con- 
struction. 

Exception: Fire protection piping= 

[F] 415.5.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materi- 
als, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids 
and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible con- 
struction, 

[F] 415.5.2 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the 
storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be con- 
structed in a manner that resists the penetration of water 
through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying 
water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems shall not be within such rooms or areas. 

[F] 415.6 Group H-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 415.6.1 through 415.6.4 
and the California Fire Code. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



111 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 415.3.1 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL^ 


MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


Lot lines" and Inhabited buildings'" 


Separation of magazines**' ®' ' 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded'' 


Unbarricaded 


2 


5 


70 


140 


12 


5 


10 


90 


180 


16 


10 


20 


110 


220 


20 


20 


30 


125 


250 


22 


30 


40 


140 


280 


24 


40 


50 


150 


300 


28 


50 


75 


170 


340 


30 


75 


100 


190 


380 


32 


100 


125 


200 


400 


36 


125 


150 


215 


430 


38 


150 


200 


235 


470 


42 


200 


250 


255 


510 


46 


250 


300 


270 


540 


48 


300 


400 


295 


590 


54 


400 


500 


320 


640 


58 


500 


600 


340 


680 


62 


600 


700 


355 


710 


64 


700 


800 


375 


750 


66 


800 


900 


390 


780 


70 


900 


1,000 


400 


800 


72 


1,000 


1,200 


425 


850 


78 


1,200 


1,400 


450 


900 


82 


1,400 


1,600 


470 


940 


86 


1,600 


1,800 


490 


980 


88 


1,800 


2,000 


505 


1,010 


90 


2,000 


2,500 


545 


1,090 


98 


2,500 


3,000 


580 


1,160 


104 


3,000 


4,000 


635 


1,270 


116 


4,000 


5,000 


685 


1,370 


122 


5,000 


6,000 


730 


1,460 


130 


6,000 


7,000 


770 


1,540 


136 


7,000 


8,000 


800 


1,600 


144 


8,000 


9,000 


835 


1,670 


150 


9,000 


10,000 


865 


1,730 


156 


10,000 


12,000 


875 


1,750 


164 


12,000 


14,000 


885 


1,770 


174 


14,000 


16,000 


900 


1,800 


180 


16,000 


18,000 


940 


1,880 


188 


18,000 


20,000 


975 


1,950 


196 



(continued) 



112 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



TABLE 415.3,1— continued 
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS 







MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet) 


QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL^ 


Lot tines'' and inhabited buildings'" 


Separation of magazines**'®'* 


Pounds over 


Pounds not over 


Barricaded^ 


Unbarricaded 


20,000 


25,000 


1,055 


2,000 


210 


25,000 


30,000 


1,130 


2,000 


224 


30,000 


35,000 


1,205 


2,000 


238 


35,000 


40,000 


1,275 


2,000 


248 


40,000 


45,000 


1,340 


2,000 


258 


45,000 


50,000 


1,400 


2,000 


270 


50,000 


55,000 


1,460 


2,000 


280 


55,000 


60,000 


1,515 


2,000 


290 


60,000 


65,000 


1,565 


2,000 


300 


65,000 


70,000 


1,610 


2,000 


310 


70,000 


75,000 


1,655 


2,000 


320 


75,000 


80,000 


1,695 


2,000 


330 


80,000 


85,000 


1,730 


2,000 


340 


85,000 


90,000 


1,760 


2,000 


350 


90,000 


95,000 


1,790 


2,000 


360 


95,000 


100,000 


1,815 


2,000 


370 


100,000 


110,000 


1,835 


2,000 


390 


110,000 


120,000 


1,855 


2,000 


410 


120,000 


130,000 


1,875 


2,000 


430 


130,000 


140,000 


1,890 


2,000 


450 


140,000 


150,000 


1,900 


2,000 


470 


150,000 


160,000 


1,935 


2,000 


490 


160,000 


170,000 


1,965 


2,000 


510 


170,000 


180,000 


1,990 


2,000 


530 


180,000 


190,000 


2,010 


2,010 


550 


190,000 


200,000 


2,030 


2,030 


570 


200,000 


210,000 


2,055 


2,055 


590 


210,000 


230,000 


2,100 


2,100 


630 


230,000 


250,000 


2,155 


2,155 


670 


250,000 


275,000 


2,215 


2,215 


720 


275,000 


300,000 


2,275 


2,275 


770 



For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive. 

b. The distance hsted is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways. 

c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same lot that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing 
explosives or magazines are located on the same lot, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, 
in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for "Separation of magazines," except that the quantity of explosive materi- 
als contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines con- 
taining other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified "Separation of Magazines" 
distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials 
stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall 
comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited buildings. 

d. B arricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines. Where mounds or revetted walls of earth are 
used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to the 
eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades. 

e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 
square feet in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, hcwever, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code. 

f . The distance listed is permitted to be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note d. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



113 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



[F] TABLE 415.3.2 
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED 



A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN 


Material 


Class 


Solids and Liquids (tonsf '^ 


Gases (cubic feet)^'* 


Explosives 


Division 1.1 
Division 1.2 
Division 1 .3 
Division 1.4 
Division 1.4^^ 
Division 1.5 
Division 1.6 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

1 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizers 


Class 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Unstable (reactives) detonable 


Class 3 or 4 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 


Oxidizer, liquids and solids 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1,200 
2,000 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Organic peroxides 


Detonable 
Class I 
Class II 

Class III 


Maximum Allowable Quantity 
Maximum Allowable Quantity 

25 

50 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Unstable (reactives) nondetonable 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 

25 


2,000 
10,000 


Water reactives 


Class 3 
Class 2 


1 
25 


Not Applicable 
Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric gases 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


2,000 



For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m^ 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 41 5.3. 1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the 
material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the California Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 
415.3.1. 

b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.1(1). 

c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing 
the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound. 



[F] 415.6.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and 
storage. The provisions of Sections 415.6.1.1 through 
415.6.1.6 shall apply to buildings in which materials that 
produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings 
that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, NFPA 120, 
NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 664, and the 
California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.1.1 Type of construction and height excep- 
tions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with 
the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group 
H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II construc- 
tion, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar 
structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV con- 
struction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 
mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maxi- 
mum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 
85 feet (25 908 mm). 

[F] 415.6.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space 
occupied for grinding or other operations that produce 
combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizon- 
tal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 
712, or both. The vmvimmxi fire-resistance rating shall 



be 2 hours where the area is not more than 3,000 square 
feet (279 m^), and 4 hours where the area is greater than 
3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

[F] 415.6.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and 
similar equipment passing through the enclosures of 
rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor 
tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials 
complying with Chapter 30. 

[F] 415.6.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided as specified in the California Fire 
Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent 
mechanical ventilation complying with the California 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 415.6.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt 
houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be 
located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or 
structures on the same lot, except where erected along a 
railroad right-of-way. 

[F] 415.6.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less 
than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from 
structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less 
than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet 
(9 1 44 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along 
a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construc- 



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m 



tion of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) 
in building height shall be Type IV. 

[F] 415.6.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 

storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids in Groups H-2 and H-3 occu- 
pancies shall be in accordance with Sections 415.6.2.1 
through 415,6.2.10, the California Mechanical Code and 
the California Fire Code, 

[F] 415.6.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage 
tank area is located in a building of two or more occupan- 
cies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum 
allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be 
completely separated from adjacent occupancies in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 508.4. 

[F] 415.6.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage 
tanks are located within a building no more than one 
story above grade plane, the height limitation of Sec- 
tion 503 shall not apply for Group H. 

[F] 415.6.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be 
noncombustible and protected from physical damage. 
Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around the 
storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of pro- 
tection from physical damage. 

[F] 415.6.2.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved 
tanks conforming to the requirements of the California 
Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.4 Suppression. Group H shall be equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem, installed in accordance with Section 903. 

[F] 415.6.2.5 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight con- 
tainment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be 
provided. The method of spill control, drainage control 
and secondary containment shall be in accordance with 
the California Fire Code. 

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage 
tanks conforming to Section 415.6.2.3 are used to 
store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible 
liquids shall not be required to have a leakage contain- 
ment area. 

[F] 415.6.2.6 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic 
alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage 
tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 
15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of 
entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is 
located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry 
door to the tank storage room indicating the potential 
hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall 
state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE 
ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE 
HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be super- 
vised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble 
signal. 

[F] 415.6.2.7 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class I, 
II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in 
accordance with the California Fire Code. 



[F] 415.6.2.8 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas stor- 
ing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation sys- 
tem shall be in accordance with the California Mechani- 
cal Code and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.9 Explosion venting. Where Class I Uquids 
are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in 
accordance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.6.2.10 Tank openings other than vents. Tank 
openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings 
shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concen- 
trations are not released inside the building. 

[F] 415.6.3 Liquefied petroleum gas facilities. The con- 
struction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facili- 
ties shall be in accordance with the requirements of this 
code, the California Fire Code, the California Mechanical 
Code, the California Plumbing Code and NFPA 58. 

[F] 415.6.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and 
installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of this code, the California Mechani- 
cal Code, the California Plumbing Code and NFPA 32. Dry 
cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accor- 
dance with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be 
constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of 
this code and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.7.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. The 

storage, handling, processing and transporting of flamma- 
ble and combustible liquids in Group H-3 occupancies shall 
be in accordance with Section 415.6.2. 

[F] 415.7.2 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such 
rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than 
l-hoxix fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 
707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance 
with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 415.7.3 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage 
areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials 
shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction. 

[F] 415.7.4 Separation — highly toxic solids and liquids. 

Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved haz- 
ardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from 
other hazardous materials storage by not less than 1-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 712, or both. 

[F] 415.8 Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.1 General. In addition to the requirements set 
forth elsewhere in this code. Group H-5 shall comply with 
the provisions of Sections 415.8.1 through 415.8.11 and the 
California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2 Fabrication areas. 

[F] 415,8.2.1 Hazardous materials in fabrication areas. 

[F] 415.8.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate 
quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities 
set forth in Table 415.8.2.1.1. 

Exception: The quantity limitations for any haz- 
ard category in Table 415.8.2.1.1 shall not apply 
where the fabrication area contains quantities of 
hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum 
allowable quantities per control area established 
by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

[F] 415.8.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. 

The maximum quantities of hazardous production 
materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area 
shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities 
per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 
307.1(2). 

[F] 415.8.2.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose 
sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials 
allowed by Table 415.8.2.1.1, shall be separated from 
each other, from corridors and from other parts of the 
building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers con- 
structed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal 
assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, 
or both. 

Exceptions: 

1. Doors within such^r^ barrier walls, including 
doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing 
fire door assemblies having a fire protection 
rating of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Windows between fabrication areas and corri- 
dors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and 
labeled for difire protection rating of at least V4 
hour in accordance with Section 715, 

[F] 415.8.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied 
levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the 
first story above grade plane, 

[F] 415.8.2.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within 
fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construc- 
tion. 

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are per- 
mitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels 
are used solely for mechanical equipment directly 
related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 

415.8.2.5). 

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall 
be liquid tight. 

[F] 415.8.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Ele- 
vator shafts, vent shafts and other openings through 
floors shall be enclosed when required by Section 708. 
Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabri- 
cation area shall not extend through more than two 



floors. The annular space around penetrations for 
cables, cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall 
be sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. 
The fabrication area, including the areas through which 
the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a 
single conditioned environment. 

[F] 415.8.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per 
square foot [0.005 1 mV(s • m^)] of floor area shall be pro- 
vided throughout the portions of the fabrication area 
where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct sys- 
tem of one fabrication area shall not connect to another 
duct system outside that fabrication area within the 
building. 

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and 
exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations. 

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be 
connected to the same exhaust system where either one 
or the combination of the substances removed could con- 
stitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction 
within the exhaust duct system. 

Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations 
shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not pene- 
trate //r^ walls. 

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts. 

[F] 415.8.2.7 Transporting hazardous production 
materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be trans- 
ported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or 
tubing systems that comply with Section 415.8.6.1, 
through service corridors complying with Section 
415.8.4, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to 
Section 415.8.3. The handling or transporting of HPM 
within service corridors shall comply with the Califor- 
nia Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.2.8 Electrical. 

[F] 415.8.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and 
devices within the fabrication area shall comply with 
NFPA 70. The requirements for hazardous locations 
need not be applied where the average air change is at 
least four times that set forth in Section 415.8.2.6 and 
where the number of air changes at any location is not 
less than three times that required by Section 
415.8.2.6. The use of recirculated air shall be permit- 
ted. 

[F] 415.8.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not 
be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. 
See Section 415.8.2.6 for workstation exhaust venti- 
lation requirements. 



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[F] TABLE 415.8.2.1.1 
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5^ 



HAZARD CATEGORY 


SOLIDS 
(pounds per square feet) 


LIQUIDS 
(gallons per square feet) 


GAS 
(feet^ @ NTP/square feet) 


PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Combustible dust 


Noteb 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible fiber Loose 
Baled 


Noteb 
Notes b, c 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Combustible liquid II 

niA 
niB 

Combination Class I, II and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.01 

0.02 

Not Limited 

0.04 


Not Applicable 


Cryogenic gas Flammable 
Oxidizing 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
1.25 


Explosives 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Noteb 


Flammable gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Noted 
Noted 


Flammable liquid lA 
IB 
IC 

Combination Class lA, IB and IC 
Combination Class 1, 11 and IIIA 


Not Applicable 


0.0025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.025 
0.04 


Not Applicable 


Flammable solid 


0.001 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Organic peroxide 

Unclassified detonable 
Class I 
Class II 
Class III 
Class IV 
Class V 


Noteb 

Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 

Not limited 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


Oxidizing gas Gaseous 
Liquefied 

Combination of gaseous 
and liquefied 


Not Applicable 


Not Applicable 


1.25 
1.25 

1.25 


Oxidizer Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 

Combination Class 1, 2, 3 


Note b 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 
0.003 


Noteb 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 


Not Applicable 


Pyrophoric material 


Noteb 


0.00125 


Notes d and e 


Unstable reactive Class 4 
Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.025 

0.1 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

0.0025 

0.01 

Not Limited 


Noteb 

Noteb 

Noteb 

Not Limited 


Water reactive Class 3 
Class 2 
Class 1 


Noteb 

0.25 

Not Limited 


0.00125 

0.025 

Not Limited 


Not Applicable 


HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS 


Corrosives 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Highly toxic 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 


Toxics 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Noted 



For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m^ 1 gallon per squaie foot = 40.7 L/m^ 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m^ @ NTP/m\ 
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 ml 

a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities. 

b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). 

c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class. 

d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP. 

e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2. 



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[F] 415.8.3 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Chap- 
ter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as speci- 
fied in Section 415.8.2.2. Corridors shall not contain HPM 
and shall not be used for transporting such materials, except 
through closed piping systems as provided in Section 
415.8.6.3. 

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered 
or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing 
corridors, subject to the following conditions: 

1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication 
area where the alteration work is to be done shall 
comply with Section 1018 for a length determined 
as follows: 

1.1. The length of the common wall of the cor- 
ridor and the fabrication area; and 

1.2. For the distance along the corridor to the 
point of entry of HPM into the corridor 
serving that fabrication area. 

2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emer- 
gency telephone system, a local manual alarm sta- 
tion or other approved alarm-initiating device 
within corridors at not more than 150- foot (45 720 
mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The 
signal shall be relayed to an approved central, pro- 
prietary or remote station service or the emergency 
control station and shall also initiate a local audible 
alarm. 

3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire 
protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall sepa- 
rate pass-throughs from existing corridors, 
Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for 
the corridors and protected by an approved auto- 
matic fire-extinguishing system. 

[F] 415.8.4 Service corridors. 

[F] 415.8.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be 
classified as Group H-5. 

[F] 415.8.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be 
separated from corridors as required by Section 
415.8.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a 
required corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.3 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors 
shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 
415.8.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, 
whichever is greater. 

[F] 415.8.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance 
of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, 
exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall 
not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not 
exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less 
than two exits, and not more than one-half of the required 
means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication 
area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the 
direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing. 

[F] 415.8.4.5 Minimum vndth. The minimum clear 
width of a service corridor shall be 5 feet (1524 mm), or 



33 inches (838 nmi) wider than the widest cart or truck 
used in the corridor, whichever is greater. 

[F] 415.8.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency 
alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this 
section and Sections 414.7.1 and 414.7.2. The maximum 
allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not 
apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency 
alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, 
with at least one alarm device in each service corridor. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclo- 
sures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors 
and exit enclosures shall comply with Section 
414.7.2. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms 
and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage 
rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with 
Section 414.7,1. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An 

approved emergency telephone system, local alarm 
manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiat- 
ing devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the 
emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm 
and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. 

[F] 415.8.5 Storage of hazardous production materials. 

[F] 415.8.5.1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication 
areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets 
or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of 
HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Section 
1 804.2 of the California Fire Code shall be in liquid stor- 
age rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate for 
the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous 
materials shall be in accordance with other applicable 
provisions of this code and the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.5.2 Construction. 

[F] 415.8.5.2.1 HPM rooms and gas rooms. HPM 

rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other 
areas hy fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum 
fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours where the area 
is 300 square feet (27.9 m^) or more and 1 hour where 
the area is less than 300 square feet (27.9 m^). 

[F] 415.8.5.2.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid stor- 
age rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the 
following requirements: 

1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m^) 
shall have at least one exterior door approved 
for fire department access. 

2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with 
Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 7 12, or both. 



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ThQ fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 1 
hour for rooms up to 150 square feet (13.9 m^) in 
area and not less than 2 hours where the room is 
more than 150 square feet (13.9 m^) in area. 

3. Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas 
shall be of noncombustible construction or 
wood of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal 
thickness. 

4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flamma- 
ble liquids shall not be located in a basement. 

[F] 415.8.5.2.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of 
HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of 
noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised grat- 
ing over floors shall be of noncombustible materials. 

[F] 415.8.5.3 Location. Where HPM rooms, liquid stor- 
age rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at 
least one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 
30 feet (9 144 mm) from lot lines, including lot lines adja- 
cent to public ways. 

[F] 415.8.5.4 Explosion control. Explosion control 
shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1, 

[F] 415.8.5.5 Exits. Where two exits are required from 
HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one 
shall be directly to the outside of the building. 

[F] 415.8.5.6 Doors. Doors in difire harrier wall, includ- 
ing doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door 
assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less 
than V4 hour. 

[F] 415.8.5.7 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM 
rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic 
foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m^) of floor 
area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for 
categories of material. 

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to 
operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surround- 
ing areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust 
system. 

[F] 415.8.5.8 Emergency alarm system. An approved 
emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM 
rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms. 

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed 
outside of each interior exit door of such rooms. 

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device 
shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station. 

An approved emergency telephone system, local 
alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initi- 
ating devices are allowed to be used as emergency 
alarm-initiating devices. 

[F] 415.8.6 Piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.1 General. Hazardous production materials 
piping and tubing shall comply with this section and 
ASMEB31.3. 



[F] 415.8.6.2 Supply piping and tubing. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.1 HPM having a health-hazard rank- 
ing of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or 
gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be 
welded throughout, except for connections, to the 
systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the 
material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage 
or containment is provided for the connections if the 
material is a liquid. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.2 Location in service corridors. Haz- 
ardous production materials supply piping or tubing 
in service corridors shall be exposed to view. 

[F] 415.8.6.2.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM 
gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping 
above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 
kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where 
the piping originates from within a liquid storage 
room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow con- 
trol shall be located within the liquid storage room, 
HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates 
from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be 
located as close to the bulk source as practical. 

[F] 415.8.6.3 Installations in corridors and above 
other occupancies. The installation of HPM piping and 
tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors 
and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above 
other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Section 
415.8.6.2 and the following conditions: 

1 . Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the 
space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 
mm) in the least dimension. 

2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour 
shall be provided. The space shall not be used to 
convey air from any other area. 

3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport 
HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below 
such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be 
designed to collect any discharge or leakage and 
drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclo- 
sure shall not be used as part of the receptor. 

4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic 
waste lines shall be separated from the corridor 
and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by 
fire barriers that have di fire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is 
used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure are 
not required to be taped, provided the joints occur 
over framing members. Access openings into the 
enclosure shall be protected by approved fire pro- 
tection-rated assemblies. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely 
activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall 
be installed on piping and tubing other than waste 
lines at the following locations: 

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication 
area. 



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5.2. At entries into corridors. 

Exception: Transverse crossings of the 
corridors by supply piping that is 
enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for 
the width of the corridor need not comply 
with Items 1 through 5. 

[F] 415.8.6.4 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM 
waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI 
A13.1 to indicate the material being transported. 

[F] 415.8.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A continu- 
ous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases 
when the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is 
at a higher level than the accepted PEL for the gas and for 
flammable gases in accordance with Sections 415.8.7. 1 and 
415.8.7.2. 

[F] 415.8.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas detec- 
tion system shall be provided in the areas identified in 
Sections 415.8.7.1.1 through 415.8.7.1.4. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided in fabrication 
areas when gas is used in the fabrication area. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas 
detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms 
when gas is used in the room. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures 
and gas rooms. A continuous gas detection system 
shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclo- 
sures. A continuous gas detection system shall be pro- 
vided in gas rooms when gases are not located in gas 
cabinets or exhausted enclosures. 

[F] 415.8.7.1.4 Corridors. When gases are trans- 
ported in piping placed within the space defined by 
the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the 
corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall be 
provided where piping is located and in the corridor. 

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is 
not required for occasional transverse crossings of 
the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a 
ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor. 

[F] 415.8.7.2 Gas detection system operation. The 

continuous gas detection system shall be capable of 
monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas 
is located at or below all the following gas concentra- 
tions: 

1. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) 
values when the monitoring point is within an 
exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas 

cabinet. 

2. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels when the 
monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted 
enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet. 

3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection 
threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in 
excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit 
(LFL) when the monitoring is within or outside an 



exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas 
cabinet. 

4. Except as noted in this section, monitoring for 
highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with 
Chapter 37 of the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system 
shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the 
emergency control station when a short-term hazard 
condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual 
and audible and shall provide warning both inside and 
outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible 
alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms. 

[F] 415.8.7.2.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detec- 
tion system shall automatically close the shutoff valve 
at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related 
to the system being monitored for which gas is 
detected when a short-term hazard condition is 
detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall 
comply with the following: 

1 . Where the gas detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a gas 
cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve 
in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the 
specific gas detected shall automatically close. 

2. Where the gas detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
room and compressed gas containers are not in 
gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the 
shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific 
gas detected shall automatically close. 

3. Where the gas detection sampling point initiat- 
ing the gas detection system alarm is within a 
piping distribution manifold enclosure, the 
shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the 
compressed gas container of the specific gas 
detected shall automatically close. 

Exception: Where the gas detection sampling 
point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at 
the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a 
branch line downstream of a piping distribution 
manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line 
located in the piping distribution manifold enclo- 
sure shall automatically close. 

[F] 415.8.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approved man- 
ual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings 
containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall 
initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency 
control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 907. 

[F] 415.8.9 Emergency control station. An emergency 
control station shall be provided in accordance with Sec- 
tions 415.8.9.1 through 415.8.9.3. 

[F] 415.8.9.1 Location. The emergency control station 
shall be located on the premises at an approved location 
outside the fabrication area. 



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[F] 415.8.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continu- 
ously staff the emergency control station. 

[F] 415.8.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station 
shall receive signals from emergency equipment and 
alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equip- 
ment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but 
not be limited to, the following where such equipment or 
systems are required to be provided either in this chapter 
or elsewhere in this code: 

1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring 
systems. 

2. Manual fire alarm systems. 

3. Emergency alarm systems. 

4. Continuous gas detection systems. 

5. Smoke detection systems. 

6. Emergency power system. 

7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the Califor- 
nia Fire Code, 

8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liq- 
uids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required 
in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the California Fire Code. 

[F] 415.8.10 Emergency power system. An emergency 
power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies 
where required in Section 415.8.10.1. The emergency 
power system shall be designed to supply power automati- 
cally to required electrical systems when the normal electri- 
cal supply system is interrupted. 

[F] 415.8.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emer- 
gency power shall be provided for electrically operated 
equipment and connected control circuits for the follow- 
ing systems: 

1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems. 

2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems. 

3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems. 

4. HPM gas room ventilation systems. 

5. HPM gas detection systems. 

6. Emergency alarm systems. 

7. Manual fire alarm systems. 

8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and 
alarm systems. 

9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for 
pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive 
liquids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the Cal- 
ifornia Fire Code. 

10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and 
Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust 
ventilation systems required in Section 
1805.2.3.4 of the California Fire Code. 



1 1 , Electrically operated systems required elsewhere 
in this code or in the California Fire Code appli- 
cable to the use, storage or handling of HPM. 

[F] 415.8.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust 
ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate 
at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the 
emergency power system where it is demonstrated that 
the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere. 

[F] 415.8.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in 
exhaust ducts for HPM. 

[F] 415.8.11.1 Exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved 
automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust 
ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts 
generated from HPM in accordance with this section and 
the California Mechanical Code, 

[F] 415.8.11.2 Metallic and noncomhustible nonme- 
tallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler 
system shall be provided in metallic and noncomhustible 
nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following con- 
ditions apply: 

1 . Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal 
to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. The ducts are within the building. 

3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors 
or fumes. 

[F] 415.8.11.3 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust 
ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be 
provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts 
where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is 
equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1 . Ducts listed or approved for applications with- 
out automatic fire sprinkler system protection. 

2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in 
length installed below ceiling level. 

[F] 415.8,11.4 Automatic sprinkler locations. Sprin- 
kler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) 
intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. 
In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top 
and at alternate floor levels. 

415.9 Group H occupancies located above the 10th story, 

415,9.1 Fire - smoke harrier. Any story containing a Group 
H occupancy above the 10th story shall be subdivided by a 
fire-smoke barrier constructed as afire barrier having afire 
resistance rating of not less than 2 hours and shall also com- 
ply with the smoke barrier requirements of Section 710. The 
2-hour fire-smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Sec- 
tions 415,9.1.1 through 415,9,1,5. 

415.9.1.1 The 2 -hour fire -smoke barrier shall be contin- 
uous from exterior wall to exterior wall, 

415.9.1.2 The fire-smoke barrier shall divide the story so 
that the square footage on each side of the 2 -hour 
fire- smoke barrier is not less than 30 percent of the total 
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415,9,13 A minimum of one door opening shall be pro- 
vided in the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier for emergency 
access, 

415.9.1.4 Each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier 
shall be designed as a separate smoke zone designed in 
accordance with Section 909.6. 

415.9.1.5 The area on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke 
barrier shall be served by a minimum of one exit enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 1022. 

415,10 Elevators and elevator lobbies above the 10th story. 

Any story containing a Group H occupancy above the 1 0th 
story shall be provided with elevators and elevator lobbies in 
accordance with Sections 415.10.1 through 415.10.3. 

415.10.1 An elevator that serves every story of the building 
shall be provided on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke bar- 
rier. 

415.10.2 An elevator lobby shall be provided on each side of 
the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier at each floor in accordance with 
Section 708.14.1. Exceptions to 708.14.1 shall not apply. 

415.10.3 The elevator and its associated elevatorlobbies 
and elevator machine rooms shall be pressurized in accor- 
dance with Section 909.6. 



SECTION 416 
APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES 

[F] 416.1 GeneraL The provisions of this section shall apply to 
the construction, installation and use of buildings and struc- 
tures, or parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, 
varnishes and lacquers or other flammable materials or mix- 
tures or compounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or 
similar purposes. Such construction and equipment shall com- 
ply with the California Fire Code. 

[F] 416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with 
not less than l-ho\xx fire barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. Roors shall be water- 
proofed and drained in an approved manner. 

[F] 416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms 
shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the free 
passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facili- 
tate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed to confine 
residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be used. 

[F] 416,3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be venti- 
lated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of 
flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the California 
Mechanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately 
enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to 
restrict the spread of flammable vapors. 

[F] 416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying 
spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall 
be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air 
from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and 
cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within 
the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used. 



[F] 416.4 Spray booths. Spray booths shall be designed, con- 
structed and operated in accordance with the California Fire 
Code. 

[F] 416.5 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing 
system shall be provided in all spray, dip and inunersing spaces 
and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with 
Chapter 9. 



SECTION 417 
DRYING ROOMS 

[F] 417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a 
building shall be constructed entirely of approved 
noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials reg- 
ulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and 
specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and 
where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28. 

[F] 417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have 
a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from combustible 
contents in the dryer. 

[F] 417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the 
dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insu- 
lated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 
inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined 
with V4-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other approved 
equivalent insulation. 

[F] 417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for 
high-hazard materials and processes, including special occu- 
pancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an 
approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with 
the provisions of Chapter 9. 

SECTION 418 
ORGANIC COATINGS 

[F] 418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coat- 
ings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or 
basements. 

[F] 418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing opera- 
tions and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall 
not be located in buildings having other occupancies. 

[F] 418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances 
and that process flanunable and heat- sensitive materials, such 
as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or 
noncombustible structure. 

[F] 418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and com- 
bustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or 
above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by 
not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. 

[F] 418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall 
be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room 
enclosed with no less than l-honxfire barriers constructed in 
accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 



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[F] 418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished prod- 
ucts that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be separated 
from the processing area by not less than 2-hovx fire harriers 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 

SECTION 419 
LIVE/WORK UNITS 

419.1 General. A live/work unit is a dwelling unit or sleeping 
unit in which a significant portion of the space includes a non- 
residential use that is operated by the tenant and shall comply 
with Sections 419.1 through 419.8. 

Exception: Dwelling or sleeping units that include an 
office that is less than 10 percent of the area of the dwell- 
ing unit shall not be classified as a live/work unit. 

419.1.1 Limitations. The following shall apply to all 
live/work areas: 

1. The live/work unit is permitted to be a maximum of 
3,000 square feet (279 m^); 

2. The nonresidential area is permitted to be a maximum 
50 percent of the area of each live/work unit; 

3. The nonresidential area function shall be limited to 
the first or main floor only of the live/work unit; and 

4. A maximum of five nonresidential workers or 
employees are allowed to occupy the nonresidential 
area at any one time. 

419.2 Occupancies. Live/work units shall be classified as a 
Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in Sec- 
tions 420 and 508 shall not apply within the live/work unit 
when the live/work unit is in compliance with Section 419. 
High-hazard and storage occupancies shall not be permitted in 
a live/work unit. The aggregate area of storage in the nonresi- 
dential portion of the live/work unit shall be limited to 10 per- 
cent of the space dedicated to nonresidential activities. 

419.3 Means of egress. Except as modified by this section, the 
provisions for Group R-2 occupancies in Chapter 10 shall 
apply to the entire live/work unit. 

419.3.1 Egress capacity. The egress capacity for each ele- 
ment of the live/work unit shall be based on the occupant 
load for the function served in accordance with Table 
1004.1.1. 

419.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are 
of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to 
its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) 
with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds 

(220 N). 

419.3.3 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to 
the requirements of Section 1009.9 shall be permitted. 

419.3.4 Locks. Egress doors shall be permitted to be locked 
in accordance with Exception 4 of Section 1008.1.9.3. 

419.4 Vertical openings. Floor openings between floor levels 
of a live/work unit are permitted without enclosure. 

419.5 Fire protection. The live/work unit shall be provided 
with a monitored fire alarm system where required by Section 



907,2.9 and an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.2.8. 

419.6 Structural. Floor loading for the areas within a 
live/ work unit shall be designed to conform to Table 1607.1 
based on the function within the space. 

419.7 Accessibility. Accessibility shall be designed in accor- 
dance with Chapters IIA and/or I IB, when applicable, 

419.8 Ventilation. The applicable requirements of the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code shall apply to each area within the 
live/work unit for the function within that space. 



SECTION 420 
GROUPS R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-XI and R-4 

420.1 General. Occupancies in Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, 
R-3J and R-4 shall comply with the provisions of this section 
and other applicable provisions of this code. 

420.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in the 
same building, walls separating sleeping units in the same 
building and walls separating dwelling or sleeping units from 
other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building 
shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Sec- 
tion 709. 

420.3 Horizontal separation. Floor assemblies separating 
dwelling units in the same buildings, floor assemblies separat- 
ing sleeping units in the same building and floor assemblies 
separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies 
contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as 
horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712. 

420.4 Carbon monoxide alarms, [HCD 7, HCD 2 & HCD 
1-AC] 

420.4 J Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, 
an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed in 
dwelling units and in sleeping units within which fuel-burn- 
ing appliances are installed; and in dwelling units that have 
attached garages. 

420,4,1,1 Power supply. For new construction, required 
carbon monoxide alarms shall receive their primary 
power from the building wiring where such wiring is 
served from a commercial source and shall be equipped 
with a battery back-up. Alarm wiring shall be directly 
connected to the permanent building wiring without a 
disconnecting switch other than as required for 
overcurrent protection. 

Exceptions: 

1. In dwelling units where there is no commercial 
power supply, the carbon monoxide alarm may 
be solely battery operated. 

2. In existing dwelling units, a carbon monoxide 
alarm is permitted to be solely battery operated 
where repairs or alterations do not result in the 
removal of wall and ceiling finishes or there is 
no access by means of attic, basement or crawl 
space. 



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3. Other power sources recognized for use by 
NFPA 720, 

420.4 J. 2 Interconnection, Where more than one car- 
bon monoxide alarm is required to be installed within the 
dwelling unit or within a sleeping unit, the alarm shall be 
interconnected in a manner that activation of one alarm 
shall activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. 

Exception: Interconnection is not required in existing 
dwelling units or within sleeping units where repairs 
do not result in the removal of wall and ceiling fin- 
ishes, there is no access by means of attic, basement 
or crawl space, and no previous method for intercon- 
nection existed. 

420.4.2 Where required in existing dwellings or sleeping 
units. Where a permit is required for alterations, repairs or 
additions exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), existing 
dwellings or sleeping units that have attached garages or 
fuel-burning appliances shall be provided with a carbon 
monoxide alarm in accordance with Section 420.4.1. Car- 
bon monoxide alarms shall only be required in the specific 
dwelling unit or sleeping unit for which the permit was 
obtained. 

420.4.3 Alarm requirements. Single- and multiple-station 
carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with 
the requirements of UL 2034. Carbon monoxide detectors 
shall be listed as complying with the requirements of UL 
2075. Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide 
detectors shall be installed in accordance with this code, the 
current edition of NFPA 720 "Standard for the Installation 
of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equip- 
ment" and the manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Other carbon monoxide alarm and detection devices as rec- 
ognized in NFPA 720 are also acceptable. 

Carbon monoxide alarms required by Sections 420.4.1 
and 420.4.2 shall be installed in the following locations: 

1. Outside of each separate dwelling unit sleeping area 
in the immediate vicinity of the bedroom(s). 

2. On every level of a dwelling unit including basements. 

3. For R-1 only. 

a. On the ceiling of sleeping units with perma- 
nently installed fuel-burning appliances. 

420,4,3,1 Multiple-purpose alarms. Carbon monoxide 
alarms combined with smoke alarms shall comply with 
Section 420.4, all applicable standards, and require- 
ments for listing and approval by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal, for smoke alarms. 

420.4.4 Visible alarms. In buildings meeting the definition 
of "COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS" in accor- 
dance with Chapter HA and with fuel-burning appliances 
and/or attached garages as described in Section 420.4. 1, all 
required carbon monoxide alarms shall be provided with 
the capability to support visible alarm notification appli- 
ances in accordance with NFPA 720 and Chapter IIB. 



420.5 Licensed 24-hour care facilities in a Group R-2,1, 
R-3.1 or R-4 occupancy. See Section 425 for Special Provi- 
sions for licensed 24-hour care facilities in a Group R-2.1, 
R-3. 1, or R-4 occupancy. 

420.6 Existing Group R Occupancies, See Chapter 34. 



SECTION 421 
HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOMS 

[F] 421.1 General. When required by the California Fire 
Code, hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be designed and con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 42 LI through 421.8. 

[F] 421.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this 
code, have the meanings shown herein. 

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of 
piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, con- 
tain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-con- 
taining mixture having at least 95 -percent hydrogen gas by 
volume and not more than 1 -percent oxygen by volume. Gas- 
eous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed 
gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure 
regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, com- 
pressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls. 

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that is 
intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system. 

[F] 421.3 Location. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall not be 
located below grade. 

[F] 421.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen cutoff rooms 
shall be classified with respect to occupancy in accordance 
with Section 302. 1 and separated from other areas of the build- 
ing by not less than 1-hour^re barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 7 1 2, or both; or as required by Section 
508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, as applicable. 

[F] 421.4.1 Opening protectives. Doors within ihtfire bar- 
riers, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing in 
accordance with Section 715. Interior door openings shall 
be electronically interlocked to prevent operation of the 
hydrogen system when doors are opened or ajar or the room 
shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust ventilation sys- 
tem designed in accordance with Section 421.4.1.1. 

[F] 421,4.1.1 Ventilation alternative. When an exhaust 
system is used in lieu of the interlock system required by 
Section 421.4.1, exhaust ventilation systems shall oper- 
ate continuously and shall be designed to operate at a 
negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. The 
average velocity of ventilation at the face of the door 
opening with the door in the fully open position shall not 
be less than 60 feet per minute (0.3048 m/s) with a mini- 
mum of 45 feet per minute (0.2287 m/s) at any point in 
the door opening. 



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^ 



[F] 421.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls 
shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted 
when in accordance with Section 715. 

[F] 421.5 Ventilation. Cutoff rooms shall be provided with 
mechanical ventilation in accordance with the applicable pro- 
visions for repair garages in Chapter 5 of the California 
Mechanical Code. 

[F] 421.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall 
be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system 
in accordance with Sections 421.6.1 through 421.6.3. 

[F] 421.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection 
system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other 
flammable gases used in the room. The gas detection system 
shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable 
gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit 
(LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated 
temperature and pressure. 

[F] 421.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection sys- 
tem shall result in all of the following: 

1 . Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals 
both inside and outside of the cutoff room. 

2. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system. 

[F] 421.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of 
the gas detection system shall result in activation of the 
mechanical ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen gen- 
eration and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved 
location. 

[F] 421.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Chapter 9 of the California Fire 
Code, 

[F] 421.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas 
detection systems shall be connected to a standby power sys- 
tem in accordance with Chapter 27. 



SECTION 422 
AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES 

422.1 General. Occupancies classified as Group B ambulatory 
health care facilities shall comply with the provisions of Sec- 
tions 422.1 through 422.6 and other applicable provisions of 
this code. 

422.2 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to 
subdivide every ambulatory care facility greater than 10,000 
square feet (929 m^) into a minimum of two smoke compart- 
ments per story. The travel distance from any point in a smoke 
compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet 
(60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed in accor- 
dance with Section 710. 

422.3 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m^) per 
nonambulatory patient shall be provided within the aggregate 
area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or 
dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each 
smoke barrier 



422.4 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be pro- 
vided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barri- 
ers without having to return through the smoke compartment 
from which means of egress originated. 

422.5 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be provided for ambulatory care faciUties in accor- 
dance with Section 903.2.2. 

422.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Section 907.2.2.1. 



SECTION 423 
STORM SHELTERS 

423.1 General. In addition to other applicable requirements in 
this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance 
with ICC-500. 

423.1,1 Scope. This section applies to the construction of 
storm shelters constructed as separate detached buildings or 
constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose 
of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high 
winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. Such structures 
shall be designated to be hurricane shelters, tornado shel- 
ters, or combined hurricane and tornado shelters. 

423.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

STORM SHELTER. A building, structure or portions(s) 
thereof, constructed in accordance with ICC 500 and desig- 
nated for use during a severe wind storm event, such as a hurri- 
cane or tornado. 

Community storm shelter. A storm shelter not defined as a 
^'Residential Storm Shelter." 

Residential storm shelter. A storm shelter serving occu- 
pants of dwelling units and having an occupant load not 
exceeding 16 persons. 



SECTION 424 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL HOTELS 

[HCD 1 & HCD 1-AC] 

424,1 Locking mail receptacles, A locking mail receptacle for 
each residential unit shall be provided in all residential hotels 
pursuant to the requirements specified in Health and Safety 
Code Section 17958.3. 



SECTION 425 

SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LICENSED 24'HOUR 

CARE FACILITIES IN A GROUP R'2, 1, R'3. 1, R-4 

[SFM] 

425,1 Scope, The provisions of this section shall apply to 
24-hour care facilities in a Group R-2.1y R-3.1 or R-4 occu- 
pancy licensed by a governmental agency. 



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425.2 General The provisions in this section shall apply in 
addition to general requirements in this code. 

I I 425,2.1 Restraint shall not be practiced in a Group R-2,1, 
R-3. 1 or R-4 Occupancies. 

Exception: Occupancies which meet all the require- 
ments for a Group 1-3 Occupancy, 

425.2.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, 
regulations of the state fire marshal pertaining to occupan- 
cies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residential 
Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uni- 
formly throughout the state and no city, county, city and 
county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire 
protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or 
local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety 
which is inconsistent with these regulations. A city, county, 
city and county, including a charter city or charter county 
may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, 
or a fire protection district may pursuant to Health and 
Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt standards more strin- 
gent than those adopted by the state fire marshal that are 
reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geo- 
logical or topographical conditions relating to roof cover- 
ings for Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly. 

Exception: Local regulations relating to roof coverings 
in facilities licensed as a residential care facility for the 
elderly (RCFE) per Health and Safety Code Section 
13133. 

425.3 Building height and area provisions, 

I I 425.3.1 Group R-2. 1, R-3. 1 and R-4 shall be constructed in 
accordance with Table 503. 

425.3.2 Limitations six or less clients. Group R-3.1 occu- 
pancies where clients are housed above the first story, hav- 
ing more than two stories in height or having more than 
3,000 square feet (279 m^) of floor area above the first story 
shall not be of less than one-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction throughout 

In Group R3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client, 
the client sleeping room shall not be located above or below 
the first story. 

Exception: Clients who become bedridden as a result of 
a temporary illness as defined in Health and Safety Code 
Sections 1566.45, 1568.0832 and 1569.72. A temporary 
illness is an illness, which persists for 14 days or less. A 
bedridden client may be retained in excess of the 14 days 
upon approval by the Department of Social Services and 
may continue to be housed on any story in a Group R-3. 1 
occupancy classified as a licensed residential facility. 

Every licensee admitting or retaining a bedridden resi- 
dent shall, within 48 hours of the resident's admission or 
retention in the facility, notify the local fire authority with 
jurisdiction of the estimated length of time the resident will 
retain his or her bedridden status in the facility. 

425.3.3 Limitations seven or more clients. Group R-4 occu- 
pancies where nonambulatory clients are housed above the 
first story and there is more than 3,000 square feet (279 m^) 
of floor area above the first story or housing more than 16 



clients above the first story shall be constructed of not less 
than one-hour fire-resistance-rated construction through- 
out. 

425,3.4 Nonambulatory elderly clients. Group R-4 occu- 
pancies housing nonambulatory elderly clients shall be of 
not less than one-hour fire-resistance-rated construction 
throughout. 

425.4 Type of construction provisions. 

425.4.1 Group R-2.1, occupancies are not permitted in \ \ 
nonfire-resistance-rated construction, see Health and 
Safety Code Section 13131.5. 

425.5 Fire-resistance-rated construction provisions. 

425.5.1 Smoke barriers required. Group R-2.1 and R-4 
occupancies licensed as a Residential Care Facility (RCF) 
with individual floor areas over 6,000 square feet (557 m^) 
per floor, shall be provided with smoke barriers, con- 
structed in accordance with Section 710. 

Group R-2. 1 occupancies housing bedridden clients shall 
be provided with smoke barriers constructed in accordance 
with Section 710 regardless of the number of clients. I I 

When smoke barriers are required, the area within a 
smoke compartment shall not exceed 22,500 square feet 
(2090 m^) nor shall its travel distance exceed 200 feet (60 
960 mm). Such smoke barriers shall divide the floor as 
equally as possible. 

425.5.2 Smoke partitions. Group R-2.1 occupancies where 
smoke partitions are required, framing shall be covered 
with noncombustible materials having an approved thermal 
barrier with an index of not less than 15 in accordance with 
FM 4880, UL 1040, NFPA 286 or UL 1 715. 

425.5.3 Independent egress. At least two means of egress 
shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by 
smoke barriers. Means of egress may pass through adjacent 
compartments provided it does not return through the smoke 
compartment from which means of egress originated. 

425. 6 Interior finish provisions, 

425.6,1 Interior wall and ceiling finish. Group R-3.1 occu- 
pancies housing a bedridden client shall comply with inte- 
rior wall and ceiling finish requirements specified for Group 
1-2 occupancies in Table 803.9. 

425. 7 Fire protection system provisions. 

425.7.1 Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R-2,1 ^ 
R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system 
shall be installed where required in Section 903. 

425. 7.2 Fire alarm systems in Group R-2.1 and R-4 occu- 
pancies. An approved fire alarm system shall be installed 
where required in Section 907. 

425.7.3 Smoke alarms in Groups R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 
occupancies. Smoke alarms shall be installed where 
required in Section 907.2.1 1.1 . 

425.7.4 Hearing impaired. See Section 907.5.2.3. 

425.8 Means of egress provisions. 



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425.8.1 General In addition to the general means of egress 
requirements of Chapter 10, this section shall apply to 
Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies. 

425.8.2 Number of exits. 

425.8.2.1 Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies shall 
have a minimum of two exits. 

Exception: Ancillary use areas or occupancies shall 
have egress as required by Section 1021. 

425.8.3 Egress arrangements. 

425.8.3.1 Egress through adjoining dwelling units shall 
not be permitted. 

425.8.3.2 Group R'3.1 occupancies housing non- 
ambulatory clients. In a Group R-3.1 occupancy, bed- 
rooms used by nonambulatory clients shall have access 
to at least one of the required exits which shall conform to 
one of the following: 

1. Egress through a hallway or area into a bedroom 
in the immediate area which has an exit directly to 
the exterior and the corridor/hallway is con- 
structed consistent with the dwelling unit interior 
walls. The hallway shall be separated from com- 
mon areas by a solid wood door not less than 7% 
inch (35 mm) in thickness, maintained self-closing 
or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 715.4.8. 

2. Egress through a hallway which has an exit 
directly to the exterior. The hallway shall be sepa- 
rated from the rest of the house by a wall con- 
structed consistent with the dwelling unit interior 
walls and opening protected by a solid wood door 
not less than 7% inch (35 mm) in thickness, main- 
tained self -closing or shall be automatic closing by 
actuation of a smoke detector installed in accor- 
dance with Section 715.4.8. 

3. Direct exit from the bedroom to the exterior shall 
be of a size as to permit the installation of a door 
not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and not less 
than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. When 
installed, doors shall be capable of opening at 
least 90 degrees and shall be so mounted that the 
clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches 
(813 mm). 

4. Egress through an adjoining bedroom which exits 
to the exterior. 

425.8.3.3 Group R-3.1 occupancies housing only one 
bedridden client. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a 
bedridden client and not provided with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system, all of the following shall 
apply: 

1. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden 
client, a direct exit to the exterior of the residence 
shall be provided from the client sleeping room, 

2. Doors to a bedridden client's sleeping room shall 
be of a self-closing, positive latching 7-% inch 



solid wood door. Such doors shall be provided 
with a gasket so installed as to provide a seal 
where the door meets the jam on both sides and 
across the top. Doors shall be maintained 
self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actu- 
ation of a smoke alarm in accordance with Section 
715.4.8. 

3. Group R-3. 1 occupancies housing a bedridden cli- 
ent, shall not have a night latch, dead bolt, security 
chain or any similar locking device installed on 
any interior door leading from a bedridden cli- 
ent's sleeping room to any interior area such as a 
corridor, hallway and or general use areas of the 
residence in accordance with Chapter 10. 

4. The exterior exit door to a bedridden client's 
sleeping room shall be operable from both the 
interior and exterior of the residence. 

5. Every required exit doorway from a bedridden cli- 
ent sleeping room shall be of a size as to permit the 
installation of a door not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 
mm) in height. When installed in exit doorways, 
exit doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 
degrees and shall be so mounted that the clear 
width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches (813 
mm). 

Note: A sliding glass door can be used as an exterior 
exit doorway as long as it is operable from the inside 
and outside and the clear width of the exit way is not 
less than 32 inches (813 mm). 

425.8.3.4 Intervening rooms. A means of exit shall not 
pass through more than one intervening room. A means 
of egress shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, 
closets, garages or spaces used for similar purposes. 

Exception: Kitchens which do not form separate 
rooms by construction. 

425.8.4 Corridors. 

425.8.4.1 Unless specified by Section 425.8.4, corridors 
serving Group R-2.1 and Group R-4 occupancies shall 
comply with Section 1018. L 

425.8.4.2 The minimum clear width of a corridor shall 
be as follows: 

1. Group R-2.1 occupancies shall have 60 inches 
(1524 mm) on floors housing nonambulatory cli- 
ents and 44 inches (1118 mm) on floors housing 
only ambulatory clients. 

2. Group R-4 occupancies shall have 44 inches 
(1118 mm) on floors housing clients. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridors serving an occupant load of 10 
or less shall not be less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) in width. 

2. Corridors serving ambulatory persons 
only and having an occupant load of 49 



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or less shall not be less than 36 inches 
(914 mm) in width, 

3. Group R-4 occupancies shall have 36 
inches (914 mm) on floors housing cli- 
ents. 

In Group R-2,1 occupancies provided with fire sprin- 
klers throughout and which are required to have rated 
corridors, door closers need not be installed on doors to 
client sleeping rooms. 

425,8,4,3 In a Group R-2.1 and Group R-4 occupancies 
having smoke barriers, cross-corridor doors in corri- 
dors 6 feet (1829 mm) or less in width shall have, as a 
minimum, a door 36 inches (914 mm) in width. 

425.8.5 Changes in level. In Group R-3.1 occupancies 
housing nonambulatory clients interior changes in level up 
to 0.25 inch (6 mm) may be vertical and without edge treat- 
ment. Changes in level between 0.25 inch (6 mm) and 0.5 
inch (12. 7 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 
1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50 percent slope). 
Changes in level greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) shall be 
accomplished by means of a ramp. 

425.8.6 Stairways, 

425.8.6.1 Group R-2.1 and Group R-4 occupancies 
housing more than six nonambulatory clients above the 
first floor shall be provided with two vertical exit enclo- 
sures. Stairway enclosures shall be in compliance with 
Section 1020. Exceptions to Section 1020 shall not apply 
in facilities licensed as a 24-hour care facility, 

425.8.6.2 Group R-3.1 occupancies may continue to use 
existing stairways (except for winding and spiral stair- 
ways which are not permitted as a required means of 
egress) provided the stairs have a maximum rise of 8 
inches (203 mm) with a minimum run of 9 inches (229 
mm). The minimum stairway width may be 30 inches 
(762 mm). 

425.8.7 Floor separation. Group R-3.1 occupancies shall 
be provided with a nonflre resistance constructed floor sep- 
aration at stairs which will prevent smoke migration 
between floors. Such floor separation shall have equivalent 
construction of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard on 
one side of wall framing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies with at least one exterior exit from 
floors occupied by clients. 

2. Occupancies provided with automatic fire sprin- 
kler systems complying with Chapter 9. 

425.8,7,1 Doors within floor separations. Doors within 
such floor separations shall be tight fitting solid wood at 
least P/g inches (35 mm) in thickness. Door glazing shall 
not exceed 1296 square inches (32 918 mm^) with no 
dimension greater than 54 inches (1372 mm). Such doors 
shall be positive latching, smoke gasketed and shall be 
automatic-closing by smoke detection, 

425.8.8 Fences and gates. Grounds of a Residential Care 
Facility for the Elderly serving Alzheimer clients may be 



fenced and gates therein equipped with locks, provided safe 
dispersal areas are located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) 
from the buildings. Dispersal areas shall be sized to provide 
an area of not less than 3 square feet (0.28 m^) per occupant. 
Gates shall not be installed across corridors or passage- 
ways leading to such dispersal areas unless they comply 
with egress requirements. 

425.8.9 Basement exits. One exit is required to grade level 
when the basement is accessible to clients. 

425.8.10 Delayed egress locks. See Section 1008,1.8.6. 

425.9 Request for alternate means of protection for facilities 
housing bedridden clients. Request for alternate means of pro- 
tection shall apply to Sections 425 through 425.9. Request for 
approval to use an alternative material, assembly or materials, 
equipment, method of construction, method of installation of 
equipment, or means of protection shall be made in writing to 
the local fire authority having jurisdiction by the facility, client 
or the client's authorized representative. Sufficient evidence 
shall be submitted to substantiate the need for an alternate 
means of protection. 

The facility, client or the client's representative or the local 
fire authority having jurisdiction may request a written opinion 
from the State Fire Marshal concerning the interpretation of 
the regulations promulgated by the State Fire Marshal for a 
particular factual dispute. The State Fire Marshal shall issue 
the written opinion within 45 days following the request. 

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, 
assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, 
method of installation of equipment, or means of protection 
made pursuant to this section shall be limited to Group R, 3. 1 
occupancies housing a bedridden client. 

Approvals made by the local fire authority having jurisdic- 
tion and the written opinion by the State Fire Marshal shall be 
applicable only to the requesting facility and shall not be con- 
strued as establishing any precedent for any future request by 
that facility or any other facility. 

425.10 Temporarily bedridden clients. Clients who become 
temporarily bedridden as defined in Health and Safety Code 
Section 1569. 72, as enforced by the Department of Social Ser- 
vices, may continue to be housed on any story in Group R-2.1, \ \ 
R-3. 1 or R-4 occupancies classified as Residential Care Facili- 
ties for the Elderly (RCFE). Every Residential Care Facility for 
the Elderly (RCFE) admitting or retaining a bedridden resi- 
dent shall, within 48 hours of the resident 's admission or reten- 
tion in the facility, notify the local fire authority with 
jurisdiction of the estimated length of time the resident will 
retain his or her bedridden status in the facility. 



SECTION 426 
GROUP h4 [SFM] 

426,1 Group 1-4 special provisions. Rooms classified as 
Group 1-4 shall not be located above or below the first story. 

Exceptions: , 

L Basements or stories having floor levels located 
within 4 feet (1219 mm), measured vertically, from 
adjacent ground level at the level of exit discharge, 



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provided the basement or story has exterior exit doors 
at that level. 

2. In buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler 
system throughout, rooms used for kindergarten, 
first- and second-grade children or for day-care pur- 
poses may be located on the second story, provided 
there are at least two exterior exit doors, or other 
egress systems complying with Section 1017 with two 
exits, for the exclusive use of such occupants. Egress 
systems for the exclusive use of such occupants shall 
be maintained until exit discharge at grade is 
attained, 

3, Group 1-4 child-care facilities may be located above 
the first story in buildings of Type I construction and 
in Types Il-A and lll-A construction, subject to the 
limitation of Section 503 when: 

3.1. Group 1-4 childcare facilities with children 
under the age of seven or containing more 
than 12 children per story shall not be located 
above the fourth floor; and 

3.2. The entire story in which the Group 1-4 
child-care facility is located is equipped with 
an approved manual fire alarm and 
smoke-detection system, (See the Fire Code.) 
Actuation of an initiating device shall sound 
an audible alarm throughout the entire story. 
When a building fire alarm system is required 
by other provisions of this code or the Fire 
Code, the alarm system shall be connected to 
the building alarm system. An approved 
alarm signal shall sound at an approved loca- 
tion in the Group 1-4 child-care facility to in- 
dicate afire alarm or sprinkler flow condition 
in other portions of the building; and 

3.3 Group 1-4 child-care facilities, if more than 
1,000 square feet (92.9 m^) in area, is divided 
into at least two compartments of approxi- 
mately the same size by a smoke barrier with 
door openings protected by smoke- and 
draft-control assemblies having afire-protec- 
tion rating of not less than 20 minutes. Smoke 
barriers shall have a fire-resistive rating of 
not less than one hour. In addition to the re- 
quirements of Section 508,3.3, occupancy 
separations between Group 1-4 child-care 
and other occupancies shall be constructed as 
smoke barriers. Door openings in the smoke 
barrier shall be tightfittinq, with gaskets in- 
stalled as required by Section 710, and shall 
be automatic closing by actuation of the auto- 
matic sprinklers, fire alarm or smoke-detec- 
tion system, 

3.4, Each compartment formed by the smoke bar- 
rier has not less than two exits or exit access 
doors, one of which is permitted to pass 
through the adjoining compartment; and 



3,5 Where two or more exits or exit access are re- 
quired at least one shall not share a common | 
path of travel, 

3.6, The building is equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout. 



SECTION 427 
Reserved 



SECTION 428 
Reserved 



SECTION 429 
Reserved 



SECTION 430 
HORSE RACING STABLES [SFM] 

430.1 For automatic sprinkler and fire alarm system require- 
ments applying to each building, bam or structure which is 
used by an association regulated by the California Horse Rac- 
ing Board for the stabling of horses or human habitation, and 
the stable area grounds, including any additional location 
where any excess horses are stabled see Title 4, Division 4, 
Article 17, Section 1927. 



SECTION 431 
PET KENNELS [SFM] 

431.1 These regulations shall apply to every building or fire 
area in which a pet dealer, cis defined in Health and Safety Code 
Section 122125, maintains a kennel. 

431.2 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic 
sprinkler system complying with California Fire Code Section 
903 shall be installed. 

Exception: Where afire alarm system that is connected to a 
central reporting station that alerts the local fire depart- 
ment in case of fire. 



SECTION 432 

COMBUSTION ENGINES AND GAS TURBINES 

[SFM] 

432.1 General, The installation of combustion engines and gas 
turbines shall be in accordance with NFPA-3 7 and this chapter 

432.2 Separation, 

432.2.1 Construction, Every room in which is installed a 
combustion engine or gas turbine shall be separated from 
the remainder of the building by not less than a one-hour fire 
barrier, 

432.2.2 Exterior openings. When doors, windows or lou- 
vered openings are located below openings in another story 
or less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from doors, windows or lou- 
vered openings of the same building, they shall be protected 



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by afire assembly having a ^/4-hour rating. Such fire assem- 
blies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing. 

432,2.2.1 Interior openings. In other than buildings 
I I housing Group I and R-2. 1 occupancies, interior open- 

ings shall be allowed in buildings protected by an auto- 
matic fire sprinkler system throughout. 

432.2.3 Location. Combustion engines and gas turbines 
used for emergency power shall not be located in a room or 
area used for any other purpose other than equipment and 
controls related to the generation and distribution of emer- 
gency power 

432.2.4 Special hazards. The handling and use of flamma- 
ble or combustible liquids shall comply with the California 
Fire Code. 



SECTION 433 
FIXED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEMS [SFM] 

433.1 General. 

433.1.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
buildings or structures defined as stations for fixed guide- 
way transit systems and shall supersede other similar 
requirements in other sections of this code. 

433.1.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this section, certain 
terms are defined as follows: 

AT-GRADE STATION. Any at-grade or unroofed station 
other than an elevated or underground station. 

ELEVATED STATION. A station greater than one story 
not otherwise defined as an at-grade or underground sta- 
tion. 

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PANEL (EMP). The 

location where all necessary on-site control and communi- 
cation facilities are consolidated for effective response to 
emergency situations. 

ENCLOSED STATION. A station or portion thereof that 
does not meet the definition of an open station. 

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS (FIRE HAZARD/FIRE 
RISK ASSESSMENT). An analysis that evaluates all vari- 
ous factors that affect the fire safety of the system or compo- 
nent. A written report of the analysis shall indicate the fire 
protection method(s) recommended that demonstrates a 
level of fire safety commensurate with this standard. 

FIXED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEM (the system). An 

automated driverless or manually controlled electrified 
transportation system, utilizing a fixed guideway, operating 
on right-of-way for the mass movement of passengers and 
consisting of its fixed guideway s, transit vehicles and other 
rolling stock; power system; buildings; maintenance facili- 
ties; stations; transit vehicle yard; and other stationary and 
movable apparatus, equipment, appurtenances and struc- 
tures. 



GUIDEWAY. That portion of the system on which the tran- 
sit vehicles operate. 

OPEN STATION. A station that is constructed in such a 
manner that it is open to the atmosphere, and smoke and 
heat are allowed to disperse directly into the atmosphere. 
The following enclosed areas in open stations are permitted 
but limited to: 

L Ticket/pass booths not exceeding 150 square feet 
(13.9 m'^) in area. 

2. Mechanical and electrical spaces typically not used 
for human occupancy and necessary for the operation 
of a fixed guideway transit system. Such spaces shall 
be limited to two per level 

3. Restrooms not exceeding 150 square feet (13.9 m^) in 
area. A maximum of four restrooms are permitted per 
level. 

OPERATIONS CONTROL CENTER (OCC) (CENTRAL 
CONTROL). The operation center where the authority con- 
trols and coordinates the system-wide movement of passen- 
gers and trains from which communication is maintained 
with supervisory and operating personnel of the authority, 
and with participating agencies when required. 

POINT OF SAFETY. An enclosed fire exit that leads to a 
public way or safe location outside the structure, or an 
at-grade point beyond any enclosing structure, or other 
area that affords adequate protection for passengers. 

POWER SUBSTATION. The location of electric equip- 
ment that does not generate electricity but receives and con- 
verts or transforms generated energy to usable electric 
energy. 

STATION. A place designated for the purpose of loading 
and unloading passengers, including patron service areas 
and ancillary spaces associated with the same structure. 

STATION PLATFORM. The area of a station used primar- 
ily for loading and unloading transit vehicle passengers. 

UNDERGROUND STATION. A station or that part of a 
station located beneath the surface of the earth or of the 
water 

433.2 Types of Construction. 

433.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in this section, buildings 
or portions of buildings classed as stations of fixed 
guideway transit systems shall be minimum Type lA, Type IB 
or Type II-A construction and shall not exceed in area or 
height the limits specified in Table 503. 

Underground stations shall be a minimum Type I or Type 
I-B constructions. 

Open stations may be of Type II-B construction and shall 
not exceed in area or height as required by Table 503 for 
Type II-A. 

Exception: At-grade structures of open stations with an 
occupancy load not exceeding 300 persons may be of any 
construction type permitted by this code. 



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433.2,2 Mixed occupancies. 

433.2.2.1 Stations of fixed guideway transit systems shall 
be separated from other occupancies in accordance with 
Table 508.4 for Group A Occupancies. 

433.2.2.2 The following areas shall be separated from 
public areas by a two-hour fire barrier: 

L Electrical control rooms y auxiliary electrical 
rooms and associated battery rooms 

2. Trash rooms 

3. Train control rooms and associated battery rooms 

4. Fan rooms 

5. Emergency generator rooms 

433.2.2.3 Within station structures^ all power substa- 
tions shall be separated from all other areas by a 
three-hour fire barrier with no openings to public areas, 

433.3 Access and exit facilities. 

433.3.1 Occupant load. The occupant load for a transit sta- 
tion shall be based on the emergency condition requiring 
evacuation of that station to a point of safety. The station 
occupant load shall be the sum of the number of persons in 
the calculated train load of trains entering a station plus the 
entraining load of persons awaiting train(s), during a speci- 
fied time period. Notwithstanding, the minimum occupant 
load shall not be less than the maximum capacity load of a 
train which would occupy the entire length of the station 
platform on a single track. Exiting shall be provided for 
occupant loads recalculated upon increase in service and/ 
or every five years. 

433.3.1.1 Calculated train load. The calculated train 
load is the number of passengers on trains simulta- 
neously entering the station on all tracks in normal traf- 
fic direction during the peak 15 -minute period. 

The following limitations to the calculated train load 
shall be applied: 

1. No more than one train will unload at any one 
track to a platform during an emergency. 

2. The load on any single train is limited to the maxi- 
mum train capacity. 

433.3.1.2 Entraining load (on platform awaiting train). 

The entraining load is equal to the number of passengers 
that would accumulate on the platform in the time period 
equivalent to two headways or 12 minutes during the 
peak 15 -minute period, whichever time period is greater. 

This entraining load is constrained as stated as follows: 

1. Special consideration shall be given to stations 
servicing areas where events occur that establish 
occupant loads not included in normal passenger 
loads. These would include such areas as civic 
centers, sports complexes and convention centers. 

2. At multiplatform stations, each platform shall be 
considered separately. Arrival of trains from all 



normal traffic directions, plus their entraining 
loads, shall be considered. 

3. At concourses, mezzanines or multilevel stations, 
simultaneous platform loads shall be considered 
for all exit lanes passing through that area. 

433.3,2 Exits required. 

433.3.2.1 Number of exits. Stations shall have at least 
two exits placed a distance apart equal to not less than 
one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal 
dimension of the station. Enclosed station platforms 
shall have a minimum of one exit within 20 feet (6096 
mm) from each end. Underground station platforms shall 
have a minimum of one enclosed exit within 20 feet (6096 
mm) from each end. Routes from platform ends into the 
underground guideway shall not be considered as exits 
for calculating exiting requirements. 

433.3.2.2 Capacity of exits and station evacuation time. 

433.3.2.2.1 Exit capacities shall be calculated on the 
basis of22-inch-wide (559 mm) exit lanes at the clear 
and narrowest point except that individual handrails 
may project into the required width as permitted by 
Chapter 10. Fractional lanes shall not be counted in 
measuring exit capacities except that 12 inches (305 
mm) added to one or more lanes shall be counted as 
one-half a lane. Escalators 32 inches (813 mm) in 
width may be considered as IV2 lanes. 

433.3.2.2.2 There shall be sufficient means of exit to 
evacuate the station occupant load from the station 
platforms in four minutes or less. 

433.3.2.2.3 The station shall also be designed to per- 
mit evacuation from the most remote point on the plat- 
form to a point of safety in six minutes or less. \ \ 

433.3.2.2.4 In at-grade or elevated structures so 
designed that the station platform is open to the ele- 
ments and, when the concourse is below or protected 
from the platform by distance or materials as deter- 
mined by an appropriate engineering analysis, that 
concourse may be defined as a point of safety, with 
Fire Code Official concurrence. 

433.3.2.2.5 To calculate evacuation time, the walking 
travel time should be tabulated using the longest exit 
route and travel speeds. To this time should be added 
the following factors: 

1. The waiting time at the vertical elements at 
platform level minus the longest walking travel 
time at platform level 

2. The waiting time at the fare collection barriers 
minus the waiting time at the platform vertical 
circulation elements. 

3. The waiting time at the vertical or horizontal 
circulation elements from mezzanine to grade 
minus the waiting time at the platform vertical 
circulation elements or fare collection barrier, 
whichever is greater. 



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4. The waiting time, if any, at any additional con- 
striction minus the greatest previous waiting 
time, (Repeat for all additional constrictions,) 

Note: The total of any of the factors in Items 1 
through 4 above cannot be less than zero. 

433.3.3 Exit width and exit lanes. 

433,3,3,1 The capacity in persons per minute (ppm), 
patron travel speeds in feet per minute (jpm) and require- 
mentsfor exit lanes shall be as follows: 

1. Platforms, corridors and ramps of 1 foot vertical 
for 20 feet horizontal (5 percent slope) or less: Exit 
corridors, platforms and ramps shall be a mini- 
mum clear width of 5 feet (1524 mm). In computing 
the number of exit lanes available, 1 foot 6 inches 
(457 mm) shall be deducted at each platform edge 
and 1 foot (305 mm) at each side wall 

Per exit lane: 

Capacity - 50 ppm 

Travel speed - 200 Jpm 

2. Stairs, stopped escalators and ramps of over 1 foot 
vertical for 20 feet horizontal (5 percent slope): 
Exit ramps shall be a minimum clear width of 6 feet 
(1829 mm). Stopped escalators may be considered 
as a means of egress, provided they are of nominal 
2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) width. 

Per exit lane ''up'' direction: 

Capacity - 35 ppm 

Travel speed - 50Jpm^ 

Per exit lane ''down" direction: 

Capacity - 40 ppm 

Travel speed - SOJpm"^ 

3. Doors and gates: Gates fitted with approved panic 
hardware and opening in the direction of exit 
travel, with minimum nominal width of 3 feet (914 
mm) shall be permitted in exit calculation. 

Per doors and gate: 

Capacity ~ 50 ppm per exit lane 

4. Fare collection gates: Fare collection gates, when 
deactivated, shall provide a minimum 20 inches 
(508 mm) clear unobstructed aisle. Console shall 
not exceed 40 inches (1016 mm) in height. 

Per gate: 

Capacity - 50 ppm 

Note: Examples of exiting analysis may be found in 
Appendix C ofNFPA 130, 1995 edition, Standard for 
Fixed Guideway Transit Systems. 

"^Indicates vertical component of travel speed. 

433.3.4 Arrangement of exits, 

433,3,4,1 Vertical circulation elements shall be com- 
prised of stairs or stair/escalator combinations. Escala- 
tors shall not account for more than half of the units of 



exit at any one level in the public area. Escalators must 
be paired in combination with stairs to be included in 
exiting capacity calculations. 

433,3,4,2 Because of the possibility of maintenance or 
malfunction, one escalator at each station shall be con- 
sidered as being out of service in calculating egress 
requirements. The escalator chosen shall be that one 
having the most adverse effect on exiting capacities, 

433.3.5 Distance to exits. No point of the station platform(s) 
or mezzanine(s) shall be more than 300 feet (91 440 mm) 
from a point of safety, 

433.3.6 Other exits required/guideway access, 

433.3.6.1 Access/egress between guideway and plat- 
forms shall be provided as follows: 

1 . Stairs or ramps, 2 feet 10 inches (864 mm) in width 
minimum, or other arrangement having equiva- 
lent capacity, shall be provided at each end of the 
platform, arranged to provide access/egress to 
guideway level. 

2. Except in underground stations, the access points 
between the guideway and the platform, and the 
exit from the platform may be integrated. 

433.3.6.2 In enclosed stations, escalator and stairway 
enclosures are not required in the public areas of multi- 
level transit stations among platform, mezzanine and 
concourse when the station is provided with an emer- 
gency ventilation system. 

433.3. 7 Emergency lighting and exit signs, 

433,3, 7,1 Emergency lighting and exit signs shall be pro- 
vided in accordance with Chapter 10. 

Exception: Open stations at grade need not provide 
emergency lighting or exit signs. 

433,4 Special provisions, 

433.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. See Section 903. 2.17.1, 

433.4.2 Station guideway deluge system. See Section 
903.2.17.1. 

433.4.3 Standpipe systems. See Section 905.3.10. 

433.4.4 Emergency management panel (EMP), An EMP 

shall be required for enclosed and underground stations. 
Location of the EMP shall be determined by the Fire Code 
Official. The EMP shall include but not be limited to the fol- 
lowing: 

1 . Indication of manual pull boxes and automatic smoke 
detectors 

2. Indication of alarm signals from all suppression sys- 
tems 

3. Capabilities for using station paging system 

4. Emergency telephone 

5. Escalator controls 

6. Emergency ventilation controls 

7. Station schematics 



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433.4,5 Emergency ventilation systems. 

433.4.5.1 General, Emergency ventilation shall be pro- 
vided for enclosed and underground stations for the pro- 
tection of passengers, employees and emergency 
personnel. 

433.4.5.2 These systems shall be designed as follows: 

1. A stream of noncontaminated air is provided to 
passengers in apath(s) of egress away from a train 
fire; and 

2. Airflow rates produced toward a train fire in a 
path of egress are sufficient to prevent back layer- 
ing of smoke; and 

3. The temperature in a path of egress away from a 
train fire is limited to MO'^F (60°C), or less; and 

4. The design heat release rate produced by a train 
fire shall be used to design the emergency ventila- 
tion system. 

433.4.5.3 Ventilation shaft terminals at-grade shall be 
located to prevent recirculation as follows: 

L Openings for blast relief shafts, and under platform 
and smoke exhaust shafts at-grade shall be sepa- 
rated by a minimum horizontal distance of 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) from any station entrance, elevator 
hoistway enclosure, surface emergency stair door- 
way, unprotected outside air intake or other open- 
ing, or from each other. Exhaust outlets that are not 
used for intakes may be adjacent to each other. 

2. Where this distance is not practical, the horizontal 
distance may be reduced to 15 feet (4572 mm) if 
the closest blast relief or under platform and 
smoke exhaust shaft terminal is raised a minimum 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the station entrance, 
emergency stair doorway and unprotected outside 
air intake or other opening, or the underplatform 
and smoke exhaust shaft terminal is raised a mini- 
mum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the blast relief 
shaft terminal. 

3. Ventilation of stations shall not terminate at grade 
on any vehicle roadway. 

433.4.5.4 Emergency ventilation fans. 

433.4.5.4.1 Ventilation fans used for emergency ser- 
vice, their motors, dampers and all related compo- 
nents exposed to the ventilation airflow shall be 
designed to operate in an ambient atmosphere of 
482 °F (250°C)for a period of at least one hour Venti- 
lation fans and related components shall be capable 
of withstanding the maximum anticipated plus/minus 
pressure transients induced by train operations. 

433.4.5.4.2 Local fan motor starters and related 
operating control devices for emergency ventilation 
equipment shall be isolated from the ventilation air- 
flow by a separation having afire-resistance rating of 
at least one hour. 



433.4.5.4.3 Thermal overload protective devices 
shall not be provided on motor controls of fans used 
for emergency ventilation. 

433.4.5.4.4 The power supply for fans essential for 
emergency ventilation service shall consist of two 
separate electrical feeders. Each feeder shall origi- 
nate from a different source (substation) and shall be 
separated physically to the extent possible. Automatic 
transfer shall be provided in the event the normal sup- 
ply source fails. 

433.4.5.4.5 Operation and fail-safe verification for 
proper operation of emergency fans shall be affected 
from the operation control center with indication pro- 
vided for all modes of operation for each fan. 

433.4.5.5 Emergency ventilation control. 

433.4.5.5.1 Local controls shall override remote 
control. Local control shall be capable of operating 
the fans in all modes in the event the remote controls 
become inoperative. 

433.4.5.5.2 Emergency ventilation systems shall be 
supervised and/or controlled in all operating modes 
locally (motor control center and/or fan unit) and 
remotely at both the OCC and the station EMP. 

433.4.5.5.3 Fan running shall be provided by sensing 
devices for each fan for operation in both the supply 
and exhaust directions. 

433.4.5.5.4 Trouble status signals shall be annunci- 
ated in the local control room. A summarized trouble 
signal shall be annunciated at OCC and EMP. 

433.4.5.6 Ventilation systems and ancillary areas. 

Ancillary area ventilation systems shall be arranged so that 
air is not exhausted into station public occupancy areas. 

433.5 Fire Alarm and Communication Systems. See Section 
907.2.26. 



SECTION 434 
EXPLOSIVES [SFM] 

434.1 General construction requirements. Magazines shall be 
constructed in conformity with the provisions of these regula- 
tions, or may be of substantially equivalent construction satis- 
factory to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. 
Reasonable allowances shall be made for storage facilities in 
existence prior to the adoption of these regulations. No allow- 
ance, however, shall be made for storage facilities which con- 
stitute a distinct hazard to life and property. 

434.2 Ventilation and weather resistance. Magazines for the 
storage of explosives shall be sufficiently ventilated and 
weather resistant and when used for the storage of Class A 
explosives (other than black powder, blasting agents, blasting 
caps and electric blasting caps), they shall also be of bul- 
let-resistant construction unless deemed exempt by the enforc- 
ing agency having jurisdiction. 

Note: The recommendation for ventilation as contained in 
Pamphlet No. I, Institute of Makers of Explosives, 1965 edi- 
tion, is evidence of good practice. 



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434.3 Construction for separation between primers and flam- 
mable liquids. Primers shall be separated from flammable liq- 
uids by a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation. 

Exception: A separation need not be provided for small 
arms ammunition primers when such primers are located a 
distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from flammable 
liquids. 

434.4 Construction of Type I Magazine. Type I magazines 
shall be of bullet-resistant construction. Plans shall be submit- 
ted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction for approval 
prior to construction. 

434.4.1 General. Use of the following materials and meth- 
ods of construction shall be evidence of compliance with 
this requirement: 

1. Masonry units not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in 
thickness with all hollow spaces filled with weak 
cement, well-tamped sand, or equivalent material; or 

2. Reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches (152 mm) 
in thickness; or 

3. Steel walls of minimum No. 14 manufacturers. Stan- 
dard gage (0.0747 inch) (1.9 mm) to No. 6 manufac- 
turers. Standard gage (0.1943 inch) (4.9 mm) may be 
used, provided there are two layers spaced at least 6 
inches (152 mm) apart with all hollow spaces filled 
with weak cement, well-tamped sand or equivalent 
material; or 

4. One layer of No. 6 manufacturer's standard gage 
(0.1943 inch) (4.9 mm) or heavier; steel lined on the 
interior with a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) of 
wood; or 

5. Two layers of No. 6 manufacturer's standard gage 
(0.1943 inch) (4. 9 mm) or heavier steel spaced a min- 
imum V2 inch (12.7 mm) apart and lined on the inte- 
rior with a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) of wood; or 

6. Two layers of wood, at least 2 inches (51 mm) nomi- 
nal thickness each, spaced a minimum 4 inches (102 
mm) apart with the hollow space filled with weak 
cement, well-tamped sand or equivalent material 

7. Wood used shall conform to the following: 

Wood shall be of tongue-and- grooved lumber or plywood. 
Wood shall be covered, on the exterior side, with metal to 
provide protection against flying embers and sparks. 

434.4.2 Doors. Doors shall be of bullet-resistant construc- 
tion. Each door is to be equipped with: 

1. Two mortise locks; 

2. Two padlocks fastened in separate hasps and staples; 

3. A combination of a mortise lock and a padlock; 

4. A mortise lock that requires two keys to open; and 

5. A three-point lock. 

Padlocks must have at least five tumblers and a 
case-hardened shackle of at least %-inch (9.5 mm) diame- 
ter Padlocks must be protected with not less than ^/4-inch 
(6.4 mm) steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or 
lever action on the locks, hasps and staples. These require- 



ments do not apply to magazine doors that are adequately 
secured on the inside by means of a bolt, lock or bar that 
cannot be actuated from the outside. 

434.4.3 Floors. Floors of magazines shall be securely fas- 
tened in place and shall be capable of withstanding the 
loads imposed. 

434.4.4 Roofs. Roofs shall be securely fastened in place and 
they shall be bullet resistant, if required by the fire chief hav- 
ing jurisdiction, 

434.4.5 Ventilation openings. Ventilation openings shall he 
screened to prevent the entrance of sparks and they shall be 
protected in a manner that will maintain the bullet resis- 
tance of the magazine. 

434.4.6 Interiors. Magazine interiors shall be of a smooth 
finish without cracks or crevices with all nails, screws, bolts 
and nuts countersunk. Exposed metal capable of emitting 
sparks shall be covered so as not to come in contact with 
packages of explosives. 

434.4. 7 Location. No Type I magazine, or portion thereof, 
shall be located under a high-voltage power line (750 volts 
or more). For the purposes of this section, ''under*' shall 
include an open space of not less than the height of the 
power line from the ground at right angles to the walls of the 
magazine. 

434.5 Buildings used for mixing of blasting agents. Buildings 
used for the mixing of blasting agents shall conform to the 
requirements of Sections 434.5 and 434.6, unless otherwise || 
specifically approved by the enforcing agency having jurisdic- 
tion. 

434.5.1 Construction. Buildings shall be of all noncombus- 
tible construction or of sheet metal on wood studs. 

434.5.2 Separation. The layout of the mixing building shall 
be such so as to provide physical separation between the fin- 
ished product storage and the mixing and packaging opera- 
tions. 

434.5.3 Storage areas. Floors in storage areas and in the 
processing plant shall be of concrete or other noncombusti- 
ble material. Isolated fuel storage shall be provided to avoid 
contact between molten ammonium nitrate and fuel in case 
offire. 

434.5.4 Ventilation. The building shall be well ventilated in 
accordance with Section 434.2. 

434.5.5 Heat. Heat, if used, shall be provided exclusively 
from a unit outside of the building. 

434.5.6 Venting. Explosion venting shall be provided when 
required by the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. 

434.6 Building construction storage. Blasting agents may be 
stored in the manner set forth in Title 19, California Code of 
Regulations, Subchapter 10, Article 3, or in one-story ware- 
houses (without basements), which shall be: 

1. Of noncombustible or one-hour fire-resistive construc- 
tion; 

2. Constructed so as to eliminate floor drains and piping 
into which molten materials could flow and be confined 
in case offire; 



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# 



3. Weather resistant; 

I 4. Well ventilated in accordance with Section 434.2; and 

5. Equipped with a substantially constructed and lockable 
door which shall be kept securely locked, except when 
the facility is open for business, 

434. 7 Electrical requirements for Type I magazines. Maga- 
zines shall not be provided with either heat or light, except 
upon the approval of the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. 
Electrical installation^ when permitted, shall be in accordance 
with the California Electrical Code for Type II, Division I loca- 
tions. 

434.8 Mixing room blasting agents. All electrical switches, 
controls, motors and lights, if located in the mixing room, shall 
be installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code 
for Type II, Division I locations. 

434.9 Storage of special effects materials. The storage of not 
more than 750 pounds (340 kg) of special effects materials 
shall be in a building or a room conforming to the requirements 
of Group H, Division I Occupancies as defined in this part. In 
addition, the following shall apply to every special effects 
materials storage building or room: 

1. The building shall be sprinklered as required in Chapter 
9. 

2. It shall be deemed that the storage of special effects 
materials creates an atmosphere of flammable dust. 

3. Two or more permanent openings having an area of not 
less than 100 square inches (64 500 mm^) shall be 
located in the exterior wall to provide natural ventila- 
tion. These openings shall be protected by screens or 
louvers covered with ^/4-inch (6.4 mm) wire mesh screen. 

4. Walls, floor ceiling, shelves and benches shall have a 
smooth nonmetallic surface which can be easily cleaned 
with a minimum of brushing or scrubbing, 

5. Each entrance door shall be posted on the outside with 
signs stating, "Authorized Personnel Only" and "No 
Smoking. " 

6. Assembling and manufacturing are prohibited in special 
effects storage rooms or buildings. 

7. The room shall be located above grade in a one-story 
building or on the top floor of a multistory building or 
may be a separate building. 

8. The room or building shall have a minimum floor area of 
80 square feet (7.4 m^) with no dimension less than 8 feet 
(2438 mm). 

9. Electric wiring, lighting and heating shall be of a type 
approved for use in hazardous locations. 

434.10 Mixing room or building. Buildings or rooms in which 
more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of special effects materials are 
present at any time shall be constructed with at least one wall of 
explosion-relief type. The relief wall should be placed so as to 
be of least hazard to persons in adjacent buildings. 

434,10,1 Explosive venting. When explosive venting is 
required, the venting area will be calculated on I square 



foot (0.0929 m^)for each 35 cubic feet (0.99 m^) of building 
or roof area. 

434.10.2 Egress, All rooms or buildings shall have ade- 
quate aisle space and at least two exits separated by a dis- 
tance equal to at least one-fifth the perimeter of the room. 
Openings in fire walls shall be equipped with approved, 
self-closing fire doors. All exit doors shall open outward and 
be equipped with approved panic hardware. 

Exception: Cubicles 100 square feet (9.3 m^) or less and 
occupied by not more than two persons working within 
12 feet (3658 mm) of an unobstructed passageway may 
have one exit. 

434.10.3 Room finishes. Floors, walls, interior surfaces 
and equipment shall be of a finish and color that will indi- 
cate the presence of dust and spilled material They shall be 
smooth finished for easy cleaning. 

434.10.4 HVAC, Heating and cooling shall be by the indi- 
rect method using water, steam, electric heaters or other 
indirect methods. 

Note: Floor registers shall not be permitted. 

434.10.5 Electrical, All electrical wiring and equipment 
shall be acceptable for the hazard involved and installed in 
accordance with Hazardous Locations, California Electri- 
cal Code. 

434.10.6 Grounding, Effective bonding and grounding 
means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of static 
charges where static charges are a hazard, as set forth in the 
California Electrical Code. 

434.10.7 Pressure relief valves. Hydraulic or air presses 
and hand jacks shall be provided with pressure- relief valves 
so arranged and set that the material being processed will 
not be subjected to pressure likely to cause it to explode. 
Dies and plugged press equipment shall not be cleared by 
striking blows that may detonate or start the material burn- 
ing, 

434.10.8 Dust control. Dust from special effects materials 
shall not be exhausted to the atmosphere. Where vacuum 
dust collections systems are used, they shall comply with the 
following requirements: 

1. Adequate filters must be installed between the source 
vacuum and the point of pickup to prevent explosive 
special effects materials from entering the vacuum 
pump or exhauster. 

2. The dust-collection system shall be designed to pre- 
vent pinch points threaded fittings exposed to the haz- 
ardous dust and sharp turns, dead ends, pockets, etc., 
in which special effects materials may lodge and 
accumulate outside the collecting chamber. 

3. The entire vacuum collection system shall be made 
electrically continuous and be grounded to a maxi- 
mum resistance of 5 ohms. 

4. Chambers in which the dusts are collected shall not 
be located in the operating area unless adequate 
shields for the maximum quantity of material in the 
collector are furnished for personnel protection. 



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5. No more than two rooms may be serviced by a com- 
mon connection to a vacuum collection chamber. 
Where interconnections are used, means should be 
employed to prevent propagation of an incident via 
the collection piping. 

6. When collecting the more sensitive special effects 
materials, such as black powder, lead azide, etc., a 
"wet'' collector which moistens the dust close to the 
point of intake and maintains the dust wet until 
removed for disposal shall be used. Wetting agents 
shall be compatible with the explosives. 

7. Dusts shall be removed from the collection chamber 
as often as necessary to prevent overloading. The 
entire system shall be cleaned at a frequency that will 
eliminate hazardous concentrations of dusts in pipes, 
tubing and/or ducts. 

434.10.9 Fans, Squirrel cage blowers should not be used for 
exhausting hazardous fumes, vapors or gases. Only nonfer- 
rous fan blades are permitted for fans located within the 
ductwork and through which hazardous materials are 
exhausted. Motors shall be located outside the duct. 

434.10.10 Work stations. Work stations for small amounts 
of special effects materials [less than 1 pound (0.454 kg)] 
shall be separated by distance, barrier or other means, so 
fire in one station will not ignite material in the next work 
station. When necessary, each operator shall be protected 
by a personnel shield located between the operator and the 
material being processed. This shield and its support shall 
be a test design to withstand a blast from the maximum 
amount of special effects materials allowed behind it. 

434.10.11 Shielding, When shields or structures are needed 
to protect personnel, the following requirement shall be fol- 
lowed when specific weights of special effects materials in 
the amount of 1 pound (0.454 kg) or more are involved: 

Weight of Explosive Structure of Shield Wall 

Shield wall constructed of concrete 
not less than 12 inches (305 mm) 
thick which is reinforced near both 
sides by rods not less than V2 inch 
(12. 7 mm) in diameter located on 
maximum centers of 12 inches (305 
mm) both horizontally and vertically. 
The rods must be staggered on 
opposite faces. 

The shield wall for the protection of 
workers must be designed in such a 
manner to protect against the efforts 
of not less than 25 percent overload 
above the expected maximum charge 
to be processed. 



1-15 pounds 
(0.454-6.8 kg) 



More than 15 pounds 
(6.8 kg) 



Notes: 

1. One inch (25 mm) of mild steel is equivalent to 1 foot (305 mm) of rein- 
forced concrete. 

2. Explosives shall be located not less than 36 inches (914 mm) from the 
wall and 24 inches (610 mm) above the floor. 

If this personnel protection wall for the required opera- 
tion involving large quantities of special effects materials 
becomes so large that it is impractical, the operator must 



perform the operations by remote control or be protected by 
a suitably constructed shelter designed with a safety factor 
of not less than 4 to withstand the overpressure from the 
maximum amount of explosives in process. 



SECTION 435 
RESERVED 



SECTION 436 
WINERY CAVES [SFM] 

436.1 Scope, The use of subterranean space for winery facili- 
ties in natural or manmade caves shall be in accordance with 
this section. 

436.2 Definitions, 

436.3 General, For definitions of ASSEMBLY, FIRE APPLI- 
ANCE and NONCOMBUSTIBLE, see Chapter 2. 

436.4 Limited application. For the purpose of Section 436, cer- 
tain terms are defined as follows: 

TYPE 1 WINERY CAVES are natural or manmade caves 
used solely for storage and/or processing of wine at a win- 
ery facility. Type I winery caves are not accessible to the 
public. 

TYPE 2 WINERY CAVES are natural or manmade caves 
used for the storage and/or processing of wine at a winery 
facility. Type 2 winery caves are accessible to the public on 
guided tours only, 

TYPE 3 WINERY CAVES are natural or manmade caves 
used for the storage and/or processing of wine at a winery 
facility. Type 3 winery caves are accessible to the public on 
guided tours and contain assembly use areas. 

436.5 Permits, For permits to operate Type 2 and 3 winery 
caves, see Section 105. < 

436.6 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access 
roads shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with 
the California Fire Code, Section 503. 

436.7 Construction requirements, 

436.7.1 Allowable area. The area of winery caves shall not 
be limited if constructed entirely ofnoncombustible materi- 
als. Winery caves constructed with combustible materials 
shall be limited in area so that no point is more than 150 feet 
(45 720 mm) from an exit. 

436.7.2 Interior construction. The walls and ceilings of 
winery caves shall not contain hidden or concealed spaces. 

436.8 General requirements. 

436.8.1 Public tours. Tours for the public shall be continu- 
ously guided by staff knowledgeable in the location of exits 
and the use of emergency notification devices. 

436.8.2 Standby personnel. Per the California Fire Code, 
Section 2404.20, when, in the opinion of the fire chief, it is 
essential for public safety, the owner, agent or lessee shall 
employ one or more qualified persons, as required and 
approved by the chief, to be on duty at such place. Such indi- 
viduals shall be in uniform or otherwise easily identifiable. 



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Standby personnel shall be subject to the fire chief's 
orders at all times when so employed and shall remain on 
duty during the times such places are open to the public or 
when such activity is being conducted. 

Before the start of any activity requiring standby person- 
nel, such individuals shall: 

1. Inspect the required fire appliances to ensure they are 
in the proper place and in good working order, 

2, Inspect all exits to verify accessibility and proper 
operation. 

While on duty, such individuals shall not be required or 
permitted to perform any duties other than those specified 
by the fire chief. 

I I 436,8,3 Open-flame devices. The use of candles and other 
open-flame devices shall be in accordance with California 
Fire Code Section 308. 1. 7. 

436.9 Portable fire extinguishers and other fire appliances. 

Portable fire extinguishers shall be located to be readily acces- 
sible. Its type, location and spacing throughout the facility 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of Title 19, Chapter 
3 and California Fire Code Section 906. L Other fire appli- 
ances shall be maintained at the site as required by the fire 
chief. 

436.10 Fire alarm systems. An approved manual fire alarm 
system conforming with the provisions of the California Fire 
Code, Section 907.2.1 shall be provided in all Type 3 winery 
caves. 

436.11 Exits, 

436.11.1 Distribution, Exits shall be located remotely from 
each other and arranged to minimize any possibility that 
more than one may be blocked off by any one fire or other 
emergency condition. 

436.11.2 Number, Winery caves shall be provided with a 
minimum of two exits. 

Assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be provided 
with exits as required by the California Building Code for 
Group A Occupancies. 

436.12 Exit illumination, 

436.12.1 General, Exits shall be illuminated to a minimum 
intensity of not less than 1 foot-candle (10.76 Ix) at floor 
level whenever the winery cave is occupied. Fixtures provid- 
ing exit illumination shall be supplied from a dedicated cir- 
cuit or source of power used only for exit illumination. 

436.12.2 Separate sources of power. The power supply for 
exit illumination may be provided by the premises ' wiring 
system. In the event of its failure, illumination shall be auto- 
matically provided from an emergency system in Types 2 
and 3 winery caves. Emergency systems shall be supplied 
from storage batteries or an on-site generator set, and the 
system shall be installed in accordance with the require- 
ments of the California Electrical Code, 

436.13 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed at required exits 
and where otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the exits 
from assembly areas in Type 3 winery caves. 



436.14 Maximum occupant load. Occupant load require- 
ments in the assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be in 
accordance with Section 1004. 

436.15 Seating arrangements. Seating arrangements in the 
assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be in accordance 
with California Fire Code, Section 1028.9. I ' 



SECTION 437 
RESERVED 



SECTION 438 
RESERVED 



SECTION 439 
PUBLIC LIBRARIES [SL AND SFM] 

Public libraries funded from the California Library Construc- 
tion and Renovation Act of 1988. 

439.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems shall be installed in: 

1. New facilities, including additions; 

2. Existing facilities to which a project adds the lesser of 
5,000 square feet (465 m^) or 10 percent of the size of the 
existing facility, if the existing facility does not already 
have an automatic sprinkler system. 

439.2 System monitoring requirement All fire protection sys- 
tems shall be monitored by afire alarm supervising station in 
accordance with the NFPA 72. 

439.3 Book return slots. Any interior book return with a slot 
piercing the exterior wall shall have a separate sprinkler head 
and be enclosed in fire-rated construction. 

439.4 Automatic sprinkler and extinguishing systems. For 

public libraries constructed with funds awarded under the Cal- 
ifornia Reading and Literacy Improvement and Public Library 
Construction and Renovation Bond Act of 2000: 

1, Fire sprinkler system requirement All libraries funded 
for new construction, including additions, shall have 
automatic fire sprinkler systems installed. 

2, Fire sprinkler system requirement for renovations of 
existing facilities. If there is no automatic fire sprinkler 
system in the existing facility, grant recipients shall be 
required to install afire sprinkler system throughout the 
existing facility. 

3, Fire sprinkler system types. The grant recipient may 
choose, on approval by the local fire authority, from 
wet-pipe, dry-pipe orpre-action systems, utilizing listed 
standard, early suppression fast response (ESFR), or 
on/off type sprinkler heads. 

4, Book return rooms and slots. Book return rooms with 
slots in exterior walls shall have an automatic sprinkler 
head and be of approved fire-resistive construction. 
Book return slots and book drops shall have an addi- 
tional automatic sprinkler head when shielded from the 
room sprinkler head. 



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5. System monitoring requirement All fire protection sys- 
tems shall be monitored by afire alarm supervising sta- 
tion in accordance with the National Fire Protection 
Association (NFPA) 72. 

6. Alternate fire-extinguishing systems for specialized 
areas. When approved by the fire authority having juris- 
diction, other types of approved automatic fire-extin- 
guishing systems may be utilized as an alternate to 
sprinklers in the following areas: rare book rooms, cen- 
tral computer rooms and telecommunication rooms, 

7. Automatic sprinkler system plan requirement. Fire 
sprinkler system drawings shall use the furniture plan as 
a background for coordination with furniture and book 
stack location and height. 



SECTION 440 
GROUP C[SFM] 

440.1 Group C Occupancies defined. 

440.1.1 Organized camps. For the purposes of these regula- 
tions, Group C Occupancies shall mean "organized 
camps" as defined in Section 18897, Health and Safety 
Code, 

440.1.1.1 Description. An organized camp is a site with 
programs and facilities established for the primary pur- 
pose of providing an outdoor group living experience 
with social, spiritual, educational or recreational objec- 
tives, for five days or more during one or more seasons of 
the year 

The term "organized camp " does not include a motel, 
tourist camp, trailer park, resort, hunting camp, auto 
court, labor camp, penal or correctional camp, 
child-care institution or home-finding agency nor does it 
include any charitable or recreational organization 
which complies with the rules and regulations for recre- 
ational trailer parks provided for by Section 18301 (b). 
Health and Safety Code. 

440.1.2 Tents and tent structures. For the purpose of this 
chapter, a tent or tent structure is defined as any shelter of 
which 25 percent or more of the walls or roof, or both, are 
constructed of, or covered or protected by, a canvas or any 
other fabric material. 

440.2 Purpose and intent. The provisions of this section are 
established to provide fire and life safety in organized camps, 
but at the same time preserve the basic concept of outdoor liv- 
ing. It is the intent of this section that organized camps shall be 
considered as a separate and distinct occupancy. 

440.3 Basic building and structures. 

440.3.1 Building classification. Every building or structure 
shall be classified into the occupancy group they most 
nearly resemble and be constructed in accordance with 
appropriate occupancy requirements specified in this part. 

Exceptions: 

I. Tents, tent structures, and buildings and struc- 
tures that do not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) in any 



lateral dimension and where such building or 
structure is not more than one story. 

2. For fire safety, buildings or structures on the pre- 
mises of an organized camp which are used for 
sleeping purposes, regardless of their similarity to 
other occupancy groups, shall conform to the pro- 
visions of Sections 440.4, 440.5, 440.6 and 440. 7. 

3, For fire safety, buildings and structures which are 
not used for sleeping purposes shall conform to the 
provisions of Section 440.7, which shall supersede 
any similar provisions contained in this part. 

440.3.2 Occupant load. The living shelter whether a build- 
ing, structure, tent and tent structure, or cabin, shall provide 
a minimum of 30 square feet (2.8 m^) of superficial floor 
area per person for single-tier bed units, and 20 square feet 
(1.9 m^) of superficial floor area per person for two-tier bed 
units. More than two tiers per bed unit are prohibited. There 
shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm) of lateral distance between 
beds. 

Exception: Intermittent short-term organized camps are 
not required to provide shelter facilities but, if provided, 
they shall comply with this section. 

440.4 General. 

440.4.1 Buildings intended for sleeping. Buildings and 
structures used or intended for sleeping purposes which do 
not exceed any one of the limitations set forth below shall 
conform to the provisions of Sections 440.5 and 440.7. 

L One story in height 

2. Twenty- five feet ( 7620 mm) in any lateral dimension 

Exception: This provision shall not apply to build- 
ings or structures conforming to construction pro- 
visions of this section in effect prior to January 1, 
1985. 

3. Maximum housing of 12 persons 

440.4.2 Limitations. Buildings and structures used or 
intended for sleeping purposes, including those so used in 
whole or in part by staff personnel, and which exceed any 
one of the limitations set forth in Section 440.4.1, shall con- 
form to the provisions of Sections 440.5 and 440.7. 

Exception: Buildings or structures used exclusively for 
living and sleeping purposes by resident custodial or 
caretaker personnel only may be constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of these regulations for a 
Group R, 3 Occupancy. 

440.5 Special buildings, tents and tent structures. 

440.5.1 Special buildings. In addition to the provisions of 
Section 440. 7, special buildings conforming to the limita- 
tions specified in Section 440.4,1 shall conform to the fol- 
lowing: 

1. The fiame- spread end-point rating of all interior fm- 
ish materials shall not exceed 200. 

2. Every room or area housing more than eight persons 
shall be provided with not less than two approved 
exits, each of which shall be direct to the exterior and 



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shall not be less than 32 inches (813 mm) in clear 
width and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Rooms 
or areas housing eight or less persons shall be pro- 
vided with at least one such exit direct to the exterior. 

3. Every exit door shall be openable from the inside 
without the use of any key, special knowledge or 
effort, 

4. Exit doors need not be hung to swing in the direction 
of exit travel Where exit doors are hung to swing in 
the direction of exit travel, a landing conforming to 
the provisions of Section 1008.1.5 shall be provided. 

5. When the distance (measured vertically) between the 
ground level and the floor level exceeds 8 inches (203 
mm), a stairway from each exit shall be provided. 
Steps shall have a rise of not more than 8 inches (203 
mm) and a run of not less than 9 inches (229 mm). 
Such stairway shall be at least as wide as the door it 
serves. 

Exception: In lieu of a stairway, a ramp having a 
slope of not more than 1 foot (305 mm) of rise for 
each 8 feet (2438 mm) of run may be provided. 

6. When the floor level at any door opening of any build- 
ing or structure is more than 30 inches (762 mm) 
above the adjacent ground level, handrails or guard- 
rails shall be provided on the landing, balcony or 
porch, and on every stairway or ramp to ground level. 

7. Buildings and structures or groups of buildings and 
structures shall be separated from each other by not 
less than 10 feet (3048 mm). This section shall not 
apply to existing buildings and structures of existing 
Group C Occupancies. 

440.5.2 Tents and tent structures. In addition to the provi- 
sions of Section 440.7, tents and tent structures, or groups 
thereof, shall conform to the provisions of Section 440.5, 
except as follows: 

1. Regardless of any other provisions of this section, 
heating of tents and tent structures shall be prohibited 
unless written permission is obtained from the fire 
chief. 

2. All canvas or other fabric material shall be treated 
and maintained in a flame-retardant condition. 

Exceptions: 

1. Tents in existence prior to January 1, 1979, pro- 
vided the following conditions are met: 

1.1. Tents shall not exceed 80 square feet (7.4 
m^) in area. 

1.2. No electrical devices, except flashlights, 
are installed or used in the tents. 

1.3. Tents are not located closer than 30 feet 
(9144 mm) to any open fire. 

1.4. Smoking is prohibited in the tents. 

1.5. All other applicable provisions of this arti- 
cle are met. 



2. Canvas or materials used exclusively to protect 
windows and similar openings in walls. 

3. Canvas or materials used as a windbreak enclo- 
sure of not more than three sides and open to the 

sky. 

Note: It is not the intent of Section 440.5.2 that strict 
adherence to the width and height requirements of exit 
openings be enforced for exits from tents. 

440.6 Building and structures for sleeping. Buildings and 
structures, or portions thereof used or intended for sleeping 
purposes and which exceed the height, area or capacity limita- 
tions specified in Section 440.4.1 shall conform to the provi- 
sions of this section. 

440.6.1 Area, height and type of construction. Buildings 
and structures, or portions thereof, shall not exceed the lim- 
its of area, height and type of construction specified in these 
regulations for a Group R-2. 1 occupancy. Such buildings \ \ 
and structures shall not be of less than one-hour fire-resis- 
tive construction throughout. 

440.6.2 Location on property. The fire-resistive protection 
of exterior walls and openings, as determined by location 
on property, shall be in accordance with the provisions of 
these regulations for a Group R-2.1 occupancy. \ I 

440.6.3 Exits. Stairs, exits and smoke-proof enclosures 
shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of 
Chapter 10. 

440.6.4 Enclosure of vertical openings. Exits shall be 
enclosed as specified in Chapter 10. Elevator shafts, vent 
shafts and other vertical openings shall be enclosed and 
enclosures shall be as set forth in Chapter 7. 

440.6.5 Fire-extinguishing systems* Automatic fire -extin- 
, guishing systems, standpipes, and basement pipe inlets 

shall be installed when and as specified in Chapter 9 for 
buildings, based on the occupancy they most nearly resem- 
ble. 

440.6.6 Automatic fire alarm system. See Section 907. 

440.7 Special requirements. The provisions of this section 
shall apply to the premises and to all buildings and structures 
of all organized camps. 

440.7.1 Electrical. The installation of all electrical wiring 
shall conform to the applicable provisions of the California 
Electrical Code. 

440.7.2 Heating equipment. Heating equipment, and the 
installation thereof shall conform to the provisions of the 
California Mechanical Code. 

440.7.3 Motion picture booths. Motion picture machine 
booths shall conform to the requirements of Section 409. 

440.7.4 Interior finish. Interior finish shall conform to the 
requirements of Chapter 8, except as permitted in Section 
440.5.1, hem 1. 

440.7.5 Heater room openings. All exterior openings in 
rooms containing central heating equipment, low-pressure 
boilers or water-heating boilers used as part of the heating 
system, if located below openings in another story, or if less 
than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other doors or windows of the 



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same building, shall be protected by afire assembly having 
a three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating. Such fire assem- 
blies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing. 

Exception: The requirement for three-fourths-hour fire 
assembly protection of openings may be deleted if the 
entire room is protected by an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem conforming to the provisions of Section 903. 

440.7.6 Heating rooms. Every room containing cen- 
tral-heating equipment, low-pressure boiler or water-heat- 
ing boiler used as part of the heating system shall be 
separated from the rest of the building by a one-hour 
fire-resistive fire barrier with all openings protected as set 
forth in Section 707.6. 

Exceptions: 

1. Boilers or central heating plants where the largest 
piece of fuel equipment does not exceed 400,000 
Btu per hour (135 kW) input. 

2. When any such opening is protected by a pair of 
fire doors, the inactive leaf shall be normally 
secured in the closed position and shall be 
openable only by use of a tool. An astragal shall be 
provided and the active leaf shall be self-closing. 

440.7.7 Exits, For purposes of determining occupant load 
for exit requirements, see Section 440.3.2. 

440.7.8 Liquefied petroleum gas. The construction and 
installation of all tanks, cylinders, equipment and systems 
used or intended for use in conjunction with any liquefied 
petroleum gas shall conform to the provisions of the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code and the California Fire Code. 

440. 7.9 Air-conditioning and ventilation systems. Heating 
units used as an integral part of an air-conditioning and 
ventilation system shall be installed in accordance with Sec- 
tions 440. 7. 2, 440. 7.3 and 440. 7. 6. 

440,8 Camp fire alarm. Every organized camp shall provide 
and maintain a device or devices suitable for sounding afire 
alarm. Such device or devices may be of any type acceptable to 
the enforcing agency provided they are distinctive in tone from 
all other signaling devices or systems and shall be audible 
throughout the camp premises. When an automatic fire alarm 
system is provided, as required by Section 440.6.6, all signal- 
ing devices required by this section shall be of the same type as 
that used in the automatic system. 



SECTION 441 
RESERVED 



SECTION 442 
GROUP E[SFM] 

442,1 Location on property. All buildings housing Group E 
occupancies shall front directly on a public street or an exit dis- 
charge not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) in width. The exit dis- 
charge to the public street shall be a minimum 20-foot-wide 
(6096 mm) right-of-way, unobstructed and maintained only as 
access to the public street. At least one required exit shall be 
located on the public street or on the exit discharge. 



442.2 Separate means of egress systems required. Every room 
with an occupant load of 300 or more shall have one of its exits 
or exit-access doorways lead directly into a separate means of 
egress system that consists of not less than two paths of exit 
travel which are separated by a smoke barrier in accordance 
with Section 710 in such a manner to provide an atmospheric 
separation that precludes contamination of both paths of exit 
travel by the same fire. Not more than two required exits or 
exit-access doorways shall enter into the same means of egress 
system. 

442.3 Fences and gates. School grounds may be fenced and 
gates therein may be equipped with locks, provided that safe 
dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m^) per occupant 
are located between the school and the fence. Such required 
safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 
240 mm) from school buildings. 

Every public and private school shall conform with Section 
32020 of the Education Code which states: 

The governing board of every public school district, and the 
governing authority of every private school, which maintains 
any building used for the instruction or housing of school 
pupils on land entirely enclosed (except for building walls) by 
fences of walls, shall, through cooperation with the local law 
enforcement and fire -protection agencies having jurisdiction 
of the area, make provision for the erection of gates in such 
fences or walls. The gates shall be of sufficient size to permit the 
entrance of the ambulances, police equipment and fire-fighting 
apparatus used by the law enforcement and fire -protection 
agencies. There shall be no less than one such access gate and 
there shall be as many such gates as needed to assure access to 
all major buildings and ground areas. If such gates are to be 
equipped with locks, the locking devices shall be designed to 
permit ready entrance by the use of the chain or bolt-cutting 
devices with which the local law enforcement and fire-protec- 
tion agencies may be equipped. 

442.4 Special provisions. Rooms used by kindergarten, first-, 
or second-grade pupils, and Group E day care, shall not be 
located above or below the first story. 

Exceptions: 

1. Kindergarten, first-, or second-grade pupils, or day 
care may be located in basements or stories having 
floor levels located within 4 feet (1219 mm), mea- 
sured vertically, from the adjacent ground level at the 
level of exit discharge, provided the basement or story 
has exterior exit doors at that level. 

2. In buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler 
system throughout, rooms used for kindergarten, 
first- and second-grade children or for day -care pur- 
poses may be located on the second story, provided 
there are at least two exterior exit doors, or other 
egress systems complying with Section 1017 with two 
exits, for the exclusive use of such occupants. Egress 
systems for the exclusive use of such occupants shall 
be maintained until exit discharge at grade is 
attained. 

3. Group E day-care facilities may be located above the 
first story in buildings of Type I-A, Type I-B, Type II- A 



"m 



P 



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and Ill-A construction, subject to the limitation of 
Section 503 when: 

3. 1. Facilities with children under the age of seven 
or containing more than 12 children per story 
shall not be located above the fourth floor; 
and 

3.2. The entire story in which the day-care facility 
is located is equipped with an approved man- 
ual fire alarm and smoke-detection system. 
Actuation of an initiating device shall sound 
an audible alarm throughout the entire story. 

When a building fire alarm system is re- 
quired by other provisions of this code, the 
alarm system shall be interconnected and 
sound the day-care fire alarm system; and 

3.3. The day -care facility, if more than 1,000 
square feet (92.9 m^) in area, is divided into at 
least two compartments of approximately the 
same size by a smoke barrier in accordance 

I I with Section 710, In addition to the require- 

ments of Section 508, occupancy separations 
between daycare and other occupancies shall 
be constructed as smoke barriers. Door open- 
ings in the smoke barrier shall be tight fitting, 
with gaskets installed as required by Section 
J I 715.4.3.1 and shall be automatic closing by 

actuation of the fire sprinklers, fire alarm or 

I I smoke detection system; and 

3.4. Each compartment formed by the smoke bar- 
rier has not less than two exits or exit-access 
doors, one of which is permitted to pass 
through the adjoining compartment, and 

3.5. At least one exit or exit-access door from the 
day -care facility shall be into a separate 
means of egress with not less than two paths of 
exit travel, which are separated in such a 
manner to provide an atmospheric separa- 
tion. 

3.6. The building is equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system throughout. 

442,5 Special hazards. School classrooms constructed after 
January 1, 1990, not equipped with automatic sprinkler sys- 
tems, which have metal grilles or bars on all their windows and 
do not have at least two exit doors within 3 feet (914 mm) of 
each end of the classroom opening to the exterior of the build- 
ing or to a common hallway used for evacuation purposes, 
shall have an inside release for the grilles or bars on at least 
one window farthest from the exit doors. The window or win- 
dows with the inside release shall be clearly marked as emer- 
gency exits. 

442,5,1 Class 1, II or II I- A flammable liquids shall not be 
placed, stored or used in Group E occupancies, except in 
approved quantities as necessary in laboratories and class- 
rooms and for operation and maintenance as set forth in the 
California Fire Code. 



II 



SECTION 443 
GROUP L [SFM] 

443.1 Scope, The provisions of this section shall apply to build- 
ings or structures, or portions thereof, containing one or more 
Group L laboratory suites as defined in Section 443.2. 

443.2 Definitions, 

LABORATORY SUITE, A laboratory suite is a space within a 
building or structure, which may include multiple laboratories, 
offices, storage, equipment rooms or similar support functions, 
where the aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored 
and used do not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 
443.7.3.1. 

[F] LIQUID TIGHT FLOOR, A nonpermeable barrier capa- 
ble of containing hazardous material liquids without degrada- 
tion. 

443.3 Laboratory suite requirements, 

443.3.1 The gross square footage of an individual labora- 
tory suite shall not exceed 10,000 sqft (929 m^). 

443.3.2 An individual laboratory suite shall not serve more 
than a single tenant. 

Exception: A laboratory suite controlled by a single 
responsible party. 

443.4 Construction 

443.4.1 Separation of laboratory suites, 

443.4.1.1 Laboratory suites shall be separated from 
other occupancies in accordance with Table 508.4. 

443.4.1.2 Laboratory suites shall be separated from 
other laboratory suites by a fire barrier having a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1-hour. 

443.4. 1.3 Laboratory suites shall be separated from con- 
trol areas by a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating in 
accordance with Sections 707 and 712. \\ 

Exception: Laboratory suites shall be separated from 
control areas by a minimum 1 -hour fire-resistance 
rating on floor levels below the 4'^ story. 

443.4. 1.4 Horizontal separation. The floor construction 
of the laboratory suite and the construction supporting 
the floor of the laboratory suite shall have a minimum 
2-hour fire-resistance rating in accordance with Section 
712. 

Exceptions: 

1. The floor construction of the laboratory suite 
and the construction supporting the floor of the 
laboratory suite are allowed to be 1-hour 
fire-resistance rated in buildings of Type II A, 
IIIA and VA construction. 

2. When an individual laboratory suite occupies 
more than one story, the intermediate floors 
contained within the suite shall comply with the 
requirements of Table 601. 

443.4.2 Structural design occupancy category, 

443,4,2.1 Buildings containing Group L occupancies 
with an occupant load greater than 500 for colleges or 



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adult education facilities, or other buildings with an 
occupant load greater than 5,000 shall be classified as 
Occupancy Category III in accordance with Chapters 16 
and 16A. 

443.4,2,2 Other buildings containing Group L occupan- 
cies shall be classified as Occupancy Category II in 
accordance with Chapters 16 and 16 A. 

443,43 Fire barrier and fire-smoke barrier, 

443.4.3.1 Fire barrier. Afire barrier having afire resis- 
tance rating of not less than 2-hours shall divide any 
story containing more than one laboratory suite above 
the 4^^ story. 

443.4.3.1.1 Fire barriers shall be continuous from 
exterior wall to exterior wall, 

443.4.3.1.2 The fire barrier shall divide the floor so 
that the square footage on each side of the 2 -hour fire 
barrier is not less than 30 percent of the total floor 
area, and 

443.4.3.1.3 The number of laboratory suites on each 
side of the 2-hour fire barrier shall not be less than 25 
percent of the total number of laboratory suites on the 
floor, 

443.4.3.2 Fire-smoke harrier. Any story containing a 
Group L occupancy above the 10^^ story shall be subdi- 
vided by afire-smoke barrier constructed as afire bar- 
rier having a fire resistance rating of not less than 
2-hours and shall also comply with the smoke barrier 
requirements of Section 710, 

The 2-hour fire- smoke barrier shall be in accordance 
with Sections 443,4,3 through 443.4,3.2.3. 

443.4.3.2.1 A minimum of one door opening shall be 
provided in the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier for emer- 
gency access. 

443.4.3.2.2 Each side of the 2-hour fire- smoke bar- 
rier shall be designed as a separate smoke zone 
designed in accordance with Section 909.6. 

443.4.3.2.3 The area on each side of the 2-hour fire- 
smoke barrier shall be served by a minimum of one 
exit enclosure in accordance with Section 1022. 

443.4.4 Emergency response equipment area. An area for 
emergency response equipment shall be provided on each 
floor in an approved location. The area shall be a minimum 
of 50 square feet (4.6 m^), accessed from outside the labora- 
tory suite and identified with signage 

443.4.5 Liquid tight floor. All portions of the laboratory 
suite where hazardous materials may be present shall be 
provided with a liquid tight floor. Where the floor is 
designed to provide spill control or secondary containment 
the floor shall be designed in accordance with California 
Fire Code section 2704.2. 

443.4.6 Emergency power. An emergency power system 
shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 27. 



443.4,6,1 Required systems. Emergency power shall be 
provided for all electrically operated equipment, systems 
and connected control circuits including: 

L Mechanical ventilation systems. See section 443.4. 7. 

2. Emergency alarm and monitoring systems. 

3. Temperature control systems required to prevent 
unsafe process excursions or chemical reactions. 

4. Treatment systems and scrubbers, 

5. Egress lighting, 

6. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere 
in this code and the California Fire Code. 

443,4 J Ventilation, 

443.4.7.1 Compatibility, Incompatible materials shall 
not be conveyed in the same duct system. Combined 
products in mechanical exhaust ducts shall not create a 
physical hazard or reaction that could degrade the duct 
material. The building official may require a technical 
report in accordance with Section 443.7.1. 

443.4.7.2 Fire dampers, smoke dampers and combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers. Fire dampers, smoke dampers 
or fire/smoke dampers shall not be permitted in product 
conveying and other mechanical exhaust duct systems 
used to maintain a safe laboratory environment When the 
exhaust duct penetrates the laboratory suite boundary the 
exhaust duct shall be located within a horizontal assembly 
having afire resistance rating equal to the fire barrier. 

443.4.7.3 Duct materials. Product conveying and other 
mechanical exhaust duct systems used to maintain a safe 
laboratory environment shall be constructed in accor- 
dance with Chapters 5 and 6 of the California Mechani- 
cal Code, 

443.4.7.4 Laboratory suite exhaust air. 

443.4.7.4.1 Exhaust air from laboratory suites shall 
not be recirculated. 

443.4.7.4.2 Laboratory suite exhaust air shall be 
independently ducted to a point outside the building 
or a rooftop structure. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exhaust ducts serving a single laboratory 
suite. 

2. Exhaust ducts serving separate laboratory 
suites on the same story may be connected to 
a common duct within a fire rated vertical 
shaft when the sub-duct extends vertically I 
upward at least 22 inches. 

3. Exhaust ducts serving separate laboratory 
suites on the basement through the 4^ story 
may be connected to a common duct within a 
fire rated vertical shaft when the sub-duct 
extends vertically upward at least 22 inches. I 

4. Exhaust ducts serving separate laboratory 
suites on the 5^^ story and above may be con- 
nected to a common duct that does not exceed 



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II 



yi 



II 



100 vertical feet within afire rated vertical 
shaft when the subducts extends vertically 
upward at least 22 inches. Ducts serving the 
5^^ story and above shall be separate fi^om the 
duct serving the 4^^ story and below, but may 
be within the same fire rated shaft. 

443 A J ,4,3 Laboratory suite exhaust ducts shall not 
penetrate the 2-hour fire barrier required by Section 

443.4.3. 

Exception: Where the exhaust duct is enclosed in a 
2 'hour shaft in accordance with Section 708. 

443.4.7.5 Ventilation rates. Mechanical exhaust ventila- 
tion systems shall provide a minimum ventilation rate not 
less than 1 cubic feet per minute per square foot 
[0. 00508 mV(S'm^)] of floor area, or 6 air exchanges per 
hour, whichever is greater. Systems shall operate contin- 
uously at the designed ventilation rate. 

443.4.7.6 Mechanical ventilation systems on emer- 
gency power. When operating on emergency power, the 
ventilation rate may be reduced to a level sufficient to 
maintain a differential pressure negative to the sur- 
rounding area. 

443.4.7.7 Mechanical ventilation system balancing. 

Mechanical ventilation systems shall be designed and 
balanced such that during normal and emergency condi- 
tions the door opening forces comply with the require- 
ments of Sections 1008.1.3 andll33B.2.5 as applicable. 
Emergency conditions shall include: supply fan shut- 
down or failure, closing of smoke dampers or combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers, or emergency power 

443,5. Fire protection systems. See Chapter 9. 

443.6 Means of egress, 

443.6.1 Access to exits. Every portion of a laboratory suite 
containing hazardous materials and having a floor area of 
500 square feet (19 m^) or more shall have access to not less 
than two separate exits or exit-access doorways in accor- 
dance with Section 1015.2. 

443.6.2 Door swing. All exit and exit-access doors serving 
areas with hazardous materials shall swing in the direction 
of exit travel, regardless of the occupant load served. 

443.6.3 Panic hardware. Exit and exit access doors from 
areas with hazardous materials shall not be provided with a 
latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware. 

443.6.4 Buildings more than four stories. A minimum of 
one exit shall be provided to serve the floor on each side of 
the 2-hour fire barrier and shall comply with the provisions 
of Chapter 10. 

443.6.5 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Section 
1017 and shall have opening protection in accordance with 
Tables 715.4, 715.5 and 715.5.4, 

443. 7 Hazardous materials. 

443.7.1 Technical report. The enforcing agency may 
require a technical opinion and report to identify and 
develop methods of protection from the hazards presented 
by the hazardous materials. A qualified person, firm or cor- 



poration, approved by the enforcing agency, shall prepare 
the opinion and report, and shall be provided without 
charge to the enforcing agency. The opinion and report may 
include, but is not limited to, the preparation of a hazardous 
material management plan (HMMP); chemical analysis; 
recommendations for methods of isolation, separation, con- 
tainment or protection of hazardous materials or processes, 
including appropriate engineering controls to be applied; 
the extent of changes in the hazardous behavior to be antici- 
pated under conditions of exposure to fire or from hazard 
control procedures; and the limitations or conditions of use 
necessary to achieve and maintain control of the hazardous 
materials or operations. The report shall be entered into the 
files of the code enforcement agencies. Proprietary and 
trade secret information shall be protected under the laws of 
the state or jurisdiction having authority. 

443.7.2 Multiple hazards. When a hazardous material has 
multiple hazards, all hazards shall be addressed and con- 
trolled in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

443.7.3 Percentage of maximum allowable quantities. The 

percentage of the maximum allowable quantity of hazard- 
ous materials per laboratory suite permitted for each story 
level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 
443.7.3.1. 

TABLE 443.7.3.1 
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS QUANTITY PER LABORATORY SUITE 







PERCENTAGE 
OF MAXIMUM 
ALLOWABLE 
QUANTITY PER 
LABORATORY 
SUIT^'" 


NUMBER OF LAB SUITES PER FLOOR 
BASED ON CONSTRUCTION TYPE 


STORY 


Type 
lA 


Type 
IB 


Type 

IIA, 

lUA, IV 


Type 

IIB, IIIB, 

VA 


Type 
VB 


Above 
grade 
plane 


Above 
20 





NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


15 to 20 


25 


4 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


n, 12, 
13,14 


50 


8 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


7, 8, 9, 
10 


50 


16 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


6 


75 


20 


20 


NP 


NP 


NP 


4,5 


75 


20 


20 


20 


NP 


NP 


3 


100 


UL 


UL 


UL 


UL 


NP 


12 


100 


UL 


UL 


UL 


UL 


UL 


Below 
grade 
plane 


1 


75' 


10 


10 


■ 10 


10 


10 


2 


5^ 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


3 and 
below 





NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 



UL = Unlimited, NP= Not permitted 

a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per laboratory 
suite shown in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). Allowable hazardous material 
increases for buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system shall not be applicable to Group L occupancies. 

b. When an individual laboratory suite occupies more than one story, the more 
restrictive percentage of the maximum allowable quantity per laboratory 
suite shall apply. 

c. The total aggregate quantity of flammable liquids on the first story below 
grade shall be limited to the maximum total aggregate quantity for Group B 
occupancy control areas. 

d. The total aggregate quantity of flammable liquids on the second story level 
below grade shall be limited to a maximum total aggregate quantity for 
Group B occupancy control areas. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



143 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



443.7.4 Handling and transportation. The handling and 
transportation of hazardous materials shall be in accor- 
dance with Section 2703 of the California Fire Code. 

443.7.5 Transportation of hazardous materials above the 
10^^ story. Transportation of hazardous materials above the 
1(}^ story shall be limited to 5 percent of the maximum 
allowable quantities of Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1(2.) 
Quantities are permitted to be increased 100 percent in 
buildings with an approved automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Materials where foot- 
note g of Table 307.1(1) applies shall not be increased. 

443,8, Elevators and elevator lobbies above the W^ story. Any 

story containing a Group L occupancy above the 10^^ story 
shall be provided with elevators and elevator lobbies in accor- 
dance with Sections 443.8.1 through 443.8,3. 

443.8.1 An elevator that serves every story of the building 
shall be provided on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke bar- 
rier 

443.8.2 An elevator lobby shall be provided on each side of 
the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier at each floor in accordance 
with Section 708.14.1. Exceptions to 708.14.1 shall not 
apply. 

443.8.3 The elevator and its associated elevator lobbies and 
elevator machine rooms shall be pressurized in accordance 
with Section 909.6. 

443,9 Existing Group L (Formerly Group H-8) occupancieSy 
I I additions, alterations, or repairs. See Section 3416. 



SECTION 444 
Reserved 



SECTION 445 
LARGE FAMILY DAY-CARE HOMES [SFM] 

445.1 Large family day -care homes, 

445.2 For purposes of clarification, Health and Safety Code 
Section 1597.46 is repeated. 

(a) A city, county, or city and county shall not prohibit large 
family day care homes on lots zoned for single-family dwell- 
ings, but shall do one of the following: 

(1) Classify these homes as a permitted use of residential 
property for zoning purposes. 

(2) Grant a nondiscretionary permit to use a lot zoned for 
a single -family dwelling to any large family day -care 
home that complies with local ordinances prescribing 
reasonable standards, restrictions and requirements 
concerning spacing and concentration, traffic control, 
parking and noise control relating to such homes, and 
complies with subdivision (d) and any regulations 
adopted by the state fire marshal pursuant to that subdi- 
vision. Any noise standards shall be consistent with local 
noise ordinances implementing the noise element of the 
general plan and shall take into consideration the noise 
level generated by children. The permit issued pursuant 
to this paragraph shall be granted by the zoning adminis- 



trator, if any, or if there is no zoning administrator by the 
person or persons designated by the planning agency to 
grant such permits, upon the certification without a 
hearing. 

(3) Require any large family day -care home to apply for 
a permit to use a lot zoned for single-family dwellings. 
The zoning administrator, if any, or if there is no zoning 
administrator, the person or persons designated by the 
planning agency to handle the use permits shall review 
and decide the applications. The use permit shall be 
granted if the large family day care home complies with 
local ordinances, if any, prescribing reasonable stan- 
dards, restrictions and requirements concerning spacing 
and concentration, traffic control, parking and noise 
control relating to such homes, and complies with subdi- 
vision (d) and any regulations adopted by the state fire 
marshal pursuant to that subdivision. 

Any noise standards shall be consistent with local 
noise ordinances implementing the noise element of the 
general plan and shall take into consideration the noise 
levels generated by children. 

The local government shall process any required per- 
mit as economically as possible, and fees charged for 
review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit 
process. Not less than 10 days prior to the date on which 
the decision will be made on the application, the zoning 
administrator or person designated to handle such use 
permits shall give notice of the proposed use by mail or 
delivery to all owners shown on the last equalized assess- 
ment roll as owning real property within a 100-foot 
radius of the exterior boundaries of the proposed large 
family day care home. No hearing on the application for 
a permit issued pursuant to this paragraph shall be held 
before a decision is made unless a hearing is requested 
by the applicant or other affected person. The applicant 
or other affected person may appeal the decision. The 
appellant shall pay the cost, if any of the appeal. 

(b) A large family day-care home shall not be subject to the 
provisions of Division 13 (commencing with Section 21000) 
of the Public Resources Code. 

(c) Use of a single-family dwelling for the purposes of a 
large family day -care home shall not constitute a change of 
occupancy for purposes of Part 1.5 (commencing with Sec- 
tion 17910) of Division 13 (State Housing Law), or for pur- 
poses of local building and fire codes. 

(d) Large family day- care homes shall be considered as sin- 
gle-family residences for the purposes of the State Uniform 
Building Standards Code and local building and fire codes, 
except with respect to any additional standards specifically 
designed to promote the fire and life safety of the children in 
these homes adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to 
this subdivision. 

445,3 Smoke alarms. Large family day-care homes shall be 
equipped with State Fire Marshal approved and listed single 
station residential type smoke alarms. The number and place- 
ment of smoke alarms shall be determined by the enforcement 
authority. 



144 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 



445.4 Fire extinguishers. Large and small family day-care 
homes shall he equipped with a portable fire extinguisher hav- 
ing a minimum 2A10BC rating, 

> I I 445.5 Fire alarm devices. See Section 907.2.6.4. 

445.6 Compliance. Every large-family day -care home shall 
comply with the provisions for Group R-3 occupancies and, if 
appropriate, Section 426.1. For the purposes of Section 426.1, 
the first story shall be designated as the floor used for residen- 
tial occupancy nearest to the street level which provides pri- 
mary access to the building. 

Enforcement of the provisions shall be in accordance with 
the Health and Safety Code Sections 13145 and 13146. No city, 
county, city and county, or district shall adopt or enforce any 
building ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to the 
subject of fire and life safety in large-family day-care homes 
which is inconsistent with those standards adopted by the State 
Fire Marshal, except to the extent the building ordinance or 
local rule or regulation applies to single-family residences in 
which day care is not provided. 

445.7 Special hazards. Every unenclosed gas-fired water 
heater or furnace which is within the area used for child care in 
a large family day-care home shall be protected in such a way 
as to prevent children from making contact with those appli- 
ances. 

Exception: This does not apply to kitchen stoves or ovens. 

I I 445.8 Exiting. See Section 1015.7. 



m-' 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 145 



146 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 5 - GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEC 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire ciiapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt entire cliapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 










































Table 503 




X 






































503.1 






X 




































504.2 




X 






































506.3 




X 






































506.4.1 




X 






































506.5.2 




X 






































507.3 




X 






































507.10 




X 






































508.2.4 




X 






































Table 508.2.5 




X 






































508.3.3 




X 






































Table 508.4 




X 






































509.2 




X 






































509.10 




X 







































The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to 
Section 1.11. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



147 



148 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 5 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



SECTION 501 
GENERAL 

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter control the height 
and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to exist- 
ing structures, 

[F] 501.2 Address identification. New and existing buildings 
shall be provided with approved address numbers or letters. 
Each character shall be a minimum 4 inches (102 mm) high and 
a minimum of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) wide. They shall be installed 
on a contrasting background and be plainly visible from the 
street or road fronting the property. ^^Tlere access is by means 
of a private road and the building address cannot be viewed 
from the public way, a monument, pole or other approved sign 
or means shall be used to identify the structure. 



SECTION 502 
DEFINITIONS 

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding 
exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of 
vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with 
surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such 
areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor above. 

BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane (see 
''Story above grade plane'' in Section 202). 

The definition of "Basement" does not apply to the provi- 
sions of Section 1612 for flood loads (see "Basement" in Sec- 
tion 1612.2). 

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated plat- 
form used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial 
process equipment, including the associated elevated walk- 
ways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to 
access the platform (see Section 505.5). 

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average 
of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior 
walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the 
exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the 
lowest points within the area between the building and the lot 
line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from 
the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1 829 mm) 
from the building. 

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade 
plane to the average height of the highest roof surface. 

MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the 
floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 
505. 



SECTION 503 

GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHT AND 

AREA LIMITATIONS 

503.1 General. The building height and area shall not exceed 
the limits specified in Table 503 based on the type of construc- 
tion as determined by Section 602 and the occupancies as 
determined by Section 302 except as modified hereafter. Each 
portion of a building separated by one or mox^fire walls com- 
plying with Section 706 shall be considered to be a separate 
building. 

Exception: [HCD 1] Limited-density owner-built rural 
dwellings may be of any type of construction which will pro- 
vide for a sound structural condition. Structural hazards 
which result in an unsound condition and which may consti- 
tute a substandard building are delineated by Section 
17920.3 of the Health and Safety Code. 

503.1.1 Special industrial occupancies. Buildings and 
structures designed to house special industrial processes 
that require large areas and unusual building heights to 
accommodate craneways or special machinery and equip- 
ment, including, among others, rolling mills; structural 
metal fabrication shops and foundries; or the production 
and distribution of electric, gas or steam power, shall be 
exempt from the building height and area limitations of 
Table 503. 

, 503.1.2 Buildings on same lot. Two or more buildings on 
the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or shall 
be considered as portions of one building if the building 
height of each building and the aggregate building area of 
the buildings are within the limitations of Table 503 as mod- 
ified by Sections 504 and 506. The provisions of this code 
applicable to the aggregate building shall be applicable to 
each building. 

503.1.3 Type I construction. Buildings of Type I construc- 
tion permitted to be of unlimited tabular building heights 
and areas are not subject to the special requirements that 
allow unlimited area buildings in Section 507 or unlimited 
building height in Sections 503.1.1 and 504.3 or increased 
building heights and areas for other types of construction. 



SECTION 504 
BUILDING HEIGHT 

504.1 General. The building height permitted by Table 503 
shall be increased in accordance with this section. 

Exception: The building height of one-story aircraft han- 
gars, aircraft paint hangars and buildings used for the manu- 
facturing of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is 
provided with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in 
accordance with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by 
public ways or yards not less in width than one and one-half 
times the building height. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



149 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 503 
ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS^ 
Building height limitations shown in feet above grade plane. Story limitations shown as stories above 
Building area limitations shown in square feet, as determined by the definition of "Area, building " 



grade plane, 
per story 



GROUP 




TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


TYPEI 


TYPE II 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A 


B 


A 


B 


HT 


A 


B 


HEIGHTffeet) 


UL 


160 


65 


55 


65 


55 


65 


50 


40 


STORIES(S) 
AREA (A) 


A-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
15.500 


2 
8.500 


3 
14.000 


2 
8.500 


3 
15.000 


2 
11.500 


1 
5.500 


A-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15.500 


2 
9.500 


3 
14.000 


2 
9.500 


3 
15.000 


2 
11.500 


6.000 


A-3 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15.500 


2 
9.500 


3 
14.000 


2 
9.500 


3 
15.000 


2 
11.500 


1 
6.000 


A-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


3 
15.500 


2 
9.500 


3 
14.000 


2 
9.500 


3 
15.000 


2 
11.500 


1 
6.000 


A-5 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 

UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 
UL 


UL 

UL 


B 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37.500 


3 
23.000 


5 
28.500 


3 
19.000 


5 
36.000 


3 
18.000 


2 
9.000 


E 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
UL 


3 
26.500 


2 
14.500 


3 
23.500 


2 
14.500 


3 
25.500 


1 
18.500 


1 
9.500 


F-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 

UL 


4 
25.000 


2 
15.500 


3 
19.000 


2 
12.000 


4 
33.500 


2 
14.000 


1 
8.500 


F-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


5 
37.500 


3 
23.000 


4 
28.500 


3 
18.000 


5 
50.500 


3 
21.000 


2 
13.000 


H-1 


S 

A 


1 
2L000 


1 
16.500 


1 
11.000 


1 
7.000 


I 
9.500 


1 
7.000 


1 
10.500 


1 
7.500 


NP 

NP 


H-2^ 


S 
A 


20 
2L000 


3 
16.500 


2 
11.000 


1 
7.000 


2 
9.500 


1 
7.000 


2^ 
10.500 


1 
7.500 


I 
3,000 


H-3'' 


S 
A 


20 
UL 


6 
60.000 


4 
26.500 


2 
14.000 


4 
17-500 


2 
13.000 


4 
25.500 


2 
10.000 


1 
5.000 


H-4 


S 
A 


20 
UL 


7 
UL 


5 
37.500 


3 
17.500 


5 
28.500 


3 
17,500 


5 
36.000 


3 
18.000 


2 
6.500 


H-5 


S 

A 


4 
UL 


4 

UL 


3 
37.500 


3 
23.000 


3 
28.500 


3 
19.000 


3 
36.000 


3 
18.000 


2 
9.000 


I-2//-2./ 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


4 

UL 


2 
15.000 


11.000 


12.000 


NP 

NP 


1 
12.000 


1 
9.500 


NP 
NP 


1-3^ 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


2 
15J00 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


1-4 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 

60.500 


3 
26.500 


2 
13.000 


3 
23.500 


2 
13.000 


3 
25.500 


1 
18.500 


1 
9.000 


L 


S 
A 


20 
UL 


6 

60.000 


5 
37.500 


3 
17.500 


5 
28.500 


3 
17.500 


5 
36.000 


3 
18.000 


2 
6J00 


M 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
21.500 


2 
12.500 


4 
18.500 


2 
12.500 


4 
20.500 


3 
14.000 


1 
9.000 


R-1 


S 

A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24.000 


4 
16.000 


4 
24.000 


4 
16.000 


4 
20.500 


3 
12.000 


2 
7,000 


R-2 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
UL 


4 
24.000 


4 
16.000 


4 
24.000 


4 
16.000 


4 
20.500 


3 
12.000 


2 
7.000 


R-2J 


5 
A 


UL 
UL 


6' 
55,000 


3' 
19,000 


NP 
NP 


3' 
16.500 


NP 
NP 


NP 
NP 


3' 
10.500 


NP 
NP 


R-3/R-3.1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 

UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


4 
UL 


3 
UL 


' 3 
UL 


R-4 


S 

A 


UL 

UL 


11^ 
UL 


4S 
24.000 


, 4' 
16,000 


48 

24.000 


4' 
16.000 


4' 
20.500 


3^ 
12.000 


7.000 


S-1 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 
48,000 


4 
26.000 


2 
17.500 


3 
26.000 


2 
17.500 


4 
25.500 


3 
14.000 


1 
9.000 


S,2b,c 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


11 

79.000 


5 
39.000 


3 
26.000 


4 
39.000 


3 
26.000 


5 
38.500 


4 
21.000 


2 
13.500 


U^ 


S 
A 


UL 
UL 


5 
35.500 


4 
19.000 


2 
8.500 


3 
14.000 


2 
8.500 


4 
18,000 


2 
9,000 


1 
5.500 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m'. 

A = building area per story, S = stories above grade plane, UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted. 

a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 503: 

1. Section 504.2, Allowable building height and story increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

2. Section 506.2, Allowable building area increase due to street frontage. 

3. Section 506.3, Allowable building area increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation. 

4. Section 507, Unlimited area buildings. 

b. For open parking structures, see Section 406,3. 

c. For private garages, see Section 406. 1. 

d. See Section 415.5 for limitations. 

e. [SFMl See Section 408.1.1 for specific exceptions for one-story Type HA, Type IlIA or Type VA construction. 

f Restraint shall not be permitted in any building except in Group 1-3 occupancies constructed for such use (see Section 408.1.2}. 

g. Nonambulatory persons shall be limited to the first two stories. 

h. Nonambulatory persons shall be limited to the first five stories. 

i. Nonambulatory elderly clients are not permitted in buildings of these types of construction. See Sections 425.3.3 and 425.3.4. 



150 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



^ 



504.2 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value 
specified in Table 503 for maximum building height is 
increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of 
stories is increased by one. Increases are permitted in addition 
to the building area increase in accordance with Section 506.2. 
In other than Group A, E, H, /, L, andR occupancies, high-rise 
buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regu- 
lated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, these increases are 
permitted in addition to the area increase in accordance with 
Section 506.3. For Group R-2 buildings of Type VA construc- 
tion equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903. 3. LI, the value 
specified in Table 503 for maximum building height is 
increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of 
stories is increased by one, but shall not exceed 60 feet (1 8 288 
mm) or four stories, respectively, these increases are permitted 
in addition to the area increase in accordance with Section 
506.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a 
Group 1-2 occupancy of Type IIB, EI, IV or V con- 
struction. 

2. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a 
Group H-1, H-2, H-3 or H-5 occupancy. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance 
with Table 601, Noted. 

4. [SFM] Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified 
as a Group L occupancy. 

5. [SFM] Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified 
as a Licensed Group R-2.1 or R-4 occupancy. 

504.3 Roof structures. Towers, spires, steeples and other roof 
structures shall be constructed of materials consistent with the 
required type of construction of the building except where 
other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.4. Such 
structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. The struc- 
tures shall be unlimited in height if of noncombustible materi- 
als and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the 
allowable building height if of combustible materials (see 
Chapter 15 for additional requirements). 



SECTION 505 
MEZZANINES 

505.1 General. A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance 
with Section 505 shall be considered a portion of the story in 
which it is contained. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to 
either the building area or number of stories as regulated by 
Section 503.1. The area of the mezzanine shall be included in 
determining the fire area defined in Section 902. The clear 
height above and below the mezzanine floor construction shall 
not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm). 

505.2 Area limitation. The aggregate area of a mezz.anine or 
mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the 
floor area of that room or space in which they are located. The 
enclosed portion of a room shall not be included in a determina- 



tion of the floor area of the room in which the mezzanine is 
located. In determining the allowable mezzanine area, the area 
of the mezzanine shall not be included in the floor area of the 
room. 

Exceptions: 

1. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type I or II construction for special 
industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 
503. 1 . 1 shall not exceed two-thirds of the floor area of 
the room. 

2. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and 
structures of Type I or II construction shall not exceed 
one-half of the floor area of the room in buildings and 
structures equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Sec- 
tion 903.3.1.1 and an approved emergency 
voice/alarm communication system in accordance 
with Section 907.5.2.2. 

505.3 Egress. Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have access 
to at least two independent means of egress where the common 
path of egress travel exceeds the limitations of Section 1014.3. 
Where a stairway provides a means of exit access from a mez- 
zanine, the maximum travel distance includes the distance trav- 
eled on the stairway measured in the plane of the tread nosing. 
Accessible means of egress shall be provided in accordance 
with Section 1007. 

Exception: A single means of egress shall be permitted in 
accordance with Section 1015.1. 

505.4 Openness. A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed 
to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls 
not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area 
of the enclosed space does not exceed 10. 

2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is 
not required to be open to the room in which the mez- 
zanine is located if at least one of the means of egress 
provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine 
level. 

3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be 
open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, 
provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed 
space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine 
area. 

4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control 
equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides. 

5. In occupancies other than Groups H and I, that are no 
more than two stories above grade plane and 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a mezza- 
nine having two or more means of egress shall not be 
required to be open to the room in which the mezza- 
nine is located. 



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505.5 Equipment platforms. Equipment platforms in buildings 
shall not be considered as a portion of the floor below. Such 
equipment platforms shall not contribute to either the building 
area or the number of stories as regulated by Section 503. 1. The 
area of the equipment platform shall not be included in determin- 
ing the fire area An accordance with Section 903. Equipment 
platforms shall not be a part of any mezzanine and such plat- 
forms and the walkways, stairs, alternating tread devices and 
ladders providing access to an equipment platform shall not 
serve as a part of the means of egress from the building. 

505.5.1 Area limitations. The aggregate area of all equip- 
ment platforms within a room shall not exceed two- thirds of 
the area of the room in which they are located. Where an 
equipment platform is located in the same room as a mezza- 
nine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined by Sec- 
tion 505.2 and the combined aggregate area of the 
equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed 
two-thirds of the room in which they are located. 

[F] 505.5.2 Fire suppression. Where located in a building 
that is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler 
system, equipment platforms shall be fully protected by 
sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by 
the standards referenced in Section 903.3. 

505.5,3 Guards. Equipment platforms shall have guards 
where required by Section 1013,1. 

SECTION 506 
BUILDING AREA MODIFICATIONS 

506.1 General. The building areas limited by Table 503 shall 
be permitted to be increased due to frontage (I^) and automatic 
sprinkler system protection (/J in accordance with the follow- 
ing: 



A,={A,+[A,x/,] + [A,x/J} 



(Equation 5-1) 



where: 



A^ = Allowable building area per story (square feet). 

Aj = Tabular building area per story in accordance with 
Table 503 (square feet). 

If = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in 
accordance with Section 506.2. 

I, = Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection as cal- 
culated in accordance with Section 506.3. 

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have 
access to a public way to receive a building area increase for 
frontage. Where a building has more than 25 percent of its per- 
imeter on di public way or open space having a minimum width 
of 20 feet (6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined 
in accordance with the following: 



(Equation 5-2) 



/^-[F/P-0.25]W/30 

where: 

I ^ = Area increase due to frontage. 

F = Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or open 
space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width 
(feet). 



P = Perimeter of entire building (feet). 

W = Width of public way or open space (feet) in accordance 
with Section 506.2.1. 

506.2.1 Width limits. The value of W shall be at least 20 
feet (6096 mm). Where the value of W varies along the per- 
imeter of the building, the calculation performed in accor- 
dance with Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted 
average of each portion of exterior wall and open space 
where the value of Wis greater than or equal to 20 feet (6096 
mm). Where the value of W exceeds 30 feet (9144 mm), a 
value of 30 feet (9144 mm) shall be used in calculating the 
weighted average, regardless of the actual width of the open 
space. Where two or more buildings are on the same lot, W 
shall be measured from the exterior face of a building to the 
exterior face of an opposing building, as applicable. 

Exception: The value of W divided by 30 shall be per- 
mitted to be a maximum of 2 when the building meets all 
requirements of Section 507 except for compHance with 
the 60-foot (18 288 mm) public way or y<2r<i requirement, 
as applicable. 

506.2.2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be either 
on the same lot or dedicated for public use and shall be 
accessed from a street or approved fire lane. 

506.3 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a build- 
ing is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprin- 
kler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the building 
area limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an 
additional 200 percent (I, = 2) for buildings with more than one 
story above grade plane and an additional 300 percent (/^ = 3) 
for buildings with no more than one story above grade plane. In 
other than Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise 
buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regu- 
lated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, these increases are 
permitted in addition to the height and story increases in accor- 
dance with Section 504.2. For Group R-2 buildings of Type VA 
construction equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, these 
increases are permitted in addition to the height increase in 
accordance with Section 504.2. 

Exception: The building area limitation increases shall not 
be permitted for the following conditions: 

1, The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not 
apply to buildings with an occupancy in Group H-1. 

2. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not 
apply to the building area of an occupancy in Group 
H-2 or H-3. For buildings containing such occupan- 
cies, the allowable building area shall be determined 
in accordance with Section 508.4.2, with the sprinkler 
system increase applicable only to the portions of the 
building not classified as Group H-2 or H-3. 

3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance 
with Table 601, Noted. 

4, ISFM] The automatic sprinkler system increase shall 
not apply to buildings with an occupancy in Group L 

506.4 Single occupancy buildings with more than one story. 

The total allowable building area of a single occupancy build- 



152 



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ing with more than one story above grade plane shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with this section. The actual aggregate 
building area at all stories in the building shall not exceed the 
total allowable building area. 

Exception: A single basement need not be included in the 
total allowable building area, provided such basement does 
not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more 
than one story above grade plane. 

506,4.1 Area determination. In other than Group A, E, H, I 
L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applica- 
tions listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal, the total allowable building area of a single 
occupancy building with more than one story above grade 
plane shall be determined by multiplying the allowable build- 
ing area per story (Aa), as determined in Section 506. 1 , by the 
number of stories above grade plane as listed below: 

1. For buildings with two stories above grade plane, 
multiply by 2; 

2. For buildings with three or more stories above grade 
plane, multiply by 3; and 

3. No story shall exceed the allowable building area per 
story (A J, as determined in Section 506.1, for the 
occupancies on that story. 

Exception: Unlimited area buildings in accordance with 
Section 507. 

For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise 
buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 reg- 
ulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the total 
allowable building area of a single occupancy building with 
more than one story above grade plane shall be determined 
by multiplying the allowable building area per story (Aa), 
as determined in Section 506.1, by the number of stories 
above grade plane as listed below: 

1. For buildings with two or more stories above grade 
plane, multiply by 2; 

2. No story shall exceed the allowable building area per 
story (Aa), as determined in Section 506.1, for the 
occupancies on that story. 

Exception: Unlimited area buildings in accor- 
dance with Section 507. 

506.5 Mixed occupancy area determination. The total allow- 
able building area for buildings containing mixed occupancies 
shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provi- 
sions of this section. A single basement need not be included in 
the total allowable building area, provided such basement does 
not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more than 
one story above grade plane. 

506.5.1 No more than one story above grade plane. For 

buildings with no more than one story above grade plane 
and containing mixed occupancies, the total building area 
shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provi- 
sions of Section 508.1. 

506.5.2 More than one story above grade plane. For 

buildings with more than one story above grade plane and 



containing mixed occupancies, each story shall individually 
comply with the applicable requirements of Section 508.1. 

For other than Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, 
high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 
1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, build- 
ings with more than three stories above grade plane, the total 
building area shall be such that the aggregate sum of the 
ratios of the actual area of each story divided by the allow- 
able area of such stories based on the appUcable provisions 
of Section 508.1 shall not exceed 3. 

For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise 
buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 reg- 
ulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, buildings with 
more than two stories above grade plane, the total building 
area shall be such that the aggregate sum of the ratios of the 
actual area of each story divided by the allowable area of 
such stories based on the applicable provisions of Section 
508.1 shall not exceed 2. 



SECTION 507 
UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS 

507.1 General. The area of buildings of the occupancies and 
configurations specified herein shall not be limited. 

507.2 Nonsprinklered, one story. The area of a Group F-2 or 
S-2 building no more than one story in height shall not be lim- 
ited when the building is surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.3 Sprinklered, one story. The area of a Group B, F, M or S 
building no more than one story above grade plane shall not be 
limited when the building is provided with an automatic sprin- 
kler system throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 
and is surrounded and adjoined hy public ways or yards not less 
than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

Exception: Buildings and structures of Types I and 11 con- 
struction for rack storage facilities that do not have access by 
the public shall not be hmited in height, provided that such 
buildings conform to the requirements of Sections 507.3, 
903.3.1.1 and Chapter 23 of the California Fire Code. 

507.3.1 Mixed occupancy buildings vt^ith Groups A-1 

and A-2. Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies of other than 
Type V construction shall be permitted within mixed occu- 
pancy buildings of unlimited area complying with Section 
507.3, provided: 

1. Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies are separated from 
other occupancies as required for separated occupan- 
cies in Section 508.4.4 with no reduction allowed in 
iht fire-resistance rating of the separation based upon 
the installation of an automatic sprinkler system', 

2. Each area of the portions of the building used for 
Group A-1 or A-2 occupancies shall not exceed the 
maximum allowable area permitted for such occu- 
pancies in Section 503.1; and 

3. All exit doors from Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies 
shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building. 



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507.4 Two story. The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no 
more than two stories above grade plane shall not be limited 
when the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and is 
surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 
60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.5 Reduced open space. The public ways or yards of 60 
feet (18 288 mm) in width required in Sections 507.2, 507.3, 
507.4, 507.6 and 507. 1 1 shall be permitted to be reduced to not 
less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width provided all of the fol- 
lowing requirements are met: 

1 . The reduced width shall not be allowed for more than 75 
percent of the perimeter of the building. 

2. The exterior walls facing the reduced width shall have a 
minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours. 

3. Openings in the exterior walls facing the reduced width 
shall have opening protectives with a minimum/ir^/?^- 
tection rating of 3 hours. 

507.6 Group A-3 buildings of Type II construction. The area 
of a Group A-3 building no more than one story above grade 
plane, used as a place of religious worship, community hall, 
dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor 
swimming pool or tennis court of Type II construction, shall 
not be limited when all of the following criteria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways ox yards not less than 60 feet ( 1 8 288 mm) in width. 

507.7 Group A-3 buildings of Types III and IV construc- 
tion. The area of a Group A-3 building no more than one story 
above grade plane, used as o. place of religious worship, com- 
munity hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture 
hall, indoor swimming pool or tennis court of Type III or IV 
construction, shall not be limited when all of the following cri- 
teria are met: 

1 . The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 

2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 

3 . The assembly floor shall be located at or within 2 1 inches 
(533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are pro- 
vided with ramps complying with Section 1010.1 to the 
street or grade level. 

4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public 
ways ox yards not less than 60 feet (18288 mm) in width. 

507.8 Group H occupancies. Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 occu- 
pancies shall be permitted in unUmited area buildings containing 
Group F and S occupancies, in accordance with Sections 507.3 
and 507.4 and the limitations of this section. The aggregate floor 
area of the Group H occupancies located at the perimeter of the 
unlimited area building shall not exceed 10 percent of the area of 
the building nor the area limitations for the Group H occupancies 
as specified in Table 503 as modified by Section 506.2, based 



upon the percentage of the perimeter of each Group H floor area 
that fronts on a street or other unoccupied space. The aggregate 
floor area of Group H occupancies not located at the perimeter of 
the building shall not exceed 25 percent of the area limitations 
for the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503. Group H 
occupancies shall be separated from the rest of the unlimited 
area building and from each other in accordance with Table 
508.4. For two-story unUmited area buildings, the Group H 
occupancies shall not be located more than one story above 
grade plane unless permitted by the allowable height in stories 
and feet as set forth in Table 503 based on the type of construc- 
tion of the unlimited area building. 

507.9 Aircraft paint hangar. The area of a Group H-2 aircraft 
paint hangar no more than one story above grade plane shall 
not be limited where such aircraft paint hangar complies with 
the provisions of Section 412.6 and is surrounded and adjoined 
hy public ways ox yards not less in width than one and one-half 
times the building height, 

507.10 Group E buildings. The area of a Group E building no 
more than one story above grade plane, of Type IL4, III A or IV 
construction, shall not be limited when all of the following cri- 
teria are met: 

1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of 
egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit 
to the outside of the building complying with Section 
1020. 

2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. The building is surrounded and adjoined hy public ways 
or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.11 Motion picture theaters. In buildings of Type 11 con- 
struction, the area of a motion picture theater located on the 
first story above grade plane shall not be limited when the 
building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system 
throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is sur- 
rounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 
feet (18 288 mm) in width. 

507.12 Covered mall buildings and anchor stores. The area 
of covered mall buildings and anchor stores not exceeding 
three stories in height that comply with Section 402.6 shall not 
be limited. 



SECTION 508 
MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

508.1 General. Each portion of a building shall be individually 
classified in accordance with Section 302,1. Where a building 
contains more than one occupancy group, the building or por- 
tion thereof shall comply with the applicable provisions of Sec- 
tion 508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, or a combination of these sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 
509. 

2. Where required by Table 415.3.2, areas of Group 
H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be located in a 
separate and detached building or structure. 



to 



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3. Uses within live/work units, complying with Section 
419, are not considered separate occupancies. 

508.2 Accessory occupancies. Accessory occupancies are 
those occupancies that are ancillary to the main occupancy of the 
building or portion thereof. Accessory occupancies shall com- 
ply with the provisions of Sections 508.2.1 through 508.2.5.3. 

508.2.1 Area limitations. Aggregate accessory occupan- 
cies shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building 
area of the story in which they are located and shall not 
exceed the tabular values in Table 503, without building 
area increases in accordance with Section 506 for such 
accessory occupancies. 

508.2.2 Occupancy classification. Accessory occupancies 
shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 
302. 1 . The requirements of this code shall apply to each por- 
tion of the building based on the occupancy classification of 
that space. 

508.2.3 Allowable building area and height. The allowable 
building area and height of the building shall be based on the 
allowable building area and height for the main occupancy in 
accordance with Section 503.1. The height of each accessory 
occupancy shall not exceed the tabular values in Table 503, 
without increases in accordance with Section 504 for such 
accessory occupancies. The building area of the accessory 
occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 508.2.1. 

508.2.4 Separation of occupancies. No separation is 
required between accessory occupancies and the main 
occupancy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5, 7-2, 12,1 1-3 and L 
occupancies shall be separated from all other occu- 
pancies in accordance with Section 508.4. 

2. Incidental accessory occupancies required to be 
separated or protected by Section 508.2.5. 

3. Group R-1, R-2, R-2,1 and R-3 dwelling units and 
sleeping units shall be separated from other dwell- 
ing or sleeping units and from accessory occupan- 
cies contiguous to them in accordance with the 
requirements of Section 420. 

508.2.5 Separation of incidental accessory occupancies. 

The incidental accessory occupancies listed in Table 
508.2.5 shall be separated from the remainder of the build- 
ing or equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing sys- 
tem, or both, in accordance with Table 508.2.5. 

Exception: Incidental accessory occupancies within and 
serving a dwelling unit are not required to comply with 
this section. 

508.2.5.1 Fire- resistance-rated separation. Where 
Table 508.2.5 specifies a fire-resistance-rated separa- 
tion, the incidental accessory occupancies shall be sepa- 
rated from the remainder of the building by difire barrier 
constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizon- 
tal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 
712, or both. Construction supporting 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated fire barriers or horizontal assemblies used 



for incidental accessory occupancy separations in build- 
ings of Type JIB, IIIB and VB construction are not 
required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by 
other sections of this code. 

508.2.5.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated separation and 
protection. Where Table 508.2.5 permits an automatic 
fire-extinguishing system without difire barrier, the inci- 
dental accessory occupancies shall be separated from the 
remainder of the building by construction capable of 
resisting the passage of smoke. The walls shall extend 
from the top of the foundation or floor assembly below to 
the underside of the ceiling that is a component of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor assembly or roof assembly 
above or to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, 
deck or slab above. Doors shall be self- or automatic- 
closing upon detection of smoke in accordance with Sec- 
tion 7 15.4.8.3. Doors shall not have air transfer openings 
and shall not be undercut in excess of the clearance per- 
mitted in accordance with NFPA 80. Walls surrounding 
the incidental accessory occupancy shall not have air 
transfer openings unless provided with smoke dampers 
in accordance with Section 711.7. 

508.2.5.3 Protection. Except as specified in Table 
508.2.5 for certain incidental accessory occupancies, 
where an automatic fire-extinguishing system or an 
automatic sprinkler system is provided in accordance 
with Table 508.2.5, only the space occupied by the inci- 
dental accessory occupancy need be equipped with such 
a system. 

508.3 Nonseparated occupancies. Buildings or portions of 
buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall 
be considered as nonseparated occupancies. 

508.3.1 Occupancy classification. Nonseparated occupan- 
cies shall be individually classified in accordance with Sec- 
tion 302. 1 . The requirements of this code shall apply to each 
portion of the building based on the occupancy classifica- 
tion of that space except that the most restrictive applicable 
provisions of Section 403 and Chapter 9 shall apply to the 
building or portion thereof in which the nonseparated occu- 
pancies are located. 

508.3.2 Allowable building area and height. The allow- 
able building area and height of the building or portion 
thereof shall be based on the most restrictive allowances for 
the occupancy groups under consideration for the type of 
construction of the building in accordance with Section 
503,1. 

508.3.3 Separation. No separation is required between 
nonseparated occupancies. 

Exceptions: 

1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5, 1-2, 1-2.1 IS and L 
occupancies shall be separated from all other occu- 
pancies in accordance with Section 508.4. 

2. Group R-1, R-2, R-2.1 and R-3 dwelling units and 
sleeping units shall be separated from other dwell- 
ing or sleeping units and from other occupancies 
contiguous to them in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 420. 



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> 



TABLE 508.2.5 
INCIDENTAL ACCESSORY OCCUPANCIES 



ROOM OR AREA 


SEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION 


Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 400,000 Btu per hour input 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system" 


Rooms with boilers where the largest piece of equipment is over 15 psi and 10 
horsepower 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system'' 


Refrigerant machinery room 


1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system'^ 


Hydrogen cutoff rooms, not classified as Group H 


1 hour in Group B, F, M, S and U occupancies; 2 hours in 
Group A, E, I and R occupancies. 


Incinerator rooms 


2 hours and automatic sprinkler system 


Paint shops, not classified as Group H, located in occupancies other than Group 
F 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic 
fire-extinguishing system 


Laboratories and vocational shops, not classified as Group H, located in a Group 
1-2 and 1-2. 1 occupancy 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system^ 


[SFM] Rooms or areas with special hazards such as laboratories, vocational 
shops and other such areas not classified as Group H, located in Group E 
occupancies where hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the 
maximum allowable quantity are used or stored. 


1 hour 


Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system"" 


Storage rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system" 


Group 1-2 and 1-2.1 waste and linen collection rooms 


1 hour^ 


Waste and linen collection rooms over 100 square feet 


1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system" 


Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte capacity of more 
than 50 gallons, or a lithium-ion capacity of 1,000 pounds used for facility 
standby power, emergency power or uninterrupted power supplies 


1 hour in Group B, F, M, S and U occupancies; 2 hours in 
Group A, E, I and R occupancies." 


Rooms containing fire pumps in nonhigh-rise buildings 


2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system 
throughout the building 


Rooms containing fire pumps in high-rise buildings 


2 hours 



For SI; 1 square foot = 0.0929 m^, 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.9 kPa, 1 British thermal unit (Btu) per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 

1 gallon = 3.785 L. 
a. [SFM] Fire barrier protection and automatic sprinkler protection required throughout the fire area in 1-2 and 1-2 A occupancies as indicated. 



508.4 Separated occupancies. Buildings or portions of build- 
ings that comply with the provisions of this section shall be 
considered as separated occupancies. 

508.4.1 Occupancy classification. Separated occupancies 
shall be individually classified in accordance v^ith Section 
302.1. Each separated space shall comply with this code 
based on the occupancy classification of that portion of the 
building. 

508.4.2 Allowable building area. In each story, the build- 
ing area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual 
building area of each separated occupancy divided by the 
allowable building area of each separated occupancy shall 
not exceed 1. 

508.4.3 Allowable height. Each separated occupancy shall 
comply with the building height limitations based on the 
type of construction of the building in accordance with Sec- 
tion 503.1. 

Exception: Special provisions permitted by Section 
509. 



508.4.4 Separation. Individual occupancies shall be sepa- 
rated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with Table 

508.4. 

508.4.4.1 Construction. Required separations shall be 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 
or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with 
Section 712, or both, so as to completely separate adja- 
cent occupancies. 



SECTION 509 
SPECIAL PROVISIONS 

509.1 General. The provisions in this section shall permit the 
use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the 
specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allowable 
heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy classifi- 
cation and type of construction, provided the special condition 
complies with the provisions specified in this section for such 
condition and other applicable requirements of this code. The 
provisions of Sections 509.2 through 509.8 are to be consid- 
ered independent and separate from each other. 



156 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



TABLE 508.4 
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIES (HOURS) 



OCCUPANCY 


A^E 


1-4, R-2.7 


1-2, /-2.r 


1-3 


R-1, R-2, 

f?-3, R-3.1, 

R-4 


F-2, S-2'', U 


B,F-19,M, 
S-1 


L 


H-1 


H-2 


H-3, H-4, 
H-5 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


s 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


S 


NS 


A^E 


N 


N 


2 


2 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


1 


2 


N 


1 


1 


2 


2 


NP 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3a 


1-4, R-2.1 








1' 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


1 


NP 


2 


2 


2f 


2 


2 


NP 


NP 


NP 


4 


NP 


4 


NP 


1-2,1-2 J 


— 


— 


— 


— 


N 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


NP 


2f 


NP 


2 


NP 


NP 


NP 


4 


NP 


4 


NP 


13 




















N 


NP 


2 


NP 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


NP 


NP 


NP 


4 


NP 


4 


NP 


R-1, R-2, R-3, 
R-3.h R-4 


















N 


N 


P 


2^= 


1 


2 


4 


NP 


NP 


NP 


3 


NP 


2 


NP 


F-2, S-2^ U 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






N 


N 


1 


2 


I 


NP 


NP 


NP 


3 


4 


2 


3^ 


B,F-1,M, 

S-1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






— 


— 


N 


N 


1 


NP 


NP 


NP 


2 


3 


1 


2^ 


L 






























1 


NP 


NP 


NP 


2 


NP 


1 


NP 


H-1 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






— 


— 


— 


— 






N 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


H-2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 































N 


NP 


1 


NP 


H-3, H-4, H-5 


— 




— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 






— 


— 


— 


— 






— 


— 


— 


— 


ie,f 


NP 



For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 ml 

S = Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

NS = Buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

N = No separation requirement. 

NP - Not permitted. 

a. For Group H-5 occupancies, see Section 903.2.5.2. 

b. The required separation from areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be reduced by 1 hour but to not less than 1 hour. 

c. See Section 406.1,4. 

d. Commercial kitchens need not be separated from the restaurant seating areas that they serve. 

e. Separation is not required between occupancies of the same classification. 

f. For H-5 occupancies, see Section 415.8.2.2. 

g. [SFM] Group I and Fl occupancies and Group R-2.1 and F-1 occupancies shall have a 3 -hour separation. 



509.2 Horizontal building separation allowance. A building 
shall be considered as separate and distinct buildings for the 
purpose of determining area limitations, continuity of fire 
walls, limitation of number of stories and type of construction 
where all of the following conditions are met: 

1 . The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly 
having a minimum 3-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. The building below the horizontal assembly is no more 
than one story above grade plane. 

3. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type 
lA construction. 

4. Shaft, stairway, ramp and escalator enclosures through 
the horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accor- 
dance with Section 715.4. 

Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the hor- 
izontal assembly have not less than a 3-\io\xx fire-resis- 
tance rating with opening protectives in accordance 
with Section 715.4, the enclosure walls extending 
above the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to 
have a l-hom fire-resistance rating, provided: 



1 . The building above the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be of Type I construction; 

2. The enclosure connects less than four stories; 
and 

3. The enclosure opening protectives above the 
horizontal assembly have a minimum 1-hour 
fire protection rating. 

5. The building or buildings above the horizontal assembly 
shall be permitted to have multiple Group A occupancy 
uses, each with an occupant load of less than 300, or 
Group B, M, R or S occupancies. 

6. The building below the horizontal assembly shall be pro- 
tected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and shall 
be permitted to be any of the following occupancies: 

6.1. Group S-2 parking garage used for the parking 
and storage of private motor vehicles; 

6.2. Multiple Group A, each with an occupant load of 
less than 300; 

6.3. Group B; 

6.4. Group M; 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



157 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



6.5. Group R; and 

6.6. Uses incidental to the operation of the building 
(including entry lobbies, mechanical rooms, 
storage areas and similar uses). 

7. The maximum building height in feet (mm) shall not 
exceed the limits set forth in Section 503 for the building 
having the smaller allowable height as measured from 
the grade plane, 

509.3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 
open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking 
garage with no more than one story above grade plane and 
located below a Group S-2 open parking garage shall be classi- 
fied as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of deter- 
mining the type of construction where all of the following 
conditions are met: 

1 . The allowable area of the building shall be such that the 
sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allow- 
able area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 1 . 

2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is of Type I or II 
construction and is at least equal to the fire-resistance 
requirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage. 

3 . The height and the number of tiers of the Group S-2 open 
parking garage shall be limited as specified in Table 
406.3.5. 

4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed 
parking garage and Group S-2 open parking garage shall 
be protected as required for the floor assembly of the 
Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between 
the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 
open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be 
required to be protected. 

5. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclu- 
sively for the parking or storage of private motor vehi- 
cles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting 
room and toilet room having a total area of not more than 
1,000 square feet (93 m^), and mechanical equipment 
rooms incidental to the operation of the building. 

509.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum one story 
above grade plane Group S-2 parking garage, enclosed or open, 
or combination thereof, of Type I construction or open of Type 
rV construction, with grade entrance, is provided under a build- 
ing of Group R, the number of stories to be used in determining 
the minimum type of construction shall be measured from the 
floor above such a parking area. The floor assembly between the 
parking garage and the Group R above shall comply with the 
type of construction required for the parking garage and shall 
also provide a fire-resistance rating not less than the mixed 
occupancy separation required in Section 508.4. 

509.5 Group R-1 and R-2 buildings of Type IIIA construc- 
tion. The height limitation for buildings of Type IIIA construc- 
tion in Groups R-1 and R-2 shall be increased to six stories and 
75 feet (22 860 mm) where the first floor assembly above the 
basement has a. fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours 
and the floor area is subdivided by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated 
fire walls into areas of not more than 3,000 square feet (279 
m2). 



509.6 Group R-1 and R-2 buildings of Type IIA construc- 
tion. The height limitation for buildings of Type IIA construc- 
tion in Groups R-1 and R-2 shall be increased to nine stories 
and 100 feet (30 480 mm) where the building is separated by 
not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any other building on 
the lot and from lot lines, the exits are segregated in an area 
enclosed by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated^re wall and the first 
floor assembly has afire-resistance rating of not less than 1 Vj 
hours. 

509.7 Open parking garage beneath Groups A, I, B, M and 

R. Open parking garages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M 
and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations permitted 
under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the 
building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the 
limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height, 
in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the 
open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and 
shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of 
the building above the parking garage. 

509.7.1 Fire separation. Fire barriers constructed in accor- 
dance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies con- 
structed in accordance with Section 712 between the 
parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall corre- 
spond to the r&quired fire-resistance rating prescribed in 
Table 508.4 for the uses involved. The type of construction 
shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that 
structural members, including main bracing within the open 
parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper 
occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as 
shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occu- 
pancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated 
from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having at least a 
2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 706 
with self-closing doors complying with Section 7 15 or hori- 
zontal assemblies having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance 
rating as required by Section 712, with self-closing doors 
complying with Section 715. Means of egress from the open 
parking garage shall comply with Section 406.3. 

509.8 Group B or M with Group S-2 open parking garage. 

Group B or M occupancies located no higher than the first story 
above grade plane shall be considered as a separate and distinct 
building for the purpose of determining the type of construc- 
tion where all of the following conditions are met: 

1. The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly 
having a minimum l-hour fire-resistance rating, 

2. The occupancies in the building below the horizontal 
assembly are limited to Groups B and M. 

3. The occupancy above the horizontal assembly is limited 
to a Group S-2 open parking garage, 

4. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type I 
or II construction but not less than the type of construc- 
tion required for the Group S-2 open parking garage 
above. 

5. The height and area of the building below the horizontal 
assembly does not exceed the limits set forth in Section 

503. 



158 



2010 CAUFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 



6. The height and area of the Group S-2 open parking 
garage does not exceed the limits set forth in Section 
406.3. The height, in both feet and stories, of the Group 
S-2 open parking garage shall be measured from grade 
plane and shall include the building below the horizontal 
assembly. 

7. Exits serving the Group S-2 open parking garage dis- 
charge directly to a street or public way and are separated 
from the building below the horizontal assembly by 
2-\\o\xv fire barriers constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in 
accordance with Section 712, or both. 

509.9 Multiple buildings above Group S-2 parking garages. 

Where two or more buildings are provided above the horizon- 
tal assembly separating a Group S-2 open or closed parking 
garage from the buildings above in accordance with the special 
provisions in Sections 509.2, 509.3 or 509.8, the buildings 
above the horizontal assembly shall be regarded as separate 
and distinct buildings from each other and shall comply with all 
other provisions of this code as applicable to each separate and 
distinct building. 

509.10 Group R. [SFM] Buildings housing protective social- 
care homes or in occupancies housing inmates who are not 
restrained need not be of one-hour fire- resistive construction 
when not more than two stories in height. In no case shall indi- 
vidual floor areas exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m^). The 
fire-resistive protection of the exterior walls shall not be less 
than one hour where such walls are located within 5 feet (1524 
mm) of the property line. Openings within such walls are not 
permitted. Openings in exterior nonrated walls need not be 
protected. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



159 



160 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 6 - TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



Adopting agency 


BSC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


SS 


ss/cc 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt entire ciiapter as 
amended (amended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 










































Table 601 




X 






































Table 602 




X 


X 




































603.1 






X 


X 



































The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to 
Section 1.1 1. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



161 



162 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 6 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 601 
GENERAL 

601.1 Scope, The provisions of this chapter shall control the 
classification of buildings as to type of construction. 



SECTION 602 
CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

602.1 General. Buildings and structures erected or to be 
erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified 
in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 602.2 
through 602.5, The building elements shall have d. fire-resis- 
tance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exte- 
rior walls shall have sl fire-resistance rating not less than that 
specified in Table 602. Where required to have ^fire-resistance 
rating by Table 601, building elements shall comply with the 
applicable provisions of Section 703.2. The protection of open- 



ings, ducts and air transfer openings in building elements shall 
not be required unless required by other provisions of this code. 

602.1.1 Minimum requirements. A building or portion 
thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a 
type of construction higher than that type which meets the 
minimum requirements based on occupancy even though 
certain features of such a building actually conform to a 
higher type of construction. 

602.2 Types I and II. Types I and II construction are those 
types of construction in which the building elements listed in 
Table 601 are of noncombustible materials, except as permitted 
in Section 603 and elsewhere in this code. 

602.3 Type III. Type III construction is that type of construc- 
tion in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materi- 
als and the interior building elements are of any material 
permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less. 



TABLE 601 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING ELEMENTS (hours) 






BUILDING ELEMENT 


TYPE! 


TYPEN 


TYPE III 


TYPE IV 


TYPEV 


A 


B 


A^ 


B 


A^ 


B 


HT 


A*^ 


B 


Primary structural framed 
(see Section 202) 


3^ 


2^ 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Bearing walls 
Exterior^' g 
Interior 


3 
3a 


2 
2^ 


1 
1 






2 
1 


2 



2 
1/HT 


1 
1 






Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Exterior 


See Table 602 


Nonbearing walls and partitions 
Interior^ 




















See Section 602.4.6 








Floor construction and secondary 
members (see Section 202) 


2 


2 


1 





1 





HT 


1 





Roof construction and secondary 
members (see Section 202) 


iVj'' 


lb,c 


lb,c 


O'^ 


lb,c 





HT 


lb,c 






For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Roof supports: Fire-resistance ratings of primary structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a roof only. 

i)7. Except in Group A, E, F- 1, H, /, L, M, R-l,R-2, R-2. 1 and S-1 occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulatedby the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, fire protection of structural members shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking where every part of the roof 
construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used for such unprotected mem- 
bers. 

b2. For Group A, E, I, L, R-1, R-2, and R-2. 1 occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulatedby the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, fire protection of members other than the structural frame shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking where every part of the 
roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used for such unprotected 
members. 

b3. One-story portions of Group A and E assembly occupancies the roof-framing system of Type 11 A or Type 111 A construction may be of unprotected construction 
when such roof-framing system is open to the assembly area and does not contain concealed spaces. 

c. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a 1-hour or less fire-resistance rating is required. 

d. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 shall be allowed to be substituted for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, pro- 
vided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an allowable 
height increase in accordance with Section 504.2. The l-hour substitution for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted. 

e. Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code. 

f. Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602). 

g. Not less than the fire-resistance rating as referenced in Section 704.10 



H 



II 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



163 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



602.4 Type IV. Type IV construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is 
that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of 
noncombustible materials and the interior building elements 
are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The 
details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this section. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing 
complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exte- 
rior wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. Minimum 
solid sawn nominal dimensions are required for structures built 
using Type IV construction (HT). For glued-laminated mem- 
bers the equivalent net finished width and depths correspond- 
ing to the minimum nominal width and depths of solid sawn 
lumber are required as specified in Table 602.4. 

602.4.1 Columns. Wood columns shall be sawn or glued 
laminated and shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), 
nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads and 
not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not 
less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth where sup- 
porting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be con- 



tinuous or superimposed and connected in an approved 
manner. 

602.4.2 Floor framing. Wood beams and girders shall be of 
sawn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less than 6 
inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 10 
inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or 
glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the floor 
line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 inches 
(203 mm) nominal in any dimension. Framed timber trusses 
supporting floor loads shall have members of not less than 8 
inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. 

602.4.3 Roof framing. Wood-frame or glued-laminated 
arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor 
line or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall have 
members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width 
and have not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth 
for the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. Framed or 
glued-laminated arches for roof construction that spring 



TABLE 602 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE^ » 



FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE ^ X 
(feet) 


TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP H^ L 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP F-1,M,S-1 


OCCUPANCY 
GROUP A, B, E, F-2, 1, R^ S-29, U'^' " 


x<5^ 


All 


3 


2 


1 


5<x<10 


lA 
Others 


3 

2 


2 
1 


1 
1 


10<x<30 


IA,IB 
IIB,VB 
Others 


2 
1 
1 


1 

1 


1^ 


l'^ 


x>30 


All 












For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements of Table 601. 

b. For special requirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406. 1 .2. 

c. See Section 706. 1 . 1 for party walls. 

d. Open parking garages complying with Section 406 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating. 

e. The fire-resistance rating of an exterior wall is determined based upon the fire separation distance of the exterior wall and the story in which the wall is located. 

f. For special requirements for Group H occupancies, see Section 415.3. 

g. For special requirements for Group S aircraft hangars, see Section 412.4.1. 

h. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies when used as accessory to Group R-3 occupancies, shall not be required to have afire-resistance rating where the fire sepa- 
ration distance is 5 feet or more; or when equipped throughout with an automatic residential fire sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 the 
fire-resistance rating shall not be required where the fire separation distance is 3 feet or more. 



TABLE 602.4 
WOOD MEMBER SIZE 



MINIMUM NOMINAL SOLID SAWN SIZE 


MINIMUM GLUED-LAMINATED NET SIZE 


Width, inch 


Depth, inch 


Width, Inch 


Depth, inch 


8 


8 


. 63/, 


%% 


6 


10 


5 


10V2 


6 


8 


5 


8V4 


6 


6 


5 


6 


4 


6 


3 


6% 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 



164 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber 
trusses and other roof framing, which do not support floor 
loads, shall have members not less than 4 inches (102 mm) 
nominal in width and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nomi- 
nal in depth. Spaced members shall be permitted to be com- 
posed of two or more pieces not less than 3 inches (76 mm) 
nominal in thickness where blocked solidly throughout 
their intervening spaces or where spaces are tightly closed 
by a continuous wood cover plate of not less than 2 inches 
(5 1 nmi) nominal in thickness secured to the underside of 
the members. Splice plates shall be not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness. Where protected by approved 
automatic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members 
shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width. 

602.4.4 Floors. Roors shall be without concealed spaces. 
Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, 
splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 
mm) nominal in thickness covered with 1-inch (25 nmi) 
nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid cross- 
wise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particleboard or 
planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width set 
on edge close together and well spiked and covered with 
1-inch (25 mm) nominal dimension flooring or ^V32-inch 
(12 mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) 
particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that no continu- 
ous line of joints will occur except at points of support. 
Floors shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) to 
walls. Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be covered by a 
molding fastened to the wall and so arranged that it will not 
obstruct the swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor. 
Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor shall be permit- 
ted to be used in place of molding. 

602.4.5 Roofs. Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and 
wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined 
or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) 
nominal in thickness, 1 Vg-inch-thick (32 mm) wood struc- 
tural panel (exterior glue), or of planks not less than 3 inches 
(76 mm) nominal in width, set on edge close together and 
laid as required for floors. Other types of decking shall be 
permitted to be used if providing equivalent yzr^g resistance 
and structural properties. 

602.4.6 Partitions. Partitions shall be of solid wood con- 
struction formed by not less than two layers of 1-inch (25 
mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches 
(102 mm) thick, or of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizontal 
separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, wood 
columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes shall 
be permitted to be used externally. 

602.5 Type V. Type V construction is that type of construction 
in which the structural elements, exterior walls and interior 
walls are of any materials permitted by this code. 



SECTION 603 

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE I 

AND II CONSTRUCTION 

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be 
permitted in buildings of Type I or II construction in the follow- 
ing applications and in accordance with Sections 603.1.1 
through 603.1.3: 

1. Thermal and acoustical insulation, other than foam 
plastics, having di flame spread index of not more than 

25. 

Exceptions: 

1. Insulation placed between two layers of 
noncombustible materials without an interven- 
ing airspace shall be allowed to have aflame 
spread index of not more than 100. 

2. Insulation installed between a finished floor 
and solid decking without intervening airspace 
shall be allowed to have aflame spread index of 
not more than 200. 

2. Foam plastics in accordance with Chapter 26. 

3. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classification. 

4. Interior floor finish and floor covering materials 
installed in accordance with Section 804. 

5. Millwork such as doors, door frames, window sashes 
and frames. 

6. Interior wall and ceiling finishes installed in accor- 
dance with Sections 801 and 803. 

7. Trim installed in accordance with Section 806. 

8. Where not installed over 15 feet (4572 mm) above 
grade, show windows, nailing or furring strips and 
wooden bulkheads below show windows, including 
their frames, aprons and show cases. 

9. Finish flooring installed in accordance with Section 
805. 

10. Partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar 
places occupied by one tenant only and that do not 
establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or 
more shall be permitted to be constructed of fire -retar- 
dant-treated wood, 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction or of wood panels or similar light construction 
up to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height. 

11. Stages and platforms constructed in accordance with 
Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively. 

12. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies and 
similar projections and bay or oriel windows in accor- 
dance with Chapter 14. 

13. Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabinets and 
window and door frames. 

14. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by Chapter 26. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



1 5 . Mastics and caulking materials applied to provide flex- 
ible seals between components of exterior wall con- 
struction. 

16. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance with 
Section 2605.2. 

17. Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 
803.11. 

18. Heavy timber as permitted by Note c to Table 601 and 
Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3. 

19. Aggregates, component materials and admixtures as 
permitted by Section 703.2.2. 

20. Sprayed fire-resistant materials and intumescent and 
mastic fire-resistant coatings, determined on the basis 
of fire -resistance tests in accordance with Section 
703.2 and installed in accordance with Sections 

1704.12 and 1704.13, respectively. 

21. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 713. 

22. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies in accordance with Section 714. 

23. Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of buildings 
of Types I and II construction in accordance with Sec- 
tion 717.5. 

24. Materials exposed within plenums complying with 
Section 602 of the California Mechanical Code. 

25. Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted in: 

25.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required 
fire-resistance rating is 2 hours or less. 

25.2. Nonbearing exterior walls where no fire rating 
is required. 

25.3. Roof construction, including girders, trusses, 
framing and decking. 

Exception: In buildings of Type lA construc- 
tion exceeding two stories above grade plane, 
fire-retardant-treated wood is not permitted in 
roof construction when the vertical distance 
from the upper floor to the roof is less than 20 
feet (6096 mm). 



603.1.1 Ducts. The use of nonmetallic ducts shall be per- 
mitted when installed in accordance with the limitations of 
the California Mechanical Code. 

603.1.2 Piping. The use of combustible piping materials 
shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the 
limitations of the California Mechanical Code and the Cali- 
fornia Plumbing Code. 

603.1.3 Electrical. The use of electrical wiring methods 
with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related 
components shall be permitted when installed in accor- 
dance with the limitations of the California Electrical Code. 



166 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE 
CHAPTER 7 - FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



Adopting agency 


BBC 


SFM 


HOD 


DSA 


OSHPD 


CSA 


DPH 


AGR 


DWR 


CEO 


CA 


SL 


SLC 


1 


2 


1-AC 


AC 


ss 


SS/CC 


1 


2 


3 


4 


Adopt entire chapter 


X 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


















Adopt entire chapter as 
amended (aniended sections 
listed below) 




X 


X 


X 


































Adopt only those sections that 
are listed below 










































Chapter/Section 










































702,1 




X 






































Fire-smoke Barrier 




X 






































705.2.3 




X 






































705.5 




X 






































705.8.5 




X 






































Table 706.3.9 




X 






































Table 706.4 




X 






































Table 707.3.9 




X 






































708.2 




X 






































708.14.1 




X 






































709.1 




X 






































709.4 




X 






































710.5 




X 






































711.2 




X 






































711.7 




X 






































715.4.3 




X 
























- 














715.4.4 




X 






































715.4.4.1 




X 






































715.4.6.1 




X 






































715.4.7.3 




X 






































715.4.8.3 




X 






































716.2.2 




X 






































716.5.2 




X 






































716.5.4 




X 














X 


X 


X 


X 


















716.5.4.1 




X 






































716.6.1 




X 






































716.6.2 




X 






































716.6.3 




X 






































717.3.3 




X 






































717.4.3 




X 






































717.5 




X 






































719.1 




X 






































719.7 




X 






































720.2 






X 


X 


































720.2.1 






X 


X 



































The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to 
Section LIL 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



167 



168 2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



CHAPTER 7 

FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



SECTION 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, systems and assemblies used for structural^r^ resis- 
tance and fire- resistance-rated construction separation of adja- 
cent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke 
within a building and the spread of fire to or from buildings. 



SECTION 702 
DEFINITIONS 

702.1 DeHnitions. The following words and terms shall, for the 
purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, 
have the meanings shown herein. 

ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating 
item. 

BUILDING ELEMENT. A fundamental component of build- 
ing construction, listed in Table 601, which may or may not be 
of fire-resistance-rated construction and is constructed of 
materials based on the building type of construction. 

CEILING RADLVTION DAMPER. A listed device installed 
in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat 
transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening. 

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed 
device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to 
close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the 
passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate 
automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and 
where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire com- 
mand center. 

DAMPER. See ''Ceiling radiation damper'' ''Combination 
fire/smoke damper^ "Fire damper'' and "Smoke damper." 

DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to 
restrict the movement of mi within open spaces of concealed 
areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics, 

F RATING. The time period that the through-penetration 
firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. 

FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of 
materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which conti- 
nuity is maintained. 

FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detec- 
tion of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are 
classified for use in either static systems that will automatically 
shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that con- 
tinue to operate during a fire. A dynamic ^zre damper is tested 
and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow. 



FIRE DOOR. The door component of Sifire door assembly. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of Sifire door, 
frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a 
specific degree of fire protection to the opening. 

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials 
designed to restrict the spread of fire in which openings are pro- 
tected. 

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an 
opening protective will maintain the ability to confine a fire as 
determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Ratings are 
stated in hours or minutes, 

FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or then- 
assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive 
heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a build- 
ing element, component or assembly maintains the ability to 
confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, 
or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on 
tests, prescribed in Section 703. 

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of 
specific materials or products that are designed, tested and 
fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1 966 or 
UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of 
fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies. 

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured 
from the building face to one of the following: 

1 . The closest interior lot line\ 

2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or 

3 . To an imaginary line between two buildings on the prop- 
erty. 

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face 
of the wall. 

FIRE-SMOKE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall 
assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in 
which continuity is maintained in accordance with Section 707 
and that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement 
of smoke in accordance with Section 710. 

FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected 
openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends contin- 
uously from the foundation to or through the roof, with suffi- 
cient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse 
of construction on either side without collapse of the wall. 

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and 
glazed to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials or materials for use as 
fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to 
other areas of the building through concealed spaces. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of 2ifire 
door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a hor- 
izontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire 
protection to a through-opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor 

(see Section 712.8). 

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor 
or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of 
fire in which continuity is maintained. 

JOINT. The linear opening in or between adjacent fire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies that is designed to allow independent 
movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seis- 
mic, wind or any other loading. 

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. An opening made through 
one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly. 

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, 
device or construcfion installed to resist for a prescribed time 
period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a pro- 
tective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, 
conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items. 

MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally of fibers 
manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders. 

MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation made 
by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, and 
other inorganic materials, and then physically forming the melt 
into fibers. 

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through-penetration 
firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop, 

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to difire door or other opening 
protective, means equipped with an device that will ensure 
closing after having been opened. 

SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in succes- 
sive floors, or floors and roof. 

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or construction forming 
the boundaries of a shaft. 

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical 
or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, that is 
designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke. 

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building 
enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and 
bottom. 

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed dtVict installed in ducts and air 
transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The 
device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a 
smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of 
being positioned from a fire command center. 

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method of joining 
or connecting two or more lengths of 2i fire-resistant joint sys- 
tem into a continuous entity. 

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop sys- 
tem, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum tem- 
perature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature 
through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. 



THROUGH PENETRATION. An opening that passes 
through an entire assembly. 

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An 

assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, 
tested and fire-resistance rated to resist for a prescribed period 
of time the spread of fire through penetrations. The F and T rat- 
ing criteria for penetration firestop systems shall be in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. See definitions of "F 
rating" and "T rating." 



SECTION 703 
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS AND FIRE TESTS 

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance 
shall conform to the requirements of this chapter. 

703.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of 
building elements, components or assemblies shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with the test procedures set forth in 
ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 or in accordance with Section 703.3. 
Where materials, systems or devices that have not been tested 
as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are incorporated into 
the building element, component or assembly, sufficient data 
shall be made available to the building official to show that the 
required fire-resistance rating is not reduced. Materials and 
methods of construction used to protect joints and penetrations 
in fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or 
assemblies shall not reduce the v^c^mro^d fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: In determining the fire-resistance rating of 
exterior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E 1 19 or 
UL 263 criteria for unexposed surface temperature rise and 
ignition of cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is 
required only for a period of time corresponding to the 
required fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing 
wall with the samey?r^ separation distance, and in a build- 
ing of the same group. When the fire-resistance rating 
determined in accordance with this exception exceeds the 
fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with ASTM 
E 1 19 or UL 263, the fire exposure time period, water pres- 
sure and application duration criteria for the hose stream test 
of ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall be based upon the 
fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this 
exception. 

703.2.1 Nonsymmetrical wall construction. Interior walls 
and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the 
diS^ign^d fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration 
obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263. When evidence is furnished to 
show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side 
exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building 
official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the 
opposite side (see Section 705.5 for exterior walls). 

703.2.2 Combustible components. Combustible aggre- 
gates are permitted in gypsum and portland cement concrete 
mixtures for fire-resistance-rated construction. Any compo- 
nent material or admixture is permitted in assemblies if the 
resulting tested assembly meets the fire-resistance test 
requirements of this code. 



170 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



703.2.3 Restrained classification. Fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies tested under ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall not be 
considered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to 
the building official is furnished by the registered design 
professional showing that the construction qualifies for a 
restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or 
UL 263. Restrained construction shall be identified on the 
plans. 

703.3 Alternative methods for determining fire resistance. 

The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this 
section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance crite- 
ria specified in ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263, The required^r^ resis- 
tance of a building element, component or assembly shall be 
permitted to be established by any of the following methods or 
procedures: 

1. Fire-resistance designs documented in sources. 

2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building 
elements, components or assemblies as prescribed in 
Section 720. 

3. Calculations in accordance with Section 721. 

4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building 
element, component or assemblies designs having 
fire-resistance ratings as determined by the test proce- 
dures set forth in ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. 

5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

703.4 Noncombustibility tests. The tests indicated in Sections 
703.4.1 and 703.4.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of 
building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 

602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construcfion. The term 
"noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread charac- 
teristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not 
be classified as a noncombustible building construction mate- 
rial if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame 
spread beyond the limitations herein established through the 
effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions. 

703.4.1 Elementary materials. Materials required to be 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 
136. 

703.4.2 Composite materials. Materials having a structural 
base of noncombustible material as determined in accor- 
dance with Section 703.4.1 with a surfacing not more than 
0. 125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has di flame spread index not 
greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 
or UL 723 shall be acceptable as noncombustible materials. 

703.5 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated 
glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 
263 and complying with the requirements of Section 707, shall 
be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a label or 
other identification showing the name of the manufacturer, the 
test standard and the identifier "W-XXX," where the "XXX" is 
ih^ fire-resistance rating in minutes. Such label or identifica- 
tion shall be issued by, an agency and shall be permanently 
affixed to the glazing. 

703.6 Marking and identification. Fire walls, fire barriers, 
fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions or any 



other wall required to have protected openings or penetrations 
shall be effectively and permanently identified with signs or 
stenciling. Such identification shall: 

1 . Be located in accessible concealed floor, floor-ceihng or 

attic spaces; 

2. Be repeated at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (914 mm) 
measured horizontally along the wall or partition; and 

3. Include lettering not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in 
height, incorporating the suggested wording: "FIRE 
AND/OR SMOKE BARRIER— PROTECT ALL 
OPENINGS," or other wording. 

Exception: Walls in Group R-2 occupancies that do 
not have a removable decorative ceiling allowing 
access to the concealed space. 



SECTION 704 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF 

STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 

704.1 Requirements. Th& fire-resistance ratings of structural 
members and assemblies shall comply with this section and the 
requirements for the type of construction as specified in Table 
601. ^\iQ fire-resistance ratings shaU not be less than the rat- 
ings required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported 
by the structural members. 

Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers 
and horizontal assemblies as provided in Sections 101.5, 
109 A, 110 A and 712.4, respectively. 

704.2 Column protection. Where columns are required to be 
fire-resistance rated, the entire column shall be provided indi- 
vidual encasement protection by protecting it on all sides for 
the full column length, including connections to other struc- 
tural members, with materials having the rtquimd fire -resis- 
tance rating. Where the column extends through a ceiling, the 
encasement protection shall be continuous from the top of the 
foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below through the ceiling 
space to the top of the column. 

704.3 Protection of the primary structural frame other 
than columns. Members of the primary structural frame other 
than columns that are required to have afire-resistance rating 
and support more than two floors or one floor and roof, or sup- 
port a load-bearing wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than 
two stories high, shall be provided individual encasement pro- 
tection by protecting them on all sides for their full length, 
including connections to other structural members, with mate- 
rials having the rcquiiQd fire-resistance rating. 

Exception: Individual encasement protection on all sides 
shall be permitted on all exposed sides provided the extent 
of protection is in accordance with the required yzr^-r^5/5- 
tance rating, as determined in Section 703. 

704.4 Protection of secondary members. Secondary mem- 
bers that are required to have afire-resistance rating shall be 
protected by individual encasement protection, by the mem- 
brane or ceiling of a horizontal assembly in accordance with 
Section 712, or by a combination of both. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



171 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



704.4.1 Light-frame construction. King studs and bound- 
ary elements that are integral elements in load-bearing 
walls of light-frame construction shall be permitted to have 
required fire-resistance ratings provided by the membrane 
protection provided for the load-bearing wall, 

704.5 Truss protection. The required thickness and construc- 
tion of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing trusses shall 
be based on the results of full-scale tests or combinations of 
tests on truss components or on approved calculations based on 
such tests that satisfactorily demonstrate that the assembly has 
the required ^re resistance. 

704.6 Attachments to structural members. The edges of 
lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural mem- 
bers shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 mm) of the 
surface of the fire protection. 

704.7 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete or 
masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside of the 
reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral reinforcement ties 
are permitted to project not more than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into 
the protection. 

704.8 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, 
ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the 
required fire protective covering of a structural member that is 
required to be individually encased. 

704.9 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering 
of a structural member is subject to impact damage from mov- 
ing vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activity, the 
fire protective covering shall be protected by comer guards or 
by a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible mate- 
rial to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less 
than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor. 

Exception: Comer protection is not required on concrete 
columns in open or enclosed parking garages. 

704.10 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing struc- 
tural members located within the exterior walls or on the out- 
side of a building or stmcture shall be provided with the highest 
fire -resistance rating as determined in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

1. As required by Table 601 for the type of building ele- 
ment based on the type of constmction of the building; 

2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls 
based on the type of constmction; and 

3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the 
fire separation distance. 

704.11 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not 
required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, 
spanning not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) whether part of the 
primary stmctural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of 
lintels, shelf angles and plates not part of the primary stmctural 
frame, regardless of span. 

704.12 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for 
the isolation system shall meet iht fire-resistance rating required 
for the columns, walls or other stmctural elements in which the 
isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 601 . Isola- 
tion systems required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be 
protected with approved materials or constmction assemblies 



designed to provide the same degree oifire resistance as the 
stmctural element in which it is installed when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 (see Section 703.2). 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator 
unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying 
capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure 
to the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 for a duration not less than that 
required for ihe fire-resistance rating of the stmcture element 
in which it is installed. 

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units 
shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to 
dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its ability 
to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isolator 
unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose of 
providing the required fire-resistance protection. 

704.13 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). Sprayed 
fire-resistant materials (SFRM) shall comply with Sections 
704.13.1 through 704.13.5. 

704.13.1 Fire-resistance rating. The appHcation of SFRM 
shall be consistent with the fire-resistance rating and the 
listing, including, but not limited to, minimum thickness 
and dry density of the applied SFRM, method of applica- 
tion, substrate surface conditions and the use of bonding 
adhesives,^ sealants, reinforcing or other materials. 

704.13.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. The 

application of SFRM shall be in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's installation instmctions. The instmctions shall 
include, but are not limited to, substrate temperatures and 
surface conditions and SFRM handling, storage, mixing, 
conveyance, method of application, curing and ventilation. 

704.13.3 Substrate condition. The SFRM shall be applied 
to a substrate in compliance with Sections 704.13.3.1 
through 704.13.3.2. 

704.13.3.1 Surface conditions. Substrates to receive 
SFRM shall be free of dirt, oil, grease, release agents, 
loose scale and any other condition that prevents adhesion. 
The substrates shall also be free of primers, paints and 
encapsulants other than those fire tested and listed by a 
nationally recognized testing agency. Primed, painted or 
encapsulated steel shall be allowed, provided that testing 
has demonstrated that required adhesion is maintained. 

704.13.3.2 Primers, paints and encapsulants. Where 
the SFRM is to be applied over primers, paints or 
encapsulants other than those specified in the listing, the 
material shall be field tested in accordance with ASTM E 
736. Where testing of the SFRM with primers, paints or 
encapsulants demonstrates that required adhesion is 
maintained, SFRM shall be permitted to be appHed to 
primed, painted or encapsulated wide flange steel shapes 
in accordance with the following conditions: 

1. The beam flange width does not exceed 12 inches 
(305 mm); or 

2. The column flange width does not exceed 16 
inches (400 mm); or 



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3 . The beam or column web depth does not exceed 1 6 
inches (400 mm). 

4. The average and minimum bond strength values 
shall be determined based on a minimum of five 
bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E 
736. Bond tests conducted in accordance with 
ASTM E 736 shall indicate a minimum average 
bond strength of 80 percent and a minimum indi- 
vidual bond strength of 50 percent, when com- 
pared to the bond strength of the SFRM as applied 
to clean uncoated Vg-inch-thick (3-mm) steel plate. 

704.13.4 Temperature. A minimum ambient and substrate 
temperature of 40°F (4.44°C) shall be maintained during 
and for a minimum of 24 hours after the application of the 
SFRM, unless the manufacturer's installation instructions 
allow otherwise. 

704.13.5 Finished condition. The finished condition of 
SFRM applied to structural members or assemblies shall 
not, upon complete drying or curing, exhibit cracks, voids, 
spalls, delamination or any exposure of the substrate. Sur- 
face irregularities of SFRM shall be deemed acceptable. 



SECTION 705 
EXTERIOR WALLS 

705.1 General. Exterior walls shall comply with this section. 

705.2 Projections. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balco- 
nies and similar projections extending beyond the exterior wall 
shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 
1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stairways 
shall also comply with Sections 1019 and 1026, respectively. 
Projections shall not extend beyond the distance determined by 
the following three methods, whichever results in the lesser 
projection: 

1. A point one-third the distance from the exterior face of 
the wall to the lot line where protected openings or a 
combination of protected and unprotected openings are 
required in the exterior wall 

2 . A point one-half the distance from the exterior face of the 
wall to the lot line where all openings in the exterior wall 
are permitted to be unprotected or the building is 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 
installed under the provisions of Section 705.8.2. 

3. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where open- 
ings are prohibited. 

Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one 
building in accordance with Section 705.3 are not required to 
comply with this section. 

705.2.1 Type I and II construction. Projections from walls 
of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible 
materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 
1406.3 and 1406.4. 



705.2.2 Type III, IV or V construction. Projections from 
walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any 
approved material. 

705.2.3 Combustible projections. Combustible projec- 
tions located where openings are not permitted or where 
protection of openings is required shall be of at least 1-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction, Type IV construction, 
fire-retardant-treated wood or as required by Section 

1406.3. 

Exception: Type YB construction shall be allowed for 
combustible projections in R-3 occupancies with afire 
separation distance greater than or equal to 2 feet. 

705.3 Buildings on the same lot. For the purposes of deter- 
mining the required wall and opening protection and roof-cov- 
ering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed 
to have an imaginary line between them. 

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an 
existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary line 
with relation to the existing building shall be such that the exte- 
rior wall and opening protection of the existing building meet 
the criteria as set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. 

Exception: Two or more buildings on the same lot shall 
either be regulated as separate buildings or shall be consid- 
ered as portions of one building if the aggregate area of such 
buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a sin- 
gle building. Where the buildings contain different occu- 
pancy groups or are of different types of construction, the 
area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy 
or construction. 

705.4 Materials. Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

705.5 Fire-resistance ratings. For other than Group A, E, H, I, 
L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applica- 
tions listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal, exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Tables 601 and 602 and this section. The 
required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire sepa- 
ration distance of greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated 
for exposure to fire from the inside. The required fire-resis- 
tance rating of exterior walls a fire separation distance of less 
than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure 
to fire from both sides. 

For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, high-rise build- 
ings, and other applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by 
the Office of the State Fire Marshal, exterior walls shall be 
fire -resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602 
and this section. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior 
walls shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides. 

705.6 Structural stability. The wall shall extend to the height 
required by Section 705.1 1 and shall have sufficient structural 
stability such that it will remain in place for the duration of time 
indicated by the reqnked fire-resistance rating. 



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705.7 Unexposed surface temperature. Where protected 
openings are not limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the 
rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls 
as required by ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall not apply. Where 
protected openings are limited by Section 705.8, the limitation 
on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface oi exterior 
walls as required by ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall not apply 
provided that a correction is made for radiation from the unex- 
posed exterior wall surface in accordance with the following 
formula: 

A, = A + {AfX FJ (Equation 7-1) 

where: 

A^ ~ Equivalent area of protected openings. 

A = Actual area of protected openings. 

Aj = Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consid- 
eration exclusive of openings, on which the tempera- 
ture limitations of ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 for walls are 
exceeded. 

F^^ = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 
705.7 based on the average temperature of the unex- 
posed wall surface and X\\q fire-resistance rating of the 
wall. 

705.8 Openings. Openings in exterior walls shall comply with 
Sections 705.8.1 through 705.8.6. 



705.8.1 Allowable area of openings. The maximum area of 
unprotected and protected openings permitted in an exterior 
wall in any story of a building shall not exceed the percent- 
ages specified in Table 705.8. 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group H occupancies, unlimited 
unprotected openings are permitted in the first 
story above grade either: 

1.1. Where the wall faces a street and has difire 
separation distance of more than 15 feet 
(4572 mm); or 

1.2. Where the wall faces an unoccupied space. 
The unoccupied space shall be on the same 
lot or dedicated for public use, shall not be 
less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width and 
shall have access from a street by a posted 
fire lane in accordance with the Interna- 
tional Fire Code. 

2. Buildings whose exterior bearing walls, exterior 
nonbearing walls and exterior primary structural 
frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated 
shall be permitted to have unlimited unprotected 
openings. 




200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 
Average temperature of unexposed surface (°F) 



For SI: °C = [(T) - 32] / 1.8. 



FIGURE 705.7 
EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR 



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TABLE 705.8 
MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE AND DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION 


FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE 
(feet) 


DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION 


ALLOWABLE AREA^ 


to less than 3''''^ 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


Not Permitted 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)^ 


Not Permitted 


Protected (?) 


Not Permitted 


3 to less than 5^^'^ 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


Not Permitted 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)^ 


15% 


Protected (P) 


15% 


5 to less than 10^- ^ 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


10%^ 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, Sy 


25% 


Protected (P) 


25% 


10 to less than 15^' f'g 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


15%^ 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)' 


45% 


Protected (P) 


45% 


15 to less than 20^' s 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


25% 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)* 


75% 


Protected (P) 


75% 


20 to less than 25^'^ 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


45% 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)^ 


No Limit 


Protected (P) 


No Limit 


25 to less than 30^' ^ 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


70% 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)* 


No Limit 


Protected (P) 


No Limit 


30 or greater 


Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 


No Limit 


Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)^ 


Not Required 


Protected (P) 


Not Required 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

UP, NS = Unprotected openings in buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 . 
UP, S - Unprotected openings in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3. 1 . 1 . 
P = Openings protected with an opening protective assembly in accordance with Section 705,8.2. 

a. Values indicated are the percentage of the area of the exterior wall, per story. 

b. For the requirements for fire walls of buildings with differing heights, see Section 706.6.1. 

c. For openings in a fire wall for buildings on the same lot, see Section 706.8. 

d. The maximum percentage of unprotected and protected openings shall be 25 percent for Group R-3 occupancies. 

e. Unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a fire separation distance of less than 15 feet for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies. 

f. The area of unprotected and protected openings shall not be limited for Group R-3 occupancies, with afire separation distance of 5 feet or greater. 

g. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a fire separation distance of 10 feet or greater shall not be limited. 
h. Includes buildings accessory to Group R-3. 

i. Not applicable to Group H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies. 



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705.8.2 Protected openings. Where openings are required 
to be protected, fire doors and fire shutters shall comply 
with Section 7 15.4 and fire window assemblies shall comply 
with Section 715.5. 

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where 
the building is equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 
and the exterior openings are protected by a water curtain 
using automatic sprinklers approved for that use. 

705.8.3 Unprotected openings. Where unprotected open- 
ings are permitted, windows and doors shall be constructed 
of any approved materials. Glazing shall conform to the 
requirements of Chapters 24 and 26. 

705.8.4 Mixed openings. Where both unprotected and pro- 
tected openings are located in the exterior wall in any story 
of a building, the total area of openings shall be determined 
in accordance with the following: 

(Ap/ ap) + {A J a,) < 1 (Equation 7-2) 

where: 

Ap = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent 
area of protected openings, A^ (see Section 705.7). 

ap - Allowable area of protected openings. 

A„ = Actual area of unprotected openings. 

a„ = Allowable area of unprotected openings. 

705.8.5 Vertical separation of openings. Openings in exte- 
rior walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to 
protect against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings 
where the openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each 
other horizontally and the opening in the lower story is not a 
protected opening with a fire protection rating of not less 
than % hour. Such openings shall be separated vertically at 
least 3 feet (914 mm) by spandrel girders, exterior walls or 
other similar assemblies that have afire-resistance rating of 
at least 1 hour or by flame barriers that extend horizontally 
at least 30 inches (762 mm) beyond the exterior wall. Flame 
barriers shall also have afire-resistance rating of at least 1 
hour. The unexposed surface temperature limitations speci- 
fied in ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 shall not apply to the flame 
barriers or vertical separation unless otherwise required by 
the provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to buildings that are 
three stories or less above grade plane. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. Open parking garages. 

705.8.6 Vertical exposure. For buildings on the same lot, 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not 
less than V4 hour shall be provided in every opening that is 
less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an 
adjacent building or structure based on assuming an imagi- 
nary Hne between them. The opening protectives are 
required where the fire separation distance between the 



imaginary line and the adjacent building or structure is less 
than 15 feet (4572 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. Opening protectives are not required where the 
roof assembly of the adjacent building or structure 
has afire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour 
for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from 
the exterior wall facing the imaginary line and the 
entire length and span of the supporting elements 
for the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

2. Buildings on the same lot and considered as por- 
tions of one building in accordance with Section 
705.3 are not required to comply with Section 
705.8.6. 

705.9 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls required 
by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall comply 
with Section 714. 

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to 
have unprotected openings. 

705.9.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assem- 
bly shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4. 

705.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air 
ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior 
walls required to have protected openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with 
this code are permitted. 

705.11 Parapets. Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls 
of buildings. 

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior 
wall where any of the following conditions exist: 

1 . The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in 
accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation 
distance. 

2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 
square feet (93 m^) on any floor. 

3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, 
including the deck or slab and supporting construc- 
tion, is constructed entirely of noncombustible mate- 
rials. 

4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that ter- 
minate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or 
slab, provided: 

4.1. Where the roof /ceiling framing elements are 
parallel to the walls, such framing and ele- 
ments supporting such framing shall not be of 
less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for 
Groups R and U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for 
other occupancies, measured from the interior 
side of the wall. 



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4.2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not 
parallel to the wall, the entire span of such 
framing and elements supporting such fram- 
ing shall not be of less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction. 

4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the 1-hour fire-re- 
sistance-rated exterior wall for Groups R and 
U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupan- 
cies, measured from the interior side of the 
wall. 

4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not 
less than a Class B roof covering. 

5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is 
provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior 
wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V con- 
struction, provided: 

5 . 1 . The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials or of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet (1220 mm); or 

5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (16 
nun) Type X gypsum board directly beneath 
the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, 
supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch 
(5 1 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the 
roof framing members for a minimum dis- 
tance of 4 feet (1220 mm). 

6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent 
of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected 
openings based on fire separation distance as deter- 
mined in accordance with Section 705.8. 

705.11.1 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the 
S2imQ fire-resistance rating as that required for the support- 
ing wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall 
have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches 
(457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. 
The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches 
(762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the 
wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a 
slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same 
height as any portion of the roof within difire separation dis- 
tance where protection of wall openings is required, but in 
no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm). 



SECTION 706 
FIRE WALLS 

706.1 GeneraL Each portion of a building separated by one or 
moxQ fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section 
shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location 
of ^nch fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a 
fire wall also separates occupancies that are required to be sep- 
arated by difire harrier wall, the most restrictive requirements 
of each separation shall apply. 



706.1.1 Party walls. Any wall located on a lot line between 
adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service 
between the two buildings, shall be constructed as difire wall 
in accordance with Section 706. Party walls shall be con- 
structed without openings and shall create separate build- 
ings. 

Exception: Openings in a party wall separating an 
anchor building and a mall shall be in accordance with 
Section 402.7.3.1. 

706.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient 
structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of 
construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the 
duration of time indicated by the VQC\}mQd fire-resistance rat- 
ing. 

706.3 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved 
noncombustible materials. 

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction. 

706.4 Fire-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have di fire-resis- 
tance rating of not less than that required by Table 706.4. 

TABLE 706.4 
FIRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS 



GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


A,B,E,H-4J,R-l,R-2,/?-2.7, 


3a 


F-l,H-3^H-5,M,S-l 


3 


H-l,H-2 


4b 


F-2, S-2, R-3, R-4 


2 



a. In Type II or V construction, walls shall be permitted to have a 2-hour 
fire-resistance rating. 

b. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415.5. 

706.5 Horizontal continuity. Fire walls shall be continuous 
from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 
inches (457 nun) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or sid- 
ing provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance 
rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at 
least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the//r^ wall. 
Openings within such exterior walls shall be pro- 
tected by opening protectives having 2i fire protection 
rating of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, 
exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior fin- 
ishes provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior 
noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance 
of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of ih^fire 
wall. 

3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the inte- 
rior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing 
where the building on each side of the/^re wall is pro- 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



tected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. 

706.5.1 Exterior walls. Where th& fire wall intersects exte- 
rior walls, the fire -resistance rating and opening protection 
of the exterior walls shall comply with one of the following: 

1. The exterior walls on both sides of the fire wall shall 
have a l-houv fire-resistance rating with ^-hour pro- 
tection where opening protection is required by Sec- 
tion 705.8. The fire-resistance rating of the exterior 
wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 mm) on 
each side of the intersection of the//r^ wall to exterior 
wall. Exterior wallintQTScctions at fire walls that form 
an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 
rad) do not need exterior wall protection. 

2. Buildings or spaces on both sides of the intersecting 
fire wall shall assume to have an imaginary lot line at 
the fire wall and extending beyond the exterior of the 
fire wall. The location of the assumed line in relation 
to the exterior walls and the fire wall shall be such that 
the exterior wall and opening protection meet the 
requirements set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. 
Such protection is not required for exterior walls ter- 
minating Sit fire walls that form an angle equal to or 
greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad). 

706.5.2 Horizontal projecting elements. Fire walls shall 
extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements 
such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and 
similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the 
fire wall. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Horizontal projecting elements without concealed 
spaces, provided the exterior wall behind and 
below the projecting element has not less than 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance not less than the depth of the projecting ele- 
ment on both sides of the fire wall. Openings 
within such exterior walls shall be protected by 
opening protectives having a fire protection rating 
of not less than V4 hour. 

2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, provided a minimum 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through 
the concealed space. The projecting element shall 
be separated from the building by a minimum of 
1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a dis- 
tance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth 
of the projecting element. The wall is not required 
to extend under the projecting element where the 
building exterior wall is not less than 1-hour 
fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of 
the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting 
element. Openings within such exterior walls shall 
be protected by opening protectives having afire 
protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements 
with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only 
extend through the concealed space to the outer 



edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall 
behind and below the projecting element shall be 
of not less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated con- 
struction for a distance not less than the depth of 
the projecting elements on both sides of the fire 
wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a 
fire-protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

706.6 Vertical continuity. Fire walls shall extend from the 
foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) 
above both adjacent roofs. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 
706.6.1. 

2. Two-hour fire-resistahce-rated walls shall be permit- 
ted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, 
deck or slab, provided: 

2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 
mm) of the wall has not less than a 1-hour 
fire-resistance rating and the entire length 
and span of supporting elements for the rated 
roof assembly has afire-resistance rating of 
not less than 1 hour. 

2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located 
within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less 
than a Class B roof covering. 

3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside 
of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck or slabs 
where both buildings are provided with not less than a 
Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not 
be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall. 

4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls 
shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of 
combustible roof sheathing or decks, provided: 

4.1. There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet 
(1220 mm) of the fire wall, 

4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B 
roof covering, and 

4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of 
fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 
feet ( 1 220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the 
roof is protected with %-inch (15.9 mm) Type 
X gypsum board directly beneath the under- 
side of the roof sheathing or deck, supported 
by a minimum of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal 
ledgers attached to the sides of the roof fram- 
ing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet 
(1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. 

5. In buildings designed in accordance with Section 
509.2, fire walls located above the 3-hour horizontal 
assembly required by Section 509.2, Item 1 shall be 
permitted to extend from the top of this horizontal 
assembly. 



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706.6.1 Stepped buildings. Where Sifire wall serves as an 
exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having 
different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not 
less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, 
provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 nam) 
above the lower roof is not less than 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated construction from both sides with openings pro- 
tected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of 
not less than % hour. 

Exception: Where the^r^ wall terminates at the under- 
side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, 
provided: 

1 . The lower roof assembly within 10 feet (3048 mm) 
of the wall has not less than a l-hour fire-resis- 
tance rating and the entire length and span of sup- 
porting elements for the rated roof assembly has a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located 
within 10 feet (3048 mm) of thQ fire wall. 

706.7 Combustible framing in fire walls. Adjacent combusti- 
ble members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from 
opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) dis- 
tance between embedded ends. Where combustible members 
frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces 
shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a 
distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and 
between the structural members, with noncombustible materi- 
als approved for fireblocking. 

706.8 Openings. Each opening through afire wall shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715.4 and shall not exceed 
156 square feet (15 m^). The aggregate width of openings at 
any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the 
wall. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed 
in accordance with Section 706.1.1. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) where both buildings are equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

706.9 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire walls shall comply 
with Section 713. 

706.10 Joints. Joints made in or between ^r^ walls shall com- 
ply with Section 714. 

706.11 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air trans- 
fer openings shall not penetrate fire walls. 

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings 
of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed pro- 
vided the penetrations comply with Section 716. The size 
and aggregate width of all openings shall not exceed the lim- 
itations of Section 706.8. 



SECTION 707 
FIRE BARRIERS 

707.1 General. Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere in 
this code or the International Fire Code shall comply with this 
section. 

707.2 Materials. Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted 
by the building type of construction. 

707.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of fire 
barriers shall comply with this section. 

707.3.1 Shaft enclosures. Tht fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from a shaft shall com- 
ply with Section 708.4. 

707.3.2 Exit enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exit shall com- 
ply with Section 1022.1. 

707.3.3 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of the 
fire barrier separating building areas from an exit passage- 
way shall comply with Section 1023.3. 

707.3.4 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the 
separation between building areas connected by a horizon- 
tal exit shall comply with Section 1025.1. 

707.3.5 Atriums. The fire-resistance rating of the fire bar- 
rier separating atriums shall comply with Section 404.6. 

707.3.6 Incidental accessory occupancies. The fire bar- 
rier separating incidental accessory occupancies from other 
spaces in the building shall have afire-resistance rating of 
not less than that indicated in Table 508.2.5. 

707.3.7 Control areas. Fire barriers separating control 
areas shall have afire-resistance rating of not less than that 
required in Section 414.2.4. 

707.3.8 Separated occupancies. Where the provisions of 
Section 508.4 are applicable, the fire barrier separating 
mixed occupancies shall have afire-resistance rating of not 
less than that indicated in Table 508.4 based on the occupan- 
cies being separated. 

707.3.9 Fire areas. The^r^ barriers or horizontal assem- 
blies, or both, separating a single occupancy into different 
fire areas shall have afire-resistance rating of not less than 
that indicated in Table 707.3.9. The fire barriers or horizon- 
tal assemblies, or both, separating^zr^ areas of mixed occu- 
pancies shall have afire-resistance rating of not less than the 
highest value indicated in Table 707.3.9 for the occupancies 
under consideration. 

TABLE 707.3.9 

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE 

BARRIER ASSEMBLIES OR HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

BETWEEN FIRE AREAS 



OCCUPANCY GROUP 


FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours) 


H-l,H-2 


4 


F-1,H-3,S-1 


3 


A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5, 
I,L, M,R,S-2 


2 


U 


1 



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707.4 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated shaft or ejcif enclosure, or separa- 
tion, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 
705 for exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure or 
separation requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Secfion 1019 for exterior egress 
balconies, Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 
1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

707.5 Continuity. Fire barriers shall extend from the top of the 
floor/ceihng assembly below to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, slab or deck above and shall be securely 
attached thereto. Such fire barriers shall be continuous through 
concealed spaces, such as the space above a suspended ceiling. 

707.5.1 Supporting construction. The supporting con- 
struction for afire barrier shall be protected to afford the 
veqairQd fire-resistance rating of tht fire barrier supported. 
Hollow vertical spaces within a fire barrier shall be 
fireblocked in accordance with Section 717.2 at every floor 
level. 

Exceptions: 

1. The maximum required fire -resistance rating for 
assemblies supporting fire barriers separating 
tank storage as provided for in Section 415.6.2.1 
shall be 2 hours, but not less than required by Table 
601 for the building construction type. 

2. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate at 
a top enclosure complying with Section 708.12. 

3. Supporting construction for 1-houv fire barriers 
required by Table 508.2.5 in buildings of Type 
IIB, IIIB and VB construction is not required to be 
fire-resistance rated unless required by other sec- 
tions of this code. 

707.6 Openings. Openings in afire barrier shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. Openings shall be limited to a 
maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the 
wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall not 
exceed 156 square feet (15 m^). Openings in exit enclosures 
and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 1022.3 
and 1023.5, respectively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) where adjoining floor areas are equipped 
throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective is afire door 
serving an exit enclosure. 

3. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective has been 
tested in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 and 
has a minimumfire-resistance rating not less than the 
fire -resistance rating of the wall. 



4. Fire window assemblies permitted in atrium separa- 
tion walls shall not be limited to a maximum aggre- 
gate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall. 

5. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 
m^) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length 
of the wall where the opening protective is afire door 
assembly in afire barrier separating an exit enclosure 
from an exit passageway in accordance with Section 
1022.2.1. 

707.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire barriers shall comply 
with Section 713. 

707.7.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations into an exit 
enclosure or an ex/r passageway shall be allowed only when 
permitted by Section 1022.4 or 1023.6, respectively. 

707.8 Joints. Joints made in or b&twccnfire barriers, and joints 
made at the intersection of fire barriers with underside of the 
floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above, shall comply with 
Section 714. 

707.9 Duets and air transfer openings. Penetrations in afire 
barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



SECTION 708 
SHAFT ENCLOSURES 

708.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to 
shafts required to protect openings and penetrations through 
floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling assemblies. Shaft enclosures 
shall be constructed as^r^ barriers in accordance with Section 
707 or horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712, 
or both. 

708.2 Shaft enclosure required. Openings through a 
floor/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure 
complying with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1 . A shaft enclosure is not required for openings totally 
within an individual residential dwelling unit and 
connecting four stories or less. 

2. In other than Groups 1-2, 1-2 J, and 1-3, a shaft enclo- 
sure is not required in a building equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 for an escalator opening or 
stairway that is not a portion of the means of egress 
protected according to Item 2.1 or 2.2. 

2.1 . Where the area of the floor opening between 
stories does not exceed twice the horizontal 
projected area of the escalator or stairway and 
the opening is protected by a draft curtain and 
closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with 
NFPA 13. In other than Groups B and M, this 
application is limited to openings that do not 
connect more than four stories, 

2.2. Where the opening is protected by approved 
power-operated automatic shutters at every 
penetrated floor. The shutters shall be of 
noncombustible construction and have a 



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fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 
hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to 
close immediately upon the actuation of a 
smoke detector installed in accordance with 
Section 907.3 and shall completely shut off 
the well opening. Escalators shall cease oper- 
ation when the shutter begins to close. The 
shutter shall operate at a speed of not more 
than 30 feet per minute ( 1 52.4 mm/s) and shall 
be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to 
arrest its progress where in contact with any 
obstacle, and to continue its progress on re- 
lease therefrom, 

3. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
pipe, tube, conduit, wire, cable and vents protected 
in accordance with Section 713.4. 

4. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by 
ducts protected in accordance with Section 716.6. 
Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with 
the California Mechanical Code, 

5. In other than Group H occupancies, a shaft enclo- 
sure is not required for floor openings complying 
with the provisions for atriums in Section 404. 

6. A shaft enclosure is not required for approved 
masonry chimneys where annular space is 
fireblocked at each floor level in accordance with 
Section 717.2.5. 

7. In other than Groups 1-2, 1-2.1 and 1-3, a shaft enclo- 
sure is not required for a floor opening or an air 
transfer opening that complies with the following: 

7.1. Does not connect more than two stories. 

7.2. Is not part of the required means of egress sys- 
tem. 

7.3. Is not concealed within the construction of a 
wall or a floor/ceiling assembly. 

7.4. Is not open to a corridor in Group I and R oc- 
cupancies. 

7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered 
floors in any occupancy. 

7.6. Is separated from floor openings and air trans- 
fer openings serving other floors by construc- 
tion conforming to required shaft enclosures. 

7.7. Is limited to the same smoke compartment. 

8. A shaft enclosure is not required for automobile 
ramps in open and enclosed parking garages con- 
structed in accordance with Sections 406.3 and 
406.4, respectively. 

9. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings 
between a mezzanine and the floor below. 

10. A shaft enclosure is not required for joints protected 
by a fire-resistant joint system in accordance with 
Section 714. 



11. A shaft enclosure shall not be required for floor 
openings created by unenclosed stairs or ramps in 
accordance with Exception 3 or 4 in Section 1016.1. 

12. Floor openings protected by floor fire doors in 
accordance with Section 712.8. 

13. In Group 1-3 occupancies, a shaft enclosure is not 
required for floor openings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 408.5. 

14. A shaft enclosure is not required for elevator 
hoistways in open or enclosed parking garages that 
serve only the parking garage. 

15. In open or enclosed parking garages a shaft enclo- 
sure is not required to enclose mechanical exhaust or 
supply duct systems when such duct system is con- 
tained within and serves only the parking garage, 

16. Where permitted by other sections of this code. 

708.3 Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials per- 
mitted by the building type of construction. 

708.4 Fire-resistance rating. Shaft enclosures shall have a 
fire -resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting 
four stories or more, and not less than 1 hour where connecting 
less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the 
shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezza- 
nines. Shaft enclosures shall have a. fire-resistance rating not 
less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 
hours. Shaft enclosures shall meet the requirements of Section 
703.2.1. 

708.5 Continuity. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as^r^ 
barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assem- 
blies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, and 
shall have continuity in accordance with Section 707.5 for fire 
barriers or Section 712.4 for horizontal assemblies as applica- 
ble. 

708.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the 
fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1019.2 for exterior egress 
balconies. Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 
1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 

708.7 Openings. Openings in a ^haft enclosure shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 7 1 5 as required for fire barri- 
ers. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke 
detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. 

708.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those 
necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted 
in shaft enclosures. 

708.8 Penetrations. Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be 
protected in accordance with Section 713 as required for fire 
barriers. 

708.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations other than 
those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be per- 
mitted in shaft enclosures. 



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708.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Sec- 
tion 714. 

708.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a 
shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 716. 

708.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to 
the bottom of the building or structure shall comply with one of 
the following: 

1 . They shall be enclosed at the lowest level with construc- 
tion of the ^ame fire-resistance rating as the lowest floor 
through which the shaft passes, but not less than the rat- 
ing required for.the shaft enclosure. 

2. They shall terminate in a room having a use related to the 
purpose of the shaft. The room shall be separated from 
the remainder of the building by fire barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies 
constructed in accordance with Section 7 12, or both. The 
fire-resistance rating and opening protectives shall be at 
least equal to the protection required for the shaft enclo- 
sure. 

3. They shall be protected by approved fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing at the lowest 
floor level within the shaft enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not 
required, provided there are no openings in or pen- 
etrations of the shaft enclosure to the interior of the 
building except at the bottom. The bottom of the 
shaft shall be closed off around the penetrating 
items with materials permitted by Section 717.3.1 
for draftstopping, or the room shall be provided 
with an approved automatic fire suppression sys- 
tem. 

2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or 
laundry chute shall not be used for any other pur- 
pose and shall terminate in a room protected in 
accordance with Section 708.13.4. 

3. The fire-resistance-rated room separation and the 
protection at the bottom of the shaft are not 
required provided there are no combustibles in the 
shaft and there are no openings or other penetra- 
tions through the shaft enclosure to the interior of 
the building. 

708.12 Enclosure at the top. A shaft enclosure that does not 
extend to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the 
building shall be enclosed at the top with construction of the 

ssime fire-resistance rating as the topmost floor penetrated by 
the shaft, but not less than the. fire-resistance rating required for 
the shaft enclosure. 

708.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. Refuse and laundry 
chutes, access and termination rooms and incinerator rooms 
shall meet the requirements of Sections 708.13.1 through 
708.13.6. 

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single 

dwelling unit. 



708.13.1 Refuse and laundry chute enclosures. A shaft 
enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall not be 
used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accor- 
dance with Section 708.4. Openings into the shaft, includ- 
ing those from access rooms and termination rooms, shall 
be; protected in accordance with this section and Section 
715. Openings into chutes shall not be located in corridors. 
Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the actuation 
of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3, 
except that heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted 
between the shaft and the termination room. 

708.13.2 Materials. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse 
or laundry chute shall be constructed of materials as permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

708.13.3 Refuse and laundry chute access rooms. Access 

openings for refuse and laundry chutes shall be located in 
rooms or compartments enclosed by not less than 1-hour 
fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 
horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Sec- 
tion 712, or both. Openings into the access rooms shall be 
protected by opening protectives having a fire protection 
rating of not less than % hour. Doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance 
with Section 715.4.8.3. 

708.13.4 Termination room. Refuse and laundry chutes 
shall discharge into an enclosed room separated from the 
remainder of the building by not less than l-hour^re barri- 
ers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizon- 
tal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, 
or both. Openings into the termination room shall be pro- 
tected by opening protectives having di fire protection rating 
of not less than V4 hour. Doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance 
with Section 715.4.8.3. Refuse chutes shall not terminate in 
an incinerator room. Refuse and laundry rooms that are not 
provided with chutes need only comply with Table 508.2.5 . 

708.13.5 Incinerator room. Incinerator rooms shall com- 
ply with Table 508.2.5. 

708.13.6 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with 
Section 903.2.11.2. 

708.14 Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistways. Elevator, 
dumbwaiter and other hoistway enclosures shall be con- 
structed in accordance with Section 708 and Chapter 30. 

708.14.1 Elevator lobby. An enclosed elevator lobby shall 
be provided at each floor where an elevator shaft enclosure 
connects more than two stories in Group A, E, H, I, L, R-1, 
R-2 andR-2,1 occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other 
applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of 
the State Fire Marshal, and more than three stories for all 
other occupancies. The lobby enclosure shall separate the 
elevator shaft enclosure doors from each floor by fire parti- 
tions. In addition to the requirements in Section 709 for fire 
partitions, doors protecting openings in the elevator lobby 
enclosure walls shall also comply with Section 715.4.3 as 
required for corridor walls and penetrations of the elevator 
lobby enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall be 



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II 



protected as required for corridors in accordance with Sec- 
tion 716.5.4.1. Elevator lobbies shall have at least one 
means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and other pro- 
visions within this code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required at the 
street floor, provided the entire street floor is 
equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in 
accordance with Section 708.2 are not required to 
have enclosed elevator lobbies. 

3. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
additional doors are provided at the hoistway 
opening in accordance with Section 3002.6. Such 
doors shall be tested in accordance with UL 1784 
without an artificial bottom seal. 

4. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler 
system installed in accordance with Section 
903,3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. This exception shall not 
apply to the following: 

4.1. Group A occupancies; 

4.2. Group E occupancies; 
43, Group H occupancies; 

4.4. Group I occupancies; 

4.5. Group L occupancies; 

4.6. Group R-1, R-2 and R-2.1 occupancies; 
and 

4. 7. High-rise buildings. 

5. Smoke partitions shall be permitted in Heu of fire 
partitions to separate the elevator lobby at each 
floor where the building is equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.3. LI or 903.3. 1.2. In 
addition to the requirements in Section 711 for 
smoke partitions, doors protecting openings in the 
smoke partitions shall also comply with Sections 
711.5.2, 711.5.3, and 715.4.8 and duct penetra- 
tions of the smoke partitions shall be protected as 
required for corridors in accordance with Section 
716.5.4.1. 

6. [SFM] When approved, in other than Group 1-2 
occupancies enclosed elevator lobbies are not 
required where the elevator hoistway is pressur- 
ized in accordance with Section 708.14.2. 

7. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where 
the elevator serves only open parking garages in 
accordance with Section 406.3. 

8. [SFM] Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required 
where the hoistway door has afire-protection rat- 
ing as required by Section 708. 7 and the hoistway 



door opening is also protected by a listed and 
labeled smoke containment system complying with 
ICC ES AC 77. 

See Section 403.6 for additional requirements for high- 
rise buildings. 

708.14.1.1 Areas of refuge. Areas of refuge shall be pro- 
vided as required in Section 1007. 

708.14.2 Enclosed elevator lobby. Where elevator hoist- 
way pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed 
elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply 
with this section. 

708.14.2.1 Pressurization requirements. Elevator 
hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum 
positive pressure of 0.10 inches of water (25 Pa) and a 
maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inches of water (67 
Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. 
This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each 
hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall 
and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all 
other hoistway doors closed. The opening and closing of 
hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated dur- 
ing this test. The supply air intake shall be from an out- 
side, uncontaminated source located a minimum 
distance of 20 feet (6096 nmi) from any air exhaust sys- 
tem or outlet. 

708.14.2.2 Rational analysis. A rational analysis com- 
plying with Section 909.4 shall be submitted with the 
construction documents. 

708.14.2.3 Ducts for system. Any duct system that is 
part of the pressurization system shall be protected with 
the ssimt fire-resistance rating as required for the eleva- 
tor shaft enclosure. 

708.14.2.4 Fan system. The fan system provided for the 
pressurization system shall be as required by this section. 

708.14.2.4.1 Fire resistance. When located within 
the building, the fan system that provides the pressur- 
ization shall be protected with the ssltrq fire-resis- 
tance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure. 

708.14.2.4.2 Smoke detection. The fan system shall 
be equipped with a smoke detector that will automati- 
cally shut down the fan system when smoke is 
detected within the system. 

708.14.2.4.3 Separate systems. A separate fan sys- 
tem shall be used for each elevator hoistway. 

708.14.2.4.4 Fan capacity. The supply fan shall 
either be adjustable with a capacity of at least 1 ,000 
cf m (.47 1 9 mVs) per door, or that specified by a regis- 
tered design professional to meet the requirements of 
a designed pressurization system. 

708.14.2.5 Standby power. The pressurization system 
shall be provided with standby power from the same 
source as other required emergency systems for the 
building. 



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708.14.2.6 Activation of pressurization system. The 

elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon 
activation of the building fire alarm system or upon acti- 
vation of the elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both 
a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke 
detectors are present, each shall be independently capa- 
ble of activating the pressurization system. 

708.14.2.7 Special inspection. Special inspection for 
performance shall be required in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance 
with Section 909.19. 

708.14.2.8 Marliing and identification. Detection and 
control systems shall be marked in accordance with Sec- 
tion 909.14. 

708.14.2.9 Control diagrams. Control diagrams shall 
be provided in accordance with Section 909.15. 

708.14.2.10 Control panel. A control panel complying 
with Section 909.16 shall be provided. 

708.14.2.11 System response time. Hoistway pressur- 
ization systems shall comply with the requirements for 
smoke control system response time in Section 909.17. 



SECTION 709 
FIRE PARTITIONS 

709.1 General. The following wall assemblies shall comply 
with this section. 

1. Walls separating dwelling units in the same building as 
required by Section 420.2. 

2. Walls separating sleeping units in the same building as 
required by Section 420.2. 

3 . Walls separating tenant spaces in covered mall buildings 
as required by Section 402.7.2. 

4. Corridor walls as required by Section 1018.1. 

5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 
708.14.1. 

6. Walls separating enclosed tenant spaces in high-rise 
buildings and in buildings of Types /, II A, III A, IV or V A 
construction of Group A, E, H, I, L and R-2.1 occupan- 
cies and other applications listed in Section LI I regu- 
lated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal 

709.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. 

709.3 Fire-resistance rating. Fire partitions shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Corridor walls permitted to have a V2 horn fire -resis- 
tance rating by Table 1018.1. 

2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in build- 
ings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than Vj hour in 
buildings equipped throughout with an automatic 
sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. 



709.4 Continuity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of 
the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the under- 
side of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to the 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof /ceiling assembly 
above, and shall be securely attached thereto. If the partitions 
are not continuous to the sheathing, deck or slab, and where 
constructed of combustible construction, the space between the 
ceiling and the sheathing, deck or slab above shall be 
fireblocked or draftstopped in accordance with Sections 717.2 
and 717.3 at the partition line. The supporting construction 
shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating 
of the wall supported, except for walls separating tenant spaces 
in covered mall buildings, walls separating dwelling units, 
walls separating sleeping units and corridor walls in buildings 
of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. The wall need not be extended into the crawl space 
below where the floor above the crawl space has a 
minimum 1-hour fire-resistance rating. 

2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated membrane 
of the corridor is carried through to the underside of 
the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of the cor- 
ridor shall be permitted to be protected by the use of 
ceiling materials as required for a 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or roof system. 

3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required 
for the corridor walls, the walls shall be permitted to 
terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling 
assembly. 

4. The fire partitions separating tenant spaces in a cov- 
ered mall building, complying with Section 402.7,2, 
are not required to extend beyond the underside of a 
ceiling that is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assem- 
bly. A wall is not required in attic or ceiling spaces 
above tenant separation walls. 

5. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not 
exceed four stories above grade plane, provided the 
attic space is subdivided by draftstopping into areas 
not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m^) or above 
every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller. 

6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the 
partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic 
sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that 
automatic sprinklers are installed in all combustible 
floor/ceiling and roof /ceiling spaces. 

709.5 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a 
required fire-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls, and 
the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements shall not 
apply. 

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance 
rated in accordance with Section 1019.2 for exterior egress 
balconies. Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 
1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways. 



'it 



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• 



« 



> 
> 



709.6 Openings. Openings in afire partition shall be protected 
in accordance with Section 715. 

709.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire partitions shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

709.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall 
comply with Section 714. 

709.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in afire 
partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with 
Section 716. 



SECTION 710 
SMOKE BARRIERS 

710.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this section. 

710.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permit- 
ted by the building type of construction. 

710.3 Fire-resistance rating, A l-hour fire-resistance rating 
is required for smoke barriers. 

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 
0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings. 

710.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective 
membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and 
from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below 
to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab 
above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as 
those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial struc- 
tural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the 
wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type IIB, IIIB 
or VB construction. 

Exception: Smoke-barrier walls are not required in intersti- 
tial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed 
with ceilings that provide resistance to the passage of fire 
and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke-barrier 
walls. 

710.5 Openings. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Section 715. 

Exceptions: 

1. In Group 1-2, where doors are installed across corri- 
dors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a cen- 
ter mullion shall be installed having vision panels 
with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in 
fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall 
not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close fitting 
within operational tolerances, and shall not have 
undercuts in excess of V4-inch, louvers or grilles. The 
doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or 
rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-clos- 
ing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 
715.4.8.3. Where permitted by the door manufac- 
turer's listing, positive-latching devices are not 
required. 

2. In Group 1-2, horizontal sliding doors installed in 
accordance with Section 1008.1.4.3 and protected in 
accordance with Section 715. 



710.6 Penetrations. Penetrations of smoke barriers shall com- 
ply with Section 713. 

710.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall 
comply with Section 714. 

710.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a 
smoke barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply 
with Section 716. 



SECTION 711 
SMOKE PARTITIONS 

711.1 General. Smoke partitions installed as required else- 
where in the code shall comply with this section. 

711.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by 
the building type of construction. In Group 1-2 and 1-2 J, smoke 
partitions shall have framing covered with noncombustible 
materials having an approved thermal barrier with an index of 
not less than 15 in accordance with FM4880, UL 1040, NFPA 
286 or UL 1715, 

711.3 Fire-resistance rating. Unless required elsewhere in the 
code, smoke partitions are not required to have afire-resistance 
rating. 

711.4 Continuity. Smoke partitions shall extend from the top 
of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the 
ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to 
limit the transfer of smoke. 

711.5 Openings. Windows shall be sealed to resist the free pas- 
sage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection of smoke. 
Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with this section. 

711.5.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not 
include louvers. 

711.5.2 Smoke and draft control doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall meet 
the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assem- 
bly tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate 
of the door assembly shall not exceed 3 .0 cubic feet per min- 
ute per square foot (0.015424 mV(s • m^)) of door opening at 
0. 10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient tempera- 
ture test and the elevated temperature exposure test. Installa- 
tion of smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105. 

711.5.3 Self- or automatic-closing doors. Where required 
elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be 
self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance 
with Section 715.4.8.3. 

711.6 Penetrations and joints. The space around penetrating 
items and in joints shall be filled with an approved material to 
limit the free passage of smoke. 

711.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. The space around a 
duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an 
approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air trans- 
fer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke 
damper complying with Section 716.3.2.2. For Group A, E, H, 
I, L and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applica- 
tions listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State 



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Fire Marshal, duct openings in smoke partitions shall also be 
provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 
I I 716.3.2.2. 

Exceptiony: 

1. Where the installation of a smoke damper will inter- 
fere with the operation of a required smoke control 
system in accordance with Section 909, approved 
alternative protection shall be utilized. 

2. [SFM] Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of steel not 
less than 0. 019-inch (0.40 mm) in thickness and there 
are no openings serving the corridor. 



SECTION 712 
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES 

712.1 General. Floor and roof assemblies required to have a 
fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. 
Nonfire-resistance-rated floor and roof assemblies shall com- 
ply with Section 713.4.2. 

712.2 Materials. The floor and roof assemblies shall be of 
materials permitted by the building type of construction. 

712.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of 
floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required by 
the building type of construction. Where the floor assembly 
separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a 
fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 

508.4 based on the occupancies being separated. Where the 
floor assembly separates a single occupancy into different^/"^ 
areas, the assembly shall have di fire-resistance rating of not 
less than that required by Section 707.3.9. Horizontal assem- 
blies separating dwelling units in the same building and hori- 
zontal assemblies separating sleeping units in the same 
building shall be a minimum of 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
construction. 

Exception: Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in 
buildings of Type IIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have 
fire-resistance ratings of not less than V2 hour in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

712.3.1 Ceiling panels. Where the weight of lay-in ceiling 
panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward 
force of 1 pound per square foot (48 Pa), wire or other 
approved devices shall be installed above the panels to pre- 
vent vertical displacement under such upward force. 

712.3.2 Access doors. Access doors shall be permitted in 
ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceil- 
ing assemblies provided such doors are tested in accordance 
with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 as horizontal assembhes and 
labeled by an approved agency for such purpose. 

712.3.3 Unusable space. In 1-hour fire-resistance-rated 
floor assemblies, the ceiling membrane is not required to be 
installed over unusable crawl spaces. In 1-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated roof assemblies, the floor membrane is not 
required to be installed where unusable attic space occurs 
above. 



712.4 Continuity. Assemblies shall be continuous without 
openings, penetrations or joints except as permitted by this sec- 
tion and Sections 708.2, 713.4, 714 and 1022.1. Skylights and 
other penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck or 
slab are permitted to be unprotected, provided that the struc- 
tural integrity of the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly is 
maintained. Unprotected skylights shall not be permitted in 
roof assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accor- 
dance with Section 704.10. The supporting construction shall 
be protected to afford the requk&d fire- resistance rating of the 
horizontal assembly supported. 

Exception: In buildings of Type IIB, IIIB or VB construc- 
tion, the construction supporting the horizontal assembly is 
not required to be fire-resistance-rated at the following: 

1 . Horizontal assemblies at the separations of incidental 
uses as specified by Table 508.2.5, provided the 
required fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 
hour. 

2. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of dwelling 
units and sleeping units as required by Section 420.3. 

3. Horizontal assemblies at smoke barriers constructed 
in accordance with Section 710. 

712.5 Penetrations. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies 
shall comply with Section 713. 

712.6 Joints. Joints made in or between horizontal assemblies 
shall comply with Section 714. The void created at the intersec- 
tion of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall 
assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 7 14.4. 

712.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in hori- 
zontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer openings shall com- 
ply with Section 716. 

712.8 Floor fire door assemblies. Floor ^re door assemblies 
used to protect openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be 
tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a 
fire -resistance rating not less than the assembly being pene- 
trated. Floor fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an 
approved agency. The label shall be permanently affixed and 
shall specify the manufacturer, the test standard and the 
fire-resistance rating. 

712.9 Smoke barrier. Where horizontal assemblies are 
required to resist the movement of smoke by other sections of 
this code in accordance with the definition of smoke barrier, 
penetrations and joints in such horizontal assemblies shall be 
protected as required for smoke barriers in accordance with 
Sections 713.5 and 714.6. Regardless of the number of stories 
connected by elevator shaft enclosures, doors located in eleva- 
tor shaft enclosures that penetrate the horizontal assembly shall 
be protected by enclosed elevator lobbies complying with Sec- 
tion 708.14.1. Openings through horizontal assemblies shall 
be protected by shaft enclosures complying with Section 708. 
Horizontal assemblies shall not be allowed to have unprotected 
vertical openings. 



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SECTION 713 
PENETRATIONS 

713.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
materials and methods of construction used to protect through 
penetrations and membrane penetrations of horizontal assem- 
blies and fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies. 

713.1.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected 
with dampers shall comply with Sections 713.2 through 
713.3.3. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies not pro- 
tected with a shaft as permitted by Exception 4 of Section 
708.2, and not required to be protected with fire dampers by 
other sections of this code, shall comply with Sections 7 13.4 
through 713.4.2.2. Ducts and air transfer openings that are 
protected with dampers shall comply with Section 716. 

713.2 Installation details. Where sleeves are used, they shall 
be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space 
between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself 
and any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated 
shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation 
and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate 
the assembly unless the specific material used has been tested 
as part of the assembly in accordance with this section. 

713.3 Fire-resistance-rated walls. Penetrations into or 
through y^r^ walls, fire barriers, smoke barrier walls and^zr^ 
partitions shall comply with Sections 713.3.1 through 713.3.3. 
Penetrations in smoke barrier walls shall also comply with 
Section 713.5. 

713.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of 
fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 
713.3.1.1 or 713.3.1.2. 

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, fer- 
rous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular 
space between the penetrating item and the fire-resis- 
tance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows: 

1. In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrat- 
ing item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter and the area of the opening through the 
wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 
m^), concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where it 
is installed the full thickness of the wall or the 
thickness required to maintain ih^ fire-resistance 
rating', or 

2. The material used to fill the annular space shall 
prevent the passage of flame and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time-temperature fire 
conditions under a minimum positive pressure dif- 
ferential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the loca- 
tion of the penetration for the time period 
equivalent to thQ fire-resistance rating of the con- 
struction penetrated. 

713.3.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetra- 
tions shall be installed as tested in an approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 



713.3.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 

Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of 
water and shall have an F rating of not less than the 
TQquiiQd fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated. 

713.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations 
shall comply with Section 713.3.1. Where walls or parti- 
tions are required to have afire-resistance rating, recessed 
fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire-resis- 
tance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour 
fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel 
electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square 
inches (0.0103 m^) in area, provided the aggregate 
area of the openings through the membrane does 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m^) in any 
100 square feet (9.29 m^) of wall area. The annular 
space between the wall membrane and the box 
shall not exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on 
opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be sepa- 
rated by one of the following: 

1 . 1 . By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 
inches (610 mm) where the wall or parti- 
tion is constructed with individual 
noncommunicating stud cavities; 

1 .2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the 
depth of the wall cavity where the wall cav- 
ity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, 
rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation; 

1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

1.4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed 
putty pads; or 

1.5. By other listed materials and methods. 

2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes 
of any material, provided such boxes have been 
tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies 
and are installed in accordance with the instruc- 
tions included in the listing. The annular space 
between the wall membrane and the box shall not 
exceed Vg inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. 
Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or parti- 
tion shall be separated by one of the following: 

2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the 
listing of the electrical boxes; 

2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with 
Section 717.2.1; 

2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty 
pads; or 

2.4. By other listed materials and methods. 

3- Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of any 
size or type, which have been listed as part of a 



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wall opening protective material system for use in 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed 
in accordance with the instructions included in the 
listing. 

4. Membrane penetrations by boxes other than elec- 
trical boxes, provided such penetrating items and 
the annular space between the wall membrane and 
the box, are protected by an approved membrane 
penetration firestop system installed as tested in 
accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a 
minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 
inch (2.49 Pa) of water, and shall have an F and T 
rating of not less than the xtqxmedi fire-resistance 
rating of the wall penetrated and be installed in 
accordance with their listing. 

5 . The annular space created by the penetration of an 
automatic sprinkler, provided it is covered by a 
metal escutcheon plate. 

713.3.3 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating 
items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the 
point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the 
fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained. 

713.4 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, 
floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceil- 
ing assembly not required to be enclosed in a shaft by Section 
708.2 shall be protected in accordance with Sections 713.4.1 
through 713.4.2.2. 

713.4.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of 
the fire-resistance-rated floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the 
ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall comply 
with Sections 713.4.1.1 through 713.4.1.4. Penetrations in 
horizontal smoke barriers shall also comply with 713.5. 

713.4.1.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations 
of fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies shall com- 
ply with Section 713.4.1.1.1 or 713.4.1.1.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, 
pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or masonry 
items through a single fire-resistance- rated floor 
assembly where the annular space is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 
when subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 
time-temperature fire conditions under a mini- 
mum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch 
(2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetra- 
tion for the time period equivalent to the 
fire-resistance rating of the construction pene- 
trated. Penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch 
(152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited 
to the penetration of a single fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor assembly, provided the aggre- 
gate area of the openings through the assembly 
does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm^) 
in any 100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, 
ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents 



with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal 
diameter, provided the concrete, grout or mor- 
tar is installed the full thickness of the floor or 
the thickness required to maintain the 
fire-resistance rating. The penetrating items 
shall not be limited to the penetration of a single 
concrete floor, provided the area of the opening 
through each floor does not exceed 144 square 
inches (92 900 mm^). 

3. Penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any 
material, provided such boxes have been tested 
for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and 
installed in accordance with the instructions 
included in the listing. 

713.4.1.1.1 Installation. Through penetrations shall 
be installed as tested in the approved fire-resis- 
tance-rated assembly. 

713.4.1.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. 

Through penetrations shall be protected by an 
approved through-penetration firestop system 
installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 
or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differ- 
ential of 0.01 inch of water (2.49 Pa). The system shall 
have an F rating/T rating of not less than 1 hour but not 
less than the required rating of the floor penetrated. 

Exception: Floor penetrations contained and 
located within the cavity of a wall above the floor 
or below the floor do not require a T rating. 

713,4,1.2 Membrane penetrations. Penetrations of 
membranes that are part of a horizontal assembly shall 
comply with Section 713.4.1.1.1 or 713.4.1.1.2. Where 
floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have 2i fire-resis- 
tance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that 
the required yzre resistance will not be reduced. 

Exceptions: 

1. Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or 
copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents, or con- 
crete or masonry items where the annular space 
is protected either in accordance with Section 
713.4.1.1 or to prevent the free passage of 
flame and the products of combustion. The 
aggregate area of the openings through the 
membrane shall not exceed 100 square inches 
(64 500 mm^) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m^) of 
ceihng area in assemblies tested without pene- 
trations. 

2. Ceiling membrane penetrations of maximum 
2-hour horizontal assemblies by steel electrical 
boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (10 
323 mm^) in area, provided the aggregate area 
of such penetrations does not exceed 100 
square inches (44 500 mm^) in any 100 square 
feet (9.29 m^) of ceiling area, and the annular 
space between the ceiling membrane and the 
box does not exceed 7g inch (3.2 mm). 

3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of 
any size or type, which have been listed as part 



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of an opening protective material system for 
use in horizontal assemblies and are installed in 
accordance with the instructions included in the 
listing. 

4. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical 
boxes of any material, provided such boxes 
have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies and are installed in accordance with 
the instructions included in the listing. The 
annular space between the ceiling membrane 
and the box shall not exceed Vg inch (3.2 mm) 
unless listed otherwise. 

5 . The annular space created by the penetration of 
a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a 
metal eschutcheon plate. 

713.4.1.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetra- 
tions of horizontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer 
openings shall comply with Section 716. 

713.4.1.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible pene- 
trating items shall not connect to combustible materials 
beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demon- 
strated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal 
assembly is maintained. 

713.4.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations 
of nonfire-resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies 
or the ceiling membrane of a nonfire-resistance- rated 
roof/ceiling assembly shall meet the requirements of Section 
708 or shall comply with Section 713.4.2.1 or 713.4.2.2. 

713.4.2.1 Noncombustible penetrating items. Non- 
combustible penetrating items that connect not more 
than three stories are permitted, provided that the annu- 
lar space is filled to resist the free passage of flame and 
the products of combustion with an approved 
noncombustible material or with a fill, void or cavity 
material that is tested and classified for use in 
through-penetration firestop systems. 

713.4.2.2 Penetrating items. Penetrating items that con- 
nect not more than two stories are permitted, provided 
that the annular space is filled with an approved material 
to resist the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 

713.5 Penetrations in smoke barriers. Penetrations in smoke 
barriers shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 1479 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the penetration 
assemblies measured at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water in both the 
ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests, shall not 
exceed: 

1. 5.0 cfm per square foot (0.025m^ / s ■ m^) of penetration 
opening for each through-penetration firestop system; or 

2. A total cumulative leakage of 50 cfm (0.024mVs) for any 
100 square feet (9.3 m^) of wall area, or floor area. 



SECTION 714 
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEMS 

714.1 General. Joints installed in or between fire-resis- 
tance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or 
roof/ceiling assemblies shall be protected by an approved 
fire-resistant joint system designed to resist the passage of fire 
for a time period not less than the TQquk&d fire-resistance rat- 
ing of the wall, floor or roof in or between which it is installed. 
Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with 
Section 714.3. The void created at the intersection of a 
floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly 
shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4. 

Exception: Fire -resistant joint systems shall not be required 
for joints in all of the following locations: 

1. Floors within a single (iwe//mg MmY. 

2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclo- 
sure in accordance with Section 708. 

3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the 
atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for 
smoke control purposes. 

4. Floors within malls. 

5. Floors and ramps within open and enclosed parking 
garages or structures constructed in accordance with 
Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively. 

6. Mezzanine floors. 

7 . Walls that are permitted to have unprotected openings. 

8. Roofs where openings are permitted. 

9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 
0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with 
ASTME119orUL263. 

714.2 Installation. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not 
to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommo- 
date expected building movements and to resist the passage of 
fire and hot gases. 

714.3 Fire test criteria. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be 
tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 
1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical wall joint systems shall be 
tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned 
fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained 
from the two tests. When evidence is furnished to show that the 
wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the 
furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall 
need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side. 

Exception: For exterior walls with a horizontal^re separa- 
tion distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system 
shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only. 

714.4 Exterior curtain wall/floor intersection. Where fire 
resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, 
voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall 
assemblies and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an 
approved system to prevent the interior spread of fire. Such sys- 
tems shall be securely installed and tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 2307 to prevent the passage of flame for the time 
period at least equal to the fire-resistance rating of the floor 



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assembly and prevent the passage of heat and hot gases suffi- 
cient to ignite cotton waste. Height and fire-resistance require- 
ments for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 

705.8.5. 

714.4.1 Exterior curtain wall/nonfire-resistance-rated 
floor assembly intersections. Voids created at the intersec- 
tion of exterior curtain wall assemblies and nonfire-resis- 
tance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies shall be sealed 
with an approved material or system to retard the interior 
spread of fire and hot gases between stories, 

714.5 Spandrel wall. Height and fire-resistance requirements 
for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705.8.5. 
Where Section 705.8.5 does not require a fire-resistance-rated 
spandrel wall, the requirements of Section 714.4 shall still apply 
to the intersection between the spandrel wall and the floor. 

714.6 Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers. 

Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers, and joints at the 
intersection of a horizontal smoke barrier and an exterior cur- 
tain wall, shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of 
UL 2079 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the joint shall 
not exceed 5 cfm per lineal foot (0.00775 mVs • m) of joint at 
0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature 
and elevated temperature tests. 



SECTION 715 
OPENING PROTECTIVES 

715.1 General. Opening protectives required by other sections 
of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section. 

715.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated 
glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall assembly in 
accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 and labeled in accor- 
dance with Section 703.5 shall be permitted in fire doors and 



fire window assemblies in accordance with their listings and 
shall not otherwise be required to comply with this section. 

715.3 Alternative methods for determining fire protection 
ratings. The application of any of the alternative methods 
listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and 
acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 252, NFPA 257 or UL 9. 
The required ^r^ resistance of an opening protective shall be 
permitted to be established by any of the following methods or 
procedures: 

1. Designs documented in approved sources. 

2. Calculations performed in an approved manner. 

3. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of opening 
protective designs having fire protection ratings as 
determined by the test procedures set forth in NFPA 252, 
NFPA 257 or UL 9. 

4. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 
104.11. 

715.4 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved ^r^ door 
and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material 
or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test 
requirementsofSection715.4.1, 715.4.2 or 715.4.3 and the^re 
protection rating indicated in Table 715.4. Fire door frames 
with transom Hghts, sidelights or both shall be permitted in 
accordance with Section 715.4.5. Fire door assemblies and 
shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this section and NFPA 80. 

Exceptions: 

1. Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the 
requirements of this section or UL lOA, UL 14B and 
UL 14C for \m-c\did fire door assemblies. 

2. ¥\oox fire door assemblies in accordance with Section 
712.8. 



b 



k 



TABLE 715.4 
FIRE DOOR AND FIRE SHUTTER FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED ASSEMBLY RATING 
(hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE DOOR AND FIRE 
SHUTTER ASSEMBLY RATING (hours) 


Fire walls and fire barriers having a required fire-resistance 
rating greater than 1 hour 


4 

3 

2 

IV, 


3 
3a 

IV, 
IV. 


Fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour: 
Shaft, exit enclosure and exit passageway walls 
Other fire barriers 


1 
1 


1 


Fire partitions: 
Corridor walls 

Other fire partitions 


1 
0.5 

1 
0.5 


V. 


Exterior walls 


3 

2 - 
1 




Smoke barriers 


1 


%' 



a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1 V2 hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection 
rating to one 3-hour fire door. 

b. For testing requirements, see Section 715.4.3. 



190 



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FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



715.4.1 Side-hinged or pivoted swinging doors. Fire door 
assemblies with side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors 
shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL IOC. 
After 5 minutes into the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure 
level in the furnace shall be established at 40 inches (1016 
mm) or less above the sill. 

715.4.2 Other types of assemblies. Fire door assemblies 
with other types of doors, including swinging elevator doors 
and fire shutter assemblies, shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL lOB. The pressure in the furnace shall 
be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as 
possible. Once established, the pressure shall be maintained 
during the entire test period. 

715.4.3 Door assemblies in corridors and smoke barri- 
ers. Fire door assemblies required to have a mimmvim fire 
protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor 
walls or smoke barrier walls having afire-resistance rating 
in accordance with Table 715.4 shall be tested in accordance 
with NFPA 252 or UL IOC without the hose stream test. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch 
(25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least 
a 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and the 
holder is of metal that will not melt out where sub- 
ject to temperatures of 1,700T (927''C), 

2. Corridor door assembUes in occupancies of Group 
1-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1. 

3 . Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corri- 
dors in multitheater complexes where each motion 
picture auditorium has at least one-half of its 
required exit or exit access doorways opening 
directly to the exterior or into an ejc// passageway. 

4. Horizontal sliding doors in smoke barriers that 
comply with Sections 408.3 and 408.8.4 in occu- 
pancies in Group 1-3. 

5. Cell or room doors, including cell or room doors 
with integral side-lites that are part of the door 
assembly in Group IS occupancies which open 
into a required exit corridor within a cell complex. 

715.4.3.1 Smoke and draft control. Fire door assem- 
blies shall also meet the requirements for a smoke and 
draft control door assembly tested in accordance with 
UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall 
not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot 
(0.01524 mVs • m^) of door opening at 0.10 inch (24.9 
Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and ele- 
vated temperature tests. Louvers shall be prohibited. 
Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with 
NFPA 105. 

715.4.3.2 Glazing In door assemblies. In a 20-minute 
fire door assembly, the glazing material in the door itself 
shall have a minimum fire-protection-rated glazing of 20 
minutes and shall be exempt from the hose stream test. 
Glazing material in any other part of the door assembly, 
including transom lights and sidelights, shall be tested in 



accordance with NFPA 257 or UL 9, including the hose 
stream test, in accordance with Section 715.5. 

715.4.4 Doors in exit enclosures and exit passageways. 

Fire door assembUes in exit enclosures and exit passage- 
ways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature end 
point of not more than 450T (250°C) above ambient at the 
end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise 
is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

715.4.4.1 Glazing in doors. Fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m^) shall be 
permitted in fire door assemblies when tested as compo- 
nents of the door assemblies and not as glass lights, and 
shall have a maximum transmitted temperature rise of 
450°F (250°C) in accordance with Section 715.4.4. 

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature 
rise is not required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

715.4.5 Fire door frames with transom lights and side- 
lights. Door frames with transom lights, sidelights, or both, 
shall be permitted where a ^l^-\\o\xxfire protection rating or 
less is required in accordance with Table 7 1 5 .4. Where difire 
protection rating exceeding V4-hour is required in accor- 
dance with Table 715.4, fire door frames with transom 
lights, sidelights, or both, shall be permitted where installed 
with fire-resistance-rated glazing tested as an assembly in 
accordance with ASTM El 19 or UL 263. 

715.4.6 Labeled protective assemblies. Fire door assem- 
blies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels 
shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently 
affixed to the door or frame. 

715.4.6.1 Fire door labeling requirements. Fire doors 
shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer or 
other identification readily traceable back to the manu- 
facturer, the name or trademark of the third-party inspec- 
tion agency, the fire protection rating and, where 
required foxfire doors in ^jc// enclosures and ^xiY passage- 
ways by Section 715.4.4, the maximum transmitted tem- 
perature end point. Smoke and draft control doors 
complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled as such and 
shall also comply with Section 715.4.6.3. Labels shall be 
approved and permanently affixed. The label shall be 
applied at the factory or location where fabrication and 
assembly are performed. 

Exception: In Group 1-3 doors which are required to 
be 45 minutes or higher shall be fire-rated assemblies 
or certified by the manufacturer as being equivalent 
to the required standard, 

715.4.6.2 Oversized doors. Oversized fire doors shall 
bear an oversized y?r^ door label by an approved agency 
or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection fur- 
nished by an approved testing agency. When a certificate 
of inspection is furnished by an approved testing agency, 
the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



191 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



requirements of design, materials and construction, but 
has not been subjected to the fire test. 

715.4.6.3 Smoke and draft control door labeling 
requirements. Smoke and draft control doors comply- 
ing with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with 
Section 715.4.6. 1 and shall show the letter "S" on the fire 
rating label of the door. This marking shall indicate that 
the door and frame assembly are in compliance when 
listed or labeled gasketing is also installed. 

715.4.6.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. Fire 
door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the 
manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency. 

715.4.7 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
conforming to the opening protection requirements in Sec- 
tion 715.4 shall be permitted in^r^ door assemblies. 

715.4.7.1 Size limitations. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
used in fire doors shall comply with the size limitations 
ofNFPASO. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire doors 
located in fire walls shall be prohibited except 
where serving in afire door in a horizontal exit, 
a self-closing swinging door shall be permitted 
to have a vision panel of not more than 100 
square inches (0.065 m^) without a dimension 
exceeding 10 inches (254 mm). 

2. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall not be 
installed in fire doors having a V/j-hom fire 
protection rating intended for installation in 
fire barriers, unless the glazing is not more than 

100 square inches (0.065 m^) in area. 

715.4.7.2 Exit and elevator protectives. Approved 
fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire door assemblies 
in elevator and exit enclosures shall be so located as to 
furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the 
elevator, ramp or stairway. 

715.4.7.3 Labeling. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
bear a label or other identification showing the name of 
the manufacturer, the test standard and information 
required in Section 715.5.9.1 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing. 

715.4.7.3.1 Identification. For fire protection-rated 
glazing, the label shall bear the following four-part 
identification: "D - H or NH - T or NT - XXX." "D" 
indicates that the glazing shall be used in fire door 
assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire protec- 
tion requirements of NFPA 252. *'H" shall indicate 
that the glazing meets the hose stream requirements of 
NFPA 252. "NH" shall indicate that the glazing does 
not meet the hose stream requirements of the test. "T" 
shall indicate that the glazing meets the temperature 
requirements of Section 715.4.4.1. "NT" shall indi- 
cate that the glazing does not meet the temperature 
requirements of Section 715,4.4.1. The placeholder 



"XXX" shall specify the fire-protection-rating 
period, in minutes. 

715.4.7.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire doors in areas subject to human impact in 
hazardous locations shall comply with Chapter 24. 

715.4.8 Door closing. Fire doors shall be self- or auto- 
matic-closing in accordance with this section. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire doors located in common walls separating 
sleeping units in Group R-1 shall be permitted 
without automatic- or self-closing devices. 

2. The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway 
enclosure doors at the floor level designated for 
recall in accordance with Section 3003.2 shall be 
permitted to remain open during Phase I emer- 
gency recall operation. 

715.4.8.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifically 
permitted, single ^re doors and both leaves of pairs of 
side-hinged swinging y?r^ doors shall be provided with 
an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is 
closed. 

715.4.8.2 Automatic-closing fire door assemblies. 

Automatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be 
self-closing in accordance with NFPA 80. 

715.4.8.3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing 
doors installed in the following locations shall be auto- 
matic-closing by the actuation of smoke detectors 
installed in accordance with Section 907.3 or by loss of 
power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Doors 
that are automatic-closing by smoke detection shall not 
have more than a 10-second delay before the door starts 
to close after the smoke detector is actuated: 

1 . Doors installed across a corridor. 

2. Doors that protect openings in exits or corridors 
required to be of fire-resistance-rated construc- 
tion. 

3. Doors that protect openings in walls that are 
capable of resisting the passage of smoke in 
accordance with Section 508.2.5.2. 

4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance 
with Section 710.5. 

5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance 
with Section 709.6. 

6. Doors installed in afire wall in accordance with 
Section 706.8. 

7. Doors installed in shaft enclosures in accordance 
with Section 708.7. 

8. Doors installed in refuse and laundry chutes and 
access and termination rooms in accordance with 
Section 708.13. 

9. Doors installed in the walls for compartmentation 
of underground buildings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 405,4.2: 



192 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



10. Doors installed in the elevator lobby walls of 
underground buildings in accordance with Sec- 
tion 405.4.3. 

1 1 . Doors installed in smoke partitions in accordance 
with Section 711.5.3. 

12. [SFM] Doors installed in walls required to be 
fire rated in accordance with Section 508.2.2. 

13. [SFM] Doors installed in walls required to be 
fire rated in accordance with Section 508.3.3. 

In Group 1-2 occupancies smoke activated doors 
installed in the above locations shall be automatic clos- 
ing by actuation of the fire alarm system, or actuation of 
smoke detectors installed in accordance with Section 
907. 10 y or activation of the sprinkler system installed in 
accordance with Section 903.1. 

715.4.8.4 Doors in pedestrian ways. Vertical sliding or 
vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through 
which pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or acti- 
vated by smoke detectors with alarm verification. 

715.4.9 Swinging fire siiutters. Where fire shutters of the 
swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less 
than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to 
be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified 
by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 
mm) high. 

715.4.10 Rolling fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the 
rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include 
approved automatic-closing devices. 

715.5 Fire-protection-rated glazing. Glazing in fire window 
assemblies shall be fire-protection rated in accordance with this 
section and Table 715.5. Glazing infire door assemblies shall 
comply with Section 715.4.7, Fire-protection-rated glazing shall 
be tested in accordance with and shall meet the acceptance crite- 
ria of NFPA 257 or UL 9. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall also 
comply with NFPA 80. Openings in nonfure-resistance-rated 
exterior wall assembhes that require protection in accordance 
with Section 705.3, 705.8, 705.8.5 or 705.8.6 shall have a 
fire-protection rating of not less than V4 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Wired glass in accordance with Secfion 715.5.4. 

2. Fire protection-rated glazing in 0.5-hour fire-resis- 
tance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 
0.33-hour fire-protection rating. 

715.5.1 Testing under positive pressure. NFPA 257 or UL 
9 shall evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive 
pressure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in 
the furnace shall be adjusted so at least two-thirds of the test 
specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral 
pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the bal- 
ance of the test. 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



TABLE 715.5 
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS 



TYPE OF ASSEMBLY 


REQUIRED 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


MINIMUM FIRE 

WINDOW 

ASSEMBLY 

RATING (hours) 


Interior walls: 


Fire walls 


All 


NP^ 


Fire barriers 


>1 
1 


Npa 


Smoke barriers 


1 


% 


Fire partitions 


1 


% 


Exterior walls 


>1 
1 


1V2 


Party wall 


All 


NP 



NP = Not Permitted. 

a. Not permitted except as specified in Section 715.2. 

715.5.2 Nonsymmetrical glazing systems. Nonsymmetri- 
cal fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, 
fire barriers or in exterior walls with afire separation dis- 
tance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 705 
shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and 
the assigned fire protection rating shall be the shortest dura- 
tion obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance 
with NFPA 257 or UL 9. 

715.5.3 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
installed in fire window assemblies in areas subject to 
human impact in hazardous locations shall comply with 
Chapter 24. 

715.5.4 Wired glass. Steel window frame assemblies of 
0.125-inch (3.2 mm) minimum solid section or of not less 
than nominal 0.048-inch- thick (1,2 mm) formed sheet steel 
members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter- 
locking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
V4-inch (6.4 mm) wired glass where securely installed in the 
building construction and glazed with V4-inch (6.4 mm) 
labeled wired glass shall be deemed to meet the require- 
ments for a ^/^-hourfire window assembly. Wired glass pan- 
els shall conform to the size limitations set forth in Table 
715.5.4. 

TABLE 715.5.4 
LIMITING SIZES OF WIRED GLASS PANELS 



OPENING FIRE 

PROTECTION 

RATING 


MAXIMUM 

AREA 

(square inches) 


MAXIMUM 
HEIGHT 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM 
WIDTH 
(inches) 


3 hours 











iVj-hour doors in 
exterior walls 











1 and 1 V9 hours 


100 


33 


10 


Vu hour 


1,296 


54 


54 


20 minutes 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Not Limited 


Fire window 

assemblies 


1,296 


54 


54 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mnf . 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



193 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



715.5.5 Non wired glass. Glazing other than wired glass in 
fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing installed in accordance with and complying with the size 
limitations set forth in NFPA 80. 

715.5.6 Installation. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be 
in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be 
installed in approved fi*ames. 

715.5.7 Window muUions. Metal mullions that exceed a 
nominal height of 1 2 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with 
materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as 
required for the wall construction in which the protective is 
located. 

715.5.8 Interior fire window assemblies. Fire-protec- 
tion-rated glazing used in fire window assemblies located in 
fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in 
assemblies with a vixdixmrnm fire-resistance rating of 1 hour 
in accordance with this section. 

715.5.8.1 Where V4-hour fire protection window 
assemblies permitted. Fire-protection-rated glazing 
requiring 45 -minute opening protection in accordance 
with Table 715.5 shall be limited to fire partitions 
designed in accordance with Section 709 andj^r^ barri- 
ers utilized in the applications set forth in Sections 
707.3,6 and 707.3.8 where ih& fire-resistance rating does 
not exceed 1 hour. 

715.5.8.2 Area limitations. The total area of windows 
shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall 
with any room, 

715.5.9 Labeling requirements. Fire-protection-rated 
glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the 
name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information 
required in Section 715.5.9.1 that shall be issued by an 
approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the 
glazing, 

715.5.9.1 Identification. For fire-protection-rated glaz- 
ing, the label shall bear the following two-part identifica- 
tion: "OH - XXX." "OH" indicates that the glazing 
meets both the fire protecrion and the hose-stream 
requirements of NFPA 257 or UL 9 and is permitted to be 
used in openings. "XXX" represents the fire-protection 
rating period, in minutes, that was tested. 



SECTION 716 
DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS 

716.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the 
protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings in 
assemblies required to be protected. 

716.1.1 Ducts that penetrate fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies without dampers. Ducts that penetrate fire- 
resistance-rated assemblies and are not required by this sec- 
tion to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of 
Sections 713.2 through 713.3.3. Ducts that penetrate hori- 
zontal assemblies not required to be contained within a shaft 
and not required by this section to have dampers shall com- 
ply with the requirements of Sections 713.4 through 
713.4.2.2. 



716.1.1.1 Ducts that penetrate nonfire-resis- 
tance-rated assemblies. The space around a duct pene- 
trating a nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembly shall 
comply with Section 716.6.3. 

716.2 Installation. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combina- 
tion fire/smoke dampers and ceiling radiation dampers located 
within air distribution and smoke control systems shall be 
installed in accordance with the requirements of this section, 
the manufacturer's installation instructions and the dampers' 
listing. 

716.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of a 
fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required 
smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, 
approved alternative protection shall be utilized. Where 
mechanical systems including ducts and dampers utilized 
for normal building ventilation serve as part of the smoke 
control system, the expected performance of these systems 
in smoke control mode shall be addressed in the rational 
analysis required by Section 909.4. 

716.2.2 Hazardous exhaust ducts. Fire dampers for haz- 
ardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code, 

716.3 Damper testing, ratings and actuation. Damper test- 
ing, ratings and actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 
716.3.1 through 716.3.3. 

716.3.1 Damper testing. Dampers shall be listed and bear 
the label of an approved testing agency indicating compli- 
ance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers shall 
comply with the requirements of UL 555 . Only fire dampers 
labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in heat- 
ing, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to 
operate with fans on during a fire. Smoke dampers shall 
comply with the requirements of UL 555S. Combination 
fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of 
both UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall 
comply with the requirements of UL 555C. 

716.3.2 Damper rating. Damper ratings shall be in accor- 
dance with Sections 716.3.2.1 through 716.3.2.3. 

716.3.2.1 Fire damper ratings. Fire dampers shall have 
the minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 
716.3.2.1 for the type of penetration. 

TABLE 716.3.2.1 
FIRE DAMPER RATING 



TYPE OF 
PENETRATION 


MINIMUM DAMPER RATING 
(hours) 


Less than 3 -hour fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


1.5 


3 -hour or greater fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies 


3 



716.3.2.2 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damper leak- 
age ratings shall not be less than Class 11. Elevated tem- 
perature ratings shall not be less than 250°F (121°C). 

716.3.2.3 Combination fire/smoke damper ratings. 

Combination fire/smoke dampers shall have the mini- 
mum ^r^g protection rating specified foxfire dampers in 
Table 716.3.2.1 for the type of penetration and shall also 



194 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



have a minimum Class II leakage rating and a minimum 
elevated temperature rating of 250°F (12PC). 

716.3.3 Damper actuation. Damper actuation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 716.3.3.1 through 716.3.3.4 as 
applicable. 

716.3.3.1 Fire damper actuation device. The fire 
damper actuation device shall meet one of the following 
requirements: 

1 . The operating temperature shall be approximately 
50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within 
the duct system, but not less than 160T (7rC). 

2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 
350°F (177°C) where located in a smoke control 
system complying with Section 909. 

716.3.3.2 Smolce damper actuation. The smoke 
damper shall close upon actuation of a listed smoke 
detector or detectors installed in accordance with Section 
907.3 and one of the following methods, as applicable: 

1 . Where a smoke damper is installed within a duct, a 
smoke detector shall be installed in the duct within 
5 feet (1524 mm) of the damper with no air outlets 
or inlets between the detector and the damper. The 
detector shall be listed for the air velocity, temper- 
ature and humidity anticipated at the point where it 
is installed. Other than in mechanical smoke con- 
trol systems, dampers shall be closed upon fan 
shutdown where local smoke detectors require a 
minimum velocity to operate. 

2. Where a smoke damper is installed above smoke 
barrier doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type 
detector listed for releasing service shall be 
installed on either side of the smoke barrier door 
opening. 

3. Where a smoke damper is installed within an air 
transfer opening in a wall, a spot-type detector 
listed fox releasing service shall be installed within 
5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of the damper, 

4. Where a smoke damper is installed in a corridor 
wall or ceiling, the damper shall be permitted to be 
controlled by a smoke detection system installed in 
the corridor, 

5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is 
provided within areas served by a heating, ventila- 
tion and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, smoke 
dampers shall be permitted to be controlled by the 
smoke detection system. 

716.3.3.3 Combination fire/smoke damper actuation. 

Combination fire/smoke damper actuation shall be in 
accordance with Sections 7 16.3.3.1 and 716.33.2. Com- 
bination fire/smoke dampers installed in smoke control 
system shaft penetrations shall not be activated by local 
area smoke detection unless it is secondary to the smoke 
management system controls. 

716.3.3.4 Ceiling radiation damper actuation. The 

operating temperature of a ceiling radiation damper 
actuation device shall be 50°F (27. 8°C) above the normal 



temperature within the duct system, but not less than 
160°F(71°C). 

716.4 Access and identification. Fire and smoke dampers 
shall be provided with an approved means of access, which is 
large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the 
damper and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the 
integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access open- 
ings shall not reduce iho. fire-resistance rating of the assembly. 
Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior 
by a label having letters not less than V2 inch (12.7 mm) in 
height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE DAMPER 
or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting 
and suitable for the required duct construction. 

716.5 Where required. Fire dampers, smoke dampers and 
combination fire/smoke dampers shall be provided at the loca- 
tions prescribed in Sections 716.5.1 through 716.5.7 and 
7 16.6. Where an assembly is required to have both^zr^ dampers 
and smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or difire 
damper and a smoke damper shall be required. 

716.5.1 Fire walls. Ducts and air transfer openings permit- 
ted in fire walls in accordance with Section 706.1 1 shall be 
protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance 
with their listing. 

716.5.1.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper 
designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided 
at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a 
fire wall that serves as a horizontal exit. 

716.5.2 Fire barriers. In other than Group A, E, H, /, L and 

R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications 
listed in Section 1.1 1 regulated by the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal. Ducts and air transfer openings of fire barriers 
shall be protected with approved fire dampers installed in 
accordance with their listing. Ducts and air transfer open- 
ings shall not penetrate exit enclosures and exit passage- 
ways except as permitted by Sections 1022.4 and 1023.6, 
respectively. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetra- 
tions of^r^ barriers where any of the following apply: 

1. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM 
E 1 19 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. 

2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the use of Sifire damper would interfere with 
the operation of a smoke control system. 

3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC sys- 
tems, have a r^quived fire-resistance rating of 1 
hour or less, are in areas of other than Group H and 
are in buildings equipped throughout with an auto- 
matic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 
903.3.1.1. For the purposes of this exception, a < 
ducted HVAC system shall be a duct system for 
conveying supply, return or exhaust air as part of 
the structure's HVAC system. Such a duct system 
shall be constructed of sheet steel not less than No. 

26 gage thickness and shall be continuous from the 



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air-handling appliance or equipment to the air out- 
let and inlet terminals. 

[SFM] For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancieSy 
high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Section 
1,11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, ducts 
and air transfer openings of fire barriers shall be protected 
with approved fire and smoke dampers installed in accor- 
dance with their listing. Ducts and air transfer openings 
shall not penetrate exit enclosures and exit passageways 
I I except as permitted by Sections 1 022 A and 1 023. 6, respec- 
tively. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
fire barriers where penetrations are tested in 
accordance with ASTM El 19 as part of the 
fire-resistance rated assembly. 

2. Fire and smoke dampers are not required where 
ducts are used as part of an approved smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909 and 
where the use of a fire or smoke damper would 
interfere with the operation of a smoke control sys- 
tem. 

716.5.2.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper 
designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided 
at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a 
fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit. 

716.5.3 Shaft enclosures. Shaft enclosures that are permit- 
ted to be penetrated by ducts and air transfer openings shall 
be protected with approved fire and smoke dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where: 

1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at 
least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in 
exhaust shafts, provided there is a continu- 
ous airflow upward to the outside; or 

1.2. Penetrations are tested in accordance with 
ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as part of the 
fire-resistance-rated assembly; or 

1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved 
smoke control system designed and 
installed in accordance with Section 909 
and where the fire damper will interfere 
with the operation of the smoke control 
system; or 

1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage 
exhaust or supply shafts that are separated 
from other building shafts by not less than 
2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

2. In Group B and R occupancies equipped through- 
out with an automatic sprinkler system in accor- 
dance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers are 
not required at penetrations of shafts where: 



2. 1 . Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toilet 
room exhaust openings are installed with 
steel exhaust subducts, having a minimum 
wall thickness of 0.187-inch (0.4712 mm) 
(No. 26 gage); 

2.2. The subducts extend at least 22 inches (559 
mm) vertically; and 

2.3. An exhaust fan is installed at the upper ter- 
minus of the shaft that is powered continu- 
ously in accordance with the provisions of 
Section 909. 1 1, so as to maintain a contin- 
uous upward airflow to the outside. 

3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration of 
exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages that are 
separated from other building shafts by not less 
than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. 

4. Smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of 
shafts where ducts are used as part of an approved 
mechanical smoke control system designed in 
accordance with Section 909 and where the smoke 
damper will interfere with the operation of the 
smoke control system. 

5. Fire dampers and combination fire/smoke damp- 
ers are not required in kitchen and clothes dryer 
exhaust systems when installed in accordance with 
the California Mechanical Code. 

716.5.4 Fire partitions. In other than Group A, E, I and R 
occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other applications 
listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire 
Marshal, ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate ^zr^ 
partitions shall be protected with listed fire dampers 
installed in accordance with their listing. 



Exceptions: In occupancies other than Group H and L, | |< 
fire dampers are not required where any of the following 
apply: 



1. Corridor walls in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is 
protected as a through penetration in accordance 
with Section 713. 

2. Tenant partitions in covered mall buildings where 
the walls are not required by provisions elsewhere 
in the code to extend to the underside of the floor or 
roof sheathing, slab or deck above. 

3. The duct system is constructed of approved mate- 
rials in accordance with the California Mechanical 
Code and the duct penetrating the wall complies 
with all of the following requirements: 

3.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square 
inches (0.06 m^). 

3.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 



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3.3. The duct shall not have openings that com- 
municate the corridor ^ith adjacent spaces 
or rooms. 

3 .4. The duct shall be installed above a ceiling. 

3.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall regis- 
ter in the fire-resistance-rated wall. 

3.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve 
shall be centered in each duct opening. The 
sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the 
wall and all four sides of the sleeve with 
minimum lV2-inch by lV2-ii^ch by 
0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by L52 mm) 
steel retaining angles. The retaining angles 
shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall 
with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular 
space between the steel sleeve and the wall 
opening shall be filled with mineral wool 
batting on all sides. 

For Group A, E, I and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, 
and other applications listed in Section Lll regulated by the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal, ducts and air transfer open- 
ings that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with 
listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listings. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fire dampers are not required in corridor pene- 
trations where the duct is constructed of steel not 
less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in thickness, pro- 
tected as a through penetration in accordance 
with Section 713 and there are no openings serv- 
ing the corridor. 

2. Fire dampers are not required where the duct sys- 
tem is constructed of approved materials in accor- 
dance with the California Mechanical Code and 
the duct penetrating the wall complies with all of 
the following requirements: 

2.1 For other than corridors in Group 1-2 
occupancies the duct shall not exceed 100 
square inches (0.6 m^). 

2.2 The duct shall be constructed of steel a 
minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in 
thickness. 

2. 3 The duct shall not have openings that com- 
municate the corridor with adjacent 
spaces or rooms. 

2.4 The duct shall be installed above a ceiling. 

2.5 The duct shall not terminate at a wall reg- 
ister in the fire-resistance rated wall 

2.6 The duct shall be protected as a through 
penetration in accordance with Section 713 
or shall comply with the all of the following: 

1. A minimum 124nch-long (305 mm) by 
0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel 
sleeve shall be centered in each duct 
opening. 



2. The sleeve shall be secured to both 
sides of the wall and for all four sides 
of the sleeve with minimum V /2-inch 
by V /2-inch by 0.060-inch (38 mm by 
38 mm by 1.52 mm) steel retaining 
angles. 

3. The retaining angles shall be secured 
to the sleeve and the wall with No. 10 
(M5) screws. 

4. The annular space between the steel 
sleeve and the wall opening shall be 
filled with mineral wool batting on all 
sides. 

716.5.4.1 Corridors. In other than Group A, E, H, I, L 
and R occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other appli- 
cations listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of 
the State Fire Marshal, a listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each 
point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor 
enclosure required to have smoke and draft control doors 
in accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where the 
building is equipped throughout with an 
approved smoke control system in accordance 
with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not 
necessary for the operation and control of the 
system. 

2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in 
thickness and there are no openings serving the 
corridor. 

[SFM] For Group A, E, H, I, L and R occupancies, 
high-rise buildings, and other applications listed in Sec- 
tion 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Mar- 
shal, a listed smoke damper designed to resist the 
passage of smoke shall also be provided at each point a 
duct or air transfer opening penetrates afire-resistance 
rated corridor enclosure required to have smoke and 
draft doors in accordance with Section 715.4.3. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke dampers are not required where ducts 
are used as part of an approved mechanical 
smoke control system designed in accordance 
with Section 909 and where the smoke damper 
will interfere with the operation of the smoke 
control system. 

2. Smoke damper are not required in corridor 
penetrations where the duct is constructed of 
steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48mm) in thick- 
ness and there are no openings serving the cor- 
ridor. 

716.5.5 Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. 



II 



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Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.3.2. 

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the 
openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compart- 
ment and the ducts are constructed of steel. 

716.5.6 Exterior walls. Ducts and air transfer openings in 
fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have pro- 
tected openings in accordance with Section 705.10 shall be 
protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance 
with their listing. 

716.5.7 Smoke partitions. A listed smoke damper d^signQd. 
to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point 
that an air transfer opening penetrates a smoke partition. 
Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall 
comply with Section 716.3.3.2. 

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper 
will interfere with the operation of a required smoke con- 
trol system in accordance with Section 909, approved 
alternative protection shall be utilized. 

716.6 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations by ducts and air 
transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceihng assembly or the ceil- 
ing membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by 
a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 708 or shall com- 
ply with Sections 716.6.1 through 716.6.3. 

716.6.1 Through penetrations. In occupancies other than 
Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a duct constructed of approved materials 
in accordance with the California Mechanical Code that 
penetrates a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly 
that connects not more than two stories is permitted without 
shaft enclosure protection, provided a listed fire damper is 
installed at the floor line or the duct is protected in accor- 
dance with Section 713.4. For air transfer openings, see 
Exception 7 to Section 708.2. 

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors 
or less without difire damper at each floor, provided such 
duct meets all of the following requirements: 

1 . The duct shall be contained and located within the 
cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel 
having a minimum wall thickness of 0.187 inches 
(0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage). 

2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling or 
sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continu- 
ous from the unit to the exterior of the building. 

3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nomi- 
nal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall 
not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m^) in any 
100 square feet (9.3 m^) of floor area. 

4. The annular space around the duct is protected 
with materials that prevent the passage of flame 
and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste 
where subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 
time-temperature conditions under a minimum 
positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) 



of water at the location of the penetration for the 
time period equivalent to \h& fire-resistance rating 
of the construction penetrated. 

5. Grille openings located in a ceiling of a fire-resis- 
tance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly 
shall be protected with a listed ceiling radiation 
damper installed in accordance with Section 
716.6.2.1. 

716.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Ducts and air transfer 
openings constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the California Mechanical Code that penetrate the ceil- 
ing membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or 
roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with one of the fol- 
lowing: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708. 

2. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a duct penetrates the ceiling of a 
fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling 
assembly. 

3. A listed ceiling radiation damper installed at the ceil- 
ing line where a diffuser with no duct attached pene- 
trates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceihng assembly. 

716.6.2.1 Ceiling radiation dampers. Ceiling radiation 
dampers shall be tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated 
floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly in accordance with 
ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263. Ceiling radiation dampers shall 
be installed in accordance with the details listed in the 
fire-resistance-rated assembly and the manufacturer's 
installation instructions and the listing. Ceiling radiation 
dampers are not required where either of the following 
applies: 

1 . Tests in accordance with ASTM E 1 19 or UL 263 
have shown that ceiling radiation dampers are not 
necessary in order to maintain ihQ fire -resistance 
rating of the assembly. 

2. Where exhaust duct penetrations are protected in 
accordance with Section 113AA.2, are located 
within the cavity of a wall and do not pass through 
another dwelling unit or tenant space. 

716.6.3 Nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies. Duct 
systems constructed of approved materials in accordance 
with the California Mechanical Code that penetrate 
nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies shall be protected 
by any of the following methods: 

1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708. 

2. The duct connects not more than two stories, and the 
annular space around the penetrating duct is pro- 
tected with an approved noncombustible material that 
resists the free passage of flame and the products of 
combustion. 



^ 



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3. The duct connects not more than three stories, and the 
annular space around the penetrating duct is protected 
with an approved noncombustible material that resists 
the free passage of flame and the products of combus- 
tion and ?ifire damper is installed at each floor line. 

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts 
within individual residential dwelling units. 

716.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and 
air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated 
assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any 
wall, floor or ceiling. 



SECTION 717 
CONCEALED SPACES 

717.1 General. Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be 
installed in combustible concealed locations in accordance 
with this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 
717.2. Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces 
shall comply with Sections 717.3 and 717.4, respectively. The 
permitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of 
buildings of Type I or II construction shall be limited to the 
applications indicated in Section 717.5. 

717.2 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking 
shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both ver- 
tical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between 
floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. 
Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sec- 
tions 717.2.2 through 111. 2.1. 

Ill, 2 A Fireblocking materials. Fireblocking shall consist 
of the following materials: 

1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber. 

2. Two thicknesses of 1-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber 
with broken lap joints. 

3. One thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood struc- 
tural panels with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 
mm) wood structural panels. 

4. One thickness of 0.75-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard 
with joints backed by 0.75-inch (19 mm) 
particleboard. 

5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board. 

6. One-fourth-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard. 

7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool, mineral fiber or 
other approved materials installed in such a manner as 
to be securely retained in place. 

717.2.1.1 Batts or blankets of mineral wool or mineral 
fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or mineral fiber 
or other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted 
for compliance with the 10- foot (3048 mm) horizontal 
fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of 
studs or staggered studs. 

717.2.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt 
insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross 



section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 
inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, con- 
duit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insula- 
tion shall be packed tightly around the obstruction. 

717.2.1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill 
insulation material, insulating foam sealants and caulk 
materials shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifi- 
cally tested in the form and manner intended for use to 
demonstrate its abiUty to remain in place and to retard the 
spread of fire and hot gases. 

717.2.1.4 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of 
fireblocks shall be maintained. 

717.2.1.5 Double stud walls. Batts or blankets of min- 
eral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials 
shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed 
using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs. 

717.2.2 Concealed wall spaces. Fireblocking shall be pro- 
vided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, 
including furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or stag- 
gered studs, as follows: 

1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels. 

2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 
mm). 

717.2.3 Connections between horizontal and vertical 
spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections 
between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces and 
concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor 
joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and hori- 
zontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove 
ceilings and similar locations. 

717.2.4 Stairways. Fireblocking shall be provided in con- 
cealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 
of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply 
with Section 1009.6.3. 

717.2.5 Ceiling and floor openings. Where required by 
Exception 6 of Section 708,2, Exception 1 of Section 
713.4.1.2 or Section 713.4.2, fireblocking of the annular 
space around vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at 
ceilings and floor levels shall be installed with a material 
specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use 
to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and resist the 
free passage of flame and the products of combustion. 

717.2.5.1 Factory-built chimneys and fireplaces. Fac- 
tory-built chimneys and fireplaces shall be fireblocked in 
accordance with UL 103 and UL 127. 

717.2.6 Architectural trim. Fireblocking shall be 
installed within concealed spaces of exterior wall finish 
and other exterior architectural elements where permitted 
to be of combustible construction as specified in Section 
1406 or where erected with combustible frames, at maxi- 
mum intervals of 20 feet (6096 mm), so that there will be 
no open space exceeding 100 square feet (9.3 m^). Where 
wood furring strips are used, they shall be of approved 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



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wood of natural decay resistance or preservative-treated 
wood. If noncontinuous, such elements shall have closed 
ends, with at least 4 inches (102 mm) of separation between 

sections. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in sin- 
gle-family dwellings. Fireblocking of cornices of a 
two-family dwelling is required only at the line of 
dwelling unit separation. 

2. Fireblocking shall not be required where installed 
on noncombustible framing and the face of the 
exterior wall finish exposed to the concealed space 
is covered by one of the following materials: 

2.1. Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 
0,019 inch (0.5 mm). 

2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base 
metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch 
(0.4 mm) at any point. 

2.3. Other approved noncombustible materials. 

717.2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers 
are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete 
fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab 
and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an 
approved material to resist the free passage of flame and 
products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that 
there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will 
exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m^) in area and such space shall 
be filled solidly under permanent partitions so that there is 
no communication under the flooring between adjoining 
rooms. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade 
floors in gymnasiums. 

2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of 
each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a 
bowling facility. 

717.3 Draftstopping in floors. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling 
assemblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 717.3.2 
through 717.3.3. 

717.3.1 Draftstopping materials. Draftstopping materials 
shall not be less thanVj-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 
Vg-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, Vg-inch (9.5 mm) 
particleboard, 1-inch (25-mm) nominal lumber, cement 
fiberboard, batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber, 
or other approved materials adequately supported. The 
integrity of draftstops shall be maintained. 

717.3.2 Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping 
shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R-1 build- 
ings, in Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units, in Group R-3 buildings with two dwelling units and in 
Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above 



and in line with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separa- 
tions. 

Exceptions: 

1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.3.3 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall 
be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 
1,000 square feet (93 m^). 

Exceptions: 

1. In other than Group A, E, H, I, L and R-2. 1 occu- 
pancies, high-rise buildings, and other applica- 
tions listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office 
of the State Fire Marshal, draftstopping is not 
required in buildings equipped throughout with an 
automatic sprinkler system in accordance with 
Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. In Group A, E, H, I and L occupancies, high-rise 
buildings, and other applications listed in Section 
1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Mar- 
shal, where an automatic sprinkler system in 
accordance with Section 903.3,1.1 is installed, the 
area between draft stops may be 3,000 square feet 
(279 m^)and the greatest horizontal dimension 
may be 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

717 A Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, 
draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and 
concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 
717.4.2 and 717.4,3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall 
be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2. 

717.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utiHzed for 
draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 
717.3.1. 

717.4.1.1 Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be 
protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches 
constructed as required for the partitions. 

717.4.2 Groups R-1 and R-2. Draftstopping shall be pro- 
vided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof 
spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling 
units and in all Group R-1 buildings. Draftstopping shall be 
installed above, and in line with, sleeping unit and dwelling 
unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of 
the roof sheathing above. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or 
dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 



200 



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2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. 

3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed 
four stories above grade plane, the attic space 
shall be subdivided by draftstops into areas not 
exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m^) or above 
every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings 
equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler 
system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, pro- 
vided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in 
the combustible concealed spaces. 

717.4.3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in 
attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal 
area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 m^). 

Exception: 

1. In other than Group A, E, H, I and L and R-2,1 
occupancies, high-rise buildings, and other appli- 
cations listed in Section 1.1 1 regulated by the 
Office of the State Fire Marshal, draftstopping is 
not required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance 
with Section 903.3.1.1. 

2. In Group A, E, H, I L and R-2 A occupancies, 
high-rise buildings, and other applications listed 
in Section 1,11 regulated by the Office of the State 
Fire Marshal, where an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 is 
installed, the area between draft stops may be 
9,000 square feet (836 m^)and the greatest hori- 
zontal dimension may be 100 feet (30 480 mm). 

717.5 Combustible materials in concealed spaces in Type I or 
II construction. Combustible materials shall not be permitted in 
concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or It construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 
603. 

2. Combustible materials exposed within plenums com- 
plying with Section 602 of the California Mechanical 
Code. 

3. Class A interior finish materials classified in accor- 
dance with Section 803. 

4. Combustible piping within partitions or shaft enclo- 
sures installed in accordance with the provisions of 
this code. 

5. Combustible piping within concealed ceiling spaces 
installed in accordance with the California Mechani- 
cal Code and the California Plumbing Code. 

6. Combustible insulation and covering on pipe and tub- 
ing, installed in concealed spaces other than plenums, 
complying with Section 719.7. 



SECTION 718 

FIRE-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS 

FOR PLASTER 

718.1 Thickness of plaster. The minimum thickness of gyp- 
sum plaster or portland cement plaster used in a fire-resis- 
tance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire 
tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of 
the lath where applied to gypsum lath or metal lath. 

718.2 Plaster equivalents. For fire-resistance purposes, V2 
inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed 
equivalent to V4 inch (19.1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand 
plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of portland cement sand plaster. 

718.3 Noncombustible furring. In buildings of Type I and II 
construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or 
masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 

718.4 Double reinforcement. Plaster protection more than 1 
inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an addi- 
tional layer of approved lath embedded at least % inch (19.1 
mm) from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

Exception: Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise 
determined by fire tests. 

718.5 Plaster alternatives for concrete. In reinforced concrete 
construction, gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster is per- 
mitted to be substituted for V2 inch (12.7 mm) of the required 
poured concrete protection, except that a minimum thickness of 
Vg inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be provided in rein- 
forced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in reinforced concrete 
columns in addition to the plaster finish. The concrete base shall 
be prepared in accordance with Section 2510.7. 



SECTION 719 
THERMAL- AND SOUND-INSULAJING MATERIALS 

719.1 General. Insulating materials, including facings such as 
vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar cov- 
erings and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil 
insulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section. 
Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is 
specified in this section, such index shall be determined in 
accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Any material that is 
subject to an increase in flame spread index or smoke-devel- 
oped index beyond the limits herein established through the 
effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions shall 
not be permitted. 

Exceptions: 

1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23. 

2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26. 

3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings 
and linings in plenums shall comply with the Califor- 
nia Mechanical Code. 

4. All layers of single and multilayer reflective plastic 
core insulation shall comply with Section 2613. 

719.2 Concealed installation. Insulating materials, where 
concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction. 



2010 CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE 



201 



FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 



shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied, complying with the requirements of Section 719.6, 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.2.1 Facings. Where such materials are installed in con- 
cealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, 
the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not 
apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil insu- 
lation that are installed behind and in substantial contact with 
the unexposed surface of the ceiUng, wall or floor finish. 

Exception: All layers of single and multilayer reflective 
plastic core insulation shall comply with Section 2613. 

719.3 Exposed installation. Insulating materials, where 
exposed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, 
shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a 
smoke-developed index of not more than 450. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray 
applied complying with the requirements of Section 719.6 
shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of 
not more than 450. 

719.3.1 Attic floors. Exposed insulation materials installed 
on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less 
than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accor- 
dance with ASTM E 970. 

719.4 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials 
that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 apparatus 
without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the 
flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Sections 719.2 
and 719.3 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2. 

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be 
required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S 102.2, 
provided such insulation complies with the requirements of 
Section 719.2 or 719.3, as applicable, and Section 719,6. 

719.5 Roof insulation. The use of combustible roof insulation 
not complying with Sections 719.2 and 719.3 shall be permit- 
ted in any type of construction provided it is covered with 
approved roof coverings directly appUed thereto. 

719.6 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insu- 
lation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 
16 CFR, Part 1404. Each package of such insulating material 
shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 
1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404. 

719.7 Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing. Insula- 
tion and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread 
index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not 
more than 450. 

Exception: Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing 
installed in plenums shall comply with the California 
Mechanical Code. 



SECTION 720 
PRESCRIPTIVE FIRE RESISTANCE 

720,1 General. The provisions of this section contain prescrip- 
tive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements, compo- 
nents or assemblies. The materials of construction listed in 
Tables 720.1(1), 720.1(2), and 7